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Circulatory System
Circulatory System
Circulatory System
Circulatory System
Circulatory System
Circulatory System
Circulatory System
Circulatory System
Circulatory System
Circulatory System
Circulatory System
Circulatory System
Circulatory System
Circulatory System
Circulatory System
Circulatory System
Circulatory System
Circulatory System
Circulatory System
Circulatory System
Circulatory System
Circulatory System
Circulatory System
Circulatory System
Circulatory System
Circulatory System
Circulatory System
Circulatory System
Circulatory System
Circulatory System
Circulatory System
Circulatory System
Circulatory System
Circulatory System
Circulatory System
Circulatory System
Circulatory System
Circulatory System
Circulatory System
Circulatory System
Circulatory System
Circulatory System
Circulatory System
Circulatory System
Circulatory System
Circulatory System
Circulatory System
Circulatory System
Circulatory System
Circulatory System
Circulatory System
Circulatory System
Circulatory System
Circulatory System
Circulatory System
Circulatory System
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Circulatory System

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  • 1. Circulatory System
    Honors Biology
  • 2. Circulatory System
    Heart
    Blood
    Blood Vessels
  • 3. Heart
    • Approximately the size of your fist
    • 4. Weighs less than a pound
    • 5. 5 Liters of blood is pumped through 60 000 miles of blood vessels per minute
    • 6. Beats ~100 000 times a day
  • Heart Covering
    Pericardium
    •    Protects and anchors heart
    •    Prevents overfilling
    Heart Wall
    Epicardium - visceral layer of the serous pericardium
    Myocardium – cardiac muscle layer forming the bulk of the heart
    Endocardium – lines the heartchambers and continues with endothelial lining of blood vessels
  • 7. External Heart: Major Vessels of the Heart
    • Superior & inferior venae cava
    • 8. Right and left pulmonary veins
    • 9. Pulmonary trunk (splits into right & left pulmonary arteries)
    • 10. Ascending aorta (3 branches) – brachiocephalic, carotid, & subclavian arteries
  • 11. Heart Chambers
    Atria of the Heart
    • Atria are the receiving chambers of the heart 
    • 12. Blood enters right atria from superior & inferior venae cava & coronary sinus
    Blood enters left atria from pulmonary veins
    Ventricles of the Heart
    • Ventricles are the discharging chambers
    • 13. Papillary musclesmark ventricular walls
    • 14. Interventricular septum separate ventricles
    Right ventricle pumps blood into the pulmonary trunk
    Left ventricle pumps blood into the aorta
  • 15.
  • 16.
  • 17. Pathway of Blood through the Heart and Lungs (Pulmonary & Systemic Circuits)
    Pulmonary Circuit
    •     Right atrium  tricuspid valve  right ventricle
    •     Right ventricle  pulmonary semilunar valve  pulmonary arteries lungs
    Systemic Circuit
    •      Lungs  pulmonary veins  left atrium
    •      Left atrium  bicuspid valve  left ventricle
    •      Left ventricle  aortic semilunar valve  aorta
    •      Aorta  systemic circulation
  • 18.
  • 19.
  • 20. Microscopic Heart Muscle Anatomy
    •      Cardiac muscle is striated, short, fat, branched, and interconnected
    •      Intercalated discs anchor cardiac cells together & allow free passage of ions
    •      Heart muscle behaves as a functional syncytium
  • 21. Cardiac Cycle
    Cardiac cycle refers to all events associated with blood flow through the heart
    The cardiac cycle has two phases:
    Systole (contraction)
    Diastole (relaxation)
  • 22. Cardiac Conduction
  • 23. Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG)
    Electrical activity is recorded by electrocardiogram (EKG)
    P wave corresponds to depolarization of SA node & atria (ATRIAL SYSTOLE)
    QRS complex corresponds to ventricular depolarization (VENTRICULAR SYSTOLE & ATRIAL DIASTOLE)
    T wave corresponds to ventricular repolarization (VENTRICULAR DIASTOLE)
    Atrialrepolarization record is masked by the larger QRS complex
  • 24. Abnormal ECG Deflection Wave Patterns
    Sinus Bradycardia
    Rate = 40-59 b.p.m.
  • 25. Sinus Tachycardia
    Rate = 101-160 b.p.m.
    Causes
    • CHF, hypoxia, pulmonary edema
    • 26. Increased temperature
    • 27. Stress or response to pain
  • Sinus Arrest
    Causes
    Myocarditis
    MI
    Digitalis toxicity
  • 28. Atrial Flutter
    Rate = 250-350 b.p.m.
    Precipitates CHF
  • 29. Atrial Fibrillation (afib)
    Causes
    COPD
    CHF
  • 30. Ventricular Tachycardia
    (V-tac)
    Rate = 100-220 b.p.m.
    Causes
  • Ventricular Fibrillation (V-fib)
    Causes
    Acute MI
  • 34. Asystole
  • 35. Coronary Bypass
  • 36. The 3 major types of vessels
    Arteries – carry blood away from the heart
    Veins – carry blood toward the heart
    Capillaries – contact tissue cells (Serving cellular needs)
  • 37. Capillaries
    ·     Very narrow (10 µm diameter, the red blood cells that travel through capillaries are 6 µm in diameter).
    Capillaries are made of thin endothelial cells (one layer thick)
  • 38.
  • 39.
  • 40. Hydrostatic & Osmotic Pressures
    • The high hydrostatic pressure on the arterial side squeezes water and nutrients out of the capillaries.
    • 41. Water leaving the capillaries builds up the osmotic pressure because the blood components have become more concentrated.
    • 42. Towards the venal end, water and waste materials are sucked into capillaries by the osmotic pressure.
  • 43.
  • 44.
  • 45.
  • 46.
  • 47. Varicose veins
  • 48. What Causes Varicose Veins?
  • 49. How to treat varicose veins
    Sclerotherapy
    Compression Stockings
    Ablation
    or
    Laser treatment
    (Both use heat)
  • 50. Blood
    • Cardiovascular System
  • Blood Functions
    1. Transports
    • Dissolved gasses
    • 51. Nutrients
    • 52. Waste products to lungs and kidneys
    • 53. Enzymes
    • 54. Hormones from endocrine organs
    2. Regulates
    • pH
    • 55. Electrolyte concentration of body fluids
    • 56. Body temperature
    3. Restricts fluid loss
    4. Defends pathogens and toxins
  • 57.
  • 58. Blood Composition
    1. Formed elements
    2. Plasma
  • 61.
  • 62. Overview of Blood Circulation
    • Blood leaves the heart via arteries that branch repeatedly until they become capillaries
    • Oxygen (O2) and nutrients diffuse across capillary walls and enter tissues
    • Carbon dioxide (CO2) and wastes move from tissues into the blood
    • Oxygen-deficient blood leaves the capillaries and flows in veins to the heart
    • This blood flows to the lungs where it releases CO2 and picks up O2
    •      The oxygen-rich blood returns to the heart
  • 63. Blood Physical Characteristics and Volume
    • Sticky, opaque fluid with a metallic taste
    •  Color varies from scarlet (oxygen-rich) to dark red (oxygen-poor)
    •  pH of blood is 7.35–7.45
    •  Temperature is 38C, slightly higher than “normal” body temperature
    •   Blood accounts for approximately 8% of body weight
    •   Average volume of blood is 5–6 L for males, and 4–5 L for females
  • 64. Plasma
    • Plasma accounts for 55 % of the volume of whole blood.
    • 65. 92% of plasma is water, the rest consists of electrolytes and dissolved organic compounds.
    Blood plasma contains over 100 solutes, including:
    •    Proteins – albumin, globulins, clotting proteins, etc…
    •    Non-protein nitrogenous substances – lactic acid, urea, creatinine
    •    Organic nutrients – glucose, carbohydrates, amino acids
    •    Electrolytes – sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), calcium (Ca++), chloride (Cl-), bicarbonate (HCO3-)
    •    Respiratory gases – oxygen and carbon dioxide
  • 66. Erythrocytes
    • Biconcave discs
    • 67. RBCs have no nuclei or organelles (anucleate) allow for a huge surface area to volume ratio
    • 68. Hematocrit – % of RBCs out of the total blood volume. (Ave) 46 adult men & 42 adult women.
    • 69. There are roughly 5 million RBCs in each microliter of blood
    • 70. Erythrocytes are unable to perform normal maintenance operations and usually degenerate after about 120 days in the circulation.
  • 71.
  • 72.
  • 73.
  • 74. Erythroblastosis Fetalis
  • 75. Leukocytes
    • Normal response to bacterial or viral invasion
    • 76. Move through tissue spaces
    • 77. Granular leukocytes include neutrophils, eosinophils , and basophils.
    • 78. Neutrophils are abundant, highly mobile phagocytes.
    • 79. Eosinophilsare attracted to foreign compounds coated with antibodies.
    • 80. Basophilsmigrate into damaged tissues and release histamine, aiding in the inflammation response.
    • 81. Monocytes migrating into peripheral tissues become free macrophages.
    • 82. Lymphocytes, cells of the lymphatic system, include T cells and B cells. T cells migrate to peripheral tissues and attack foreign or abnormal cells; B cells produce antibodies.
  • 83.
  • 84. Blood Clotting
    The coagulation process requires calcium ions, and Vitamin K must be available for the synthesis of five of the clotting factors.

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