Cardiovascular System

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Cardiovascular System

  1. 1. Cardiovascular System
  2. 2. Cardiovascular System <ul><li>Two divisions </li></ul>
  3. 3. Cardiovascular System <ul><li>Two divisions: pulmonary </li></ul>
  4. 4. Cardiovascular System <ul><li>Two divisions: pulmonary & systemic </li></ul>
  5. 5. Cardiovascular System <ul><li>Pulmonary Division </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood flows from heart </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Cardiovascular System <ul><li>Pulmonary Division </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood flows from heart to alveolar capillaries </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Cardiovascular System <ul><li>Pulmonary Division </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood flows from heart to alveolar capillaries and back to heart </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Cardiovascular System <ul><li>Systemic Division </li></ul>
  9. 10. Cardiovascular System <ul><li>Systemic Division </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood flows from heart </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Cardiovascular System <ul><li>Systemic Division </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood flows from heart to all tissue capillaries </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Cardiovascular System <ul><li>Systemic Division </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood flows from heart to all tissue capillaries (except alveolar capillaries) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Cardiovascular System <ul><li>Systemic Division </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood flows from heart to all tissue capillaries (except alveolar capillaries) and back to heart </li></ul></ul>
  13. 15. <ul><li>Pulmonary arteries carry blood: </li></ul>
  14. 16. <ul><li>Pulmonary arteries carry blood: </li></ul>High in O 2 , low in CO 2
  15. 17. <ul><li>Pulmonary arteries carry blood: </li></ul>High in O 2 Low in O 2 Low in O 2 high in CO 2 High in O 2 , low in CO 2
  16. 18. <ul><li>Pulmonary arteries carry blood: </li></ul>High in O 2 , low in CO 2 Low in O 2 high in CO 2
  17. 19. <ul><li>Pulmonary arteries carry blood: </li></ul>High in O 2 , low in CO 2 Low in O 2 high in CO 2
  18. 20. <ul><li>Pulmonary arteries carry blood: </li></ul>High in O 2 , low in CO 2 Low in O 2 high in CO 2 Wrong!
  19. 21. <ul><li>Pulmonary arteries carry blood: </li></ul>High in O 2 , low in CO 2 Low in O 2 high in CO 2 Correct!
  20. 23. <ul><li>Heart </li></ul>
  21. 24. <ul><li>Heart </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul></ul>
  22. 25. <ul><li>Heart </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Location: mediastinum </li></ul></ul>
  23. 28. <ul><li>Heart </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Location: mediastinum </li></ul></ul>
  24. 29. <ul><li>Heart </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Location: mediastinum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Size? </li></ul></ul>
  25. 30. <ul><li>Pericardium </li></ul>
  26. 31. <ul><li>Pericardium: protective sac surrounding the heart </li></ul>
  27. 32. <ul><li>Pericardium: protective sac surrounding the heart </li></ul>
  28. 33. <ul><li>Pericardium: protective sac surrounding the heart </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visceral pericardium </li></ul></ul>
  29. 34. <ul><li>Pericardium: protective sac surrounding the heart </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visceral pericardium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parietal pericardium </li></ul></ul>
  30. 35. <ul><li>Pericardium: protective sac surrounding the heart </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visceral pericardium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parietal pericardium </li></ul></ul>
  31. 37. <ul><li>Layers of the heart wall </li></ul>
  32. 38. <ul><li>Layers of the heart wall </li></ul><ul><ul><li>endocardium </li></ul></ul>
  33. 39. <ul><li>Layers of the heart wall </li></ul><ul><ul><li>endocardium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>myocardium </li></ul></ul>
  34. 40. <ul><li>Layers of the heart wall </li></ul><ul><ul><li>endocardium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>myocardium </li></ul></ul>
  35. 42. <ul><li>Layers of the heart wall </li></ul><ul><ul><li>endocardium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>myocardium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>epicardium </li></ul></ul>
  36. 43. <ul><li>Layers of the heart wall </li></ul><ul><ul><li>endocardium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>myocardium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>epicardium (same as the visceral pericardium) </li></ul></ul>
  37. 45. <ul><li>Chambers of the heart </li></ul>
  38. 46. <ul><li>Chambers of the heart </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Receiving chambers: </li></ul></ul>
  39. 47. <ul><li>Chambers of the heart </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Receiving chambers: atria </li></ul></ul>
  40. 48. <ul><li>Chambers of the heart </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Receiving chambers: atria (singular: </li></ul></ul>
  41. 49. <ul><li>Chambers of the heart </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Receiving chambers: atria (singular: atrium) </li></ul></ul>
  42. 51. <ul><li>Chambers of the heart </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Receiving chambers: atria (singular: atrium) </li></ul></ul>
  43. 52. <ul><li>Chambers of the heart </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Receiving chambers: atria (singular: atrium) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pumping chambers: ventricles </li></ul></ul>
  44. 53. <ul><ul><ul><li>Right ventricle </li></ul></ul></ul>
  45. 54. <ul><ul><ul><li>Right ventricle: pump for the pulmonary circulation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  46. 55. <ul><ul><ul><li>Right ventricle: pump for the pulmonary circulation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Left ventricle </li></ul></ul></ul>
  47. 56. <ul><ul><ul><li>Right ventricle: pump for the pulmonary circulation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Left ventricle: pump for the systemic circulation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  48. 58. <ul><li>“ Great Vessels” of the Heart </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aorta </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulmonary Trunk </li></ul></ul>
  49. 59. Inferior vena cava Superior vena cava Pulmonary trunk Pulmonary veins Aorta RPA LPA
  50. 60. <ul><li>Heart valves </li></ul>
  51. 61. <ul><li>Heart valves </li></ul>
  52. 62. <ul><li>Heart valves: ensure one-way flow of blood through heart </li></ul>
  53. 63. <ul><ul><li>Semilunar valves </li></ul></ul>
  54. 64. <ul><ul><li>Semilunar valves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pulmonary semilunar </li></ul></ul></ul>
  55. 65. <ul><ul><li>Semilunar valves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pulmonary semilunar </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>aortic semilunar </li></ul></ul></ul>
  56. 66. <ul><li>Atrio-ventricular (AV) valves </li></ul>
  57. 67. <ul><li>Atrio-ventricular (AV) valves </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>tricuspid </li></ul></ul></ul>
  58. 68. <ul><li>Atrio-ventricular (AV) valves </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>tricuspid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>bicuspid </li></ul></ul></ul>
  59. 69. <ul><li>Atrio-ventricular (AV) valves </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>tricuspid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>bicuspid (mitral) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  60. 70. <ul><li>Atrio-ventricular (AV) valves </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>tricuspid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>bicuspid (mitral) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Associated with papillary muscles </li></ul></ul>
  61. 71. <ul><li>Atrio-ventricular (AV) valves </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>tricuspid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>bicuspid (mitral) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Associated with papillary muscles and chordae tendinae </li></ul></ul>
  62. 76. <ul><li>Skeleton of the heart </li></ul><ul><ul><li>set of 4 fibrous rings near base of heart </li></ul></ul>
  63. 78. <ul><li>Skeleton of the heart, con’t. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>provides rigidity to prevent the dilation of valves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provides a point of attachment for valves </li></ul></ul>
  64. 79. <ul><li>Skeleton of the heart, con’t. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>electrically isolates the atria from the ventricles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The A-V bundle (“bundle of His”) is the only electrical connection between the atria and the ventricles </li></ul></ul></ul>
  65. 80. <ul><li>Path of Blood Flow Through the Heart </li></ul>
  66. 82. http://www.innerbody.com/anim/heart.html
  67. 83. <ul><li>Heart Sounds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st sound (“lub”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>closing of the AV valves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd sound (“dup”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>closing of the semilunar valves </li></ul></ul></ul>
  68. 84. <ul><li>Heart Sounds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st sound (“lub”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>closing of the AV valves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd sound (“dup”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>closing of the semilunar valves </li></ul></ul></ul>
  69. 85. Conduction System of the Heart <ul><li>Bundle branches </li></ul>Sinoatrial node Atrioventricular node AV bundle Purkinje fibers
  70. 111. <ul><li>Blood Vessels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arteries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arterioles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capillaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Venules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Veins </li></ul></ul>
  71. 112. <ul><li>All blood vessels are lined with endothelium </li></ul>
  72. 114. <ul><li>Arteries </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carry blood away from the heart </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subject to the highest blood pressure </li></ul></ul></ul>
  73. 116. <ul><li>Arteries </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carry blood away from the heart </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subject to the highest blood pressure </li></ul></ul></ul>
  74. 117. <ul><li>Arteries </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carry blood away from the heart </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subject to the highest blood pressure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Located deep </li></ul></ul></ul>
  75. 118. <ul><ul><li>Structure of Arteries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tunica interna </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tunica media </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tunica externa </li></ul></ul></ul>
  76. 119. <ul><li>Types of arteries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elastic arteries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contain elastic fibers in the tunica media and interna </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Largest arteries </li></ul></ul></ul>
  77. 121. <ul><li>Types of arteries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscular arteries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Little elasticity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abundant smooth muscle in tunica media </li></ul></ul></ul>
  78. 123. <ul><li>Arterioles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>< 1mm in diameter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endothelium and smooth muscle </li></ul></ul>
  79. 125. <ul><li>Arterioles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>< 1mm in diameter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endothelium and smooth muscle </li></ul></ul>
  80. 126. <ul><li>Arterioles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>< 1mm in diameter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endothelium and smooth muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metarterioles regulate flow of blood into capillaries </li></ul></ul>
  81. 127. <ul><li>Arterioles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>< 1mm in diameter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endothelium and smooth muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metarterioles regulate flow of blood into capillaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help regulate blood pressure </li></ul></ul>
  82. 131. <ul><li>Capillaries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sites of exchange </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>exchange between blood and tissue cells in systemic caps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>exchange between blood and air in pulmonary caps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very permeable </li></ul></ul>
  83. 136. <ul><ul><li>Veins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Return blood back towards heart </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smallest veins: venules </li></ul></ul></ul>
  84. 138. <ul><ul><ul><li>Veins have 3 layers like arteries </li></ul></ul></ul>
  85. 139. <ul><li>Differences between arteries and veins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>thinner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>larger diameter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>located both deep and superficial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>veins have valves </li></ul></ul>
  86. 144. <ul><li>Distribution of Blood </li></ul>
  87. 145. <ul><li>Coronary Circulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood flow to and from the myocardial capillaries </li></ul></ul>
  88. 146. <ul><li>Some vessels of the coronary circuit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Right coronary artery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Left coronary artery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>circumflex </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>anterior interventricular (also: LAD) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coronary sinus </li></ul></ul>
  89. 150. <ul><li>Hepatic Portal Circulation </li></ul>
  90. 153. <ul><li>Features of fetal heart </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foramen ovale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ductus arteriosus </li></ul></ul>
  91. 155. <ul><li>Other features of fetal circulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Umbilical arteries and veins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ductus venosus </li></ul></ul>
  92. 156. <ul><li>Changes in fetal circulation after birth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>foramen ovale closes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ductus arteriosus closes </li></ul></ul>
  93. 158. Coronary Artery Disease <ul><li>Degenerative changes in coronary arteries </li></ul><ul><li>Often associated with arterial plaques </li></ul>

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