Cardiovascular System


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Cardiovascular System

  1. 1. Circulatory System
  2. 2. Consists of <ul><li>Heart </li></ul><ul><li>Blood Vessels </li></ul><ul><li>Blood </li></ul>
  3. 3. Function <ul><li>Transports oxygen and nutrients to the cells </li></ul><ul><li>Transports carbon dioxide and metabolic waste away from the cells </li></ul>
  4. 4. Heart <ul><li>Define </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscular, hollow organ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Size of a clenched fist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Located in the center of the chest, under the sternum, tipped slightly to the left </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apex is the bottom of the heart </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Layers of the Heart <ul><li>Endocardium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Epithelial tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lines heart </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Myocardium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiac muscle tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pericardium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Epithelial tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Covers outside of heart </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Septum <ul><li>Wall that divides </li></ul><ul><li>the heart into left </li></ul><ul><li>and right </li></ul>
  7. 8. Heart Chambers <ul><li>Atria (atrium) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Right </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Left </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ventricle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Right </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Left </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Heart Valves <ul><li>Tricuspid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Separates the right atrium from the right ventricle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has 3 flaps </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mitral </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Separates the left atria and the left ventricle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has 2 flaps </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Pulmonary valve </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Separates the right ventricle from the pulmonary artery </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aortic valve </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Separates the left ventricle from the aorta </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Cardiac Cycle <ul><li>Right and left atriums contract and work together </li></ul><ul><li>Right and left ventricles contract and work together </li></ul><ul><li>Systole – period of ventricular contraction </li></ul><ul><li>Diastole – brief period of rest </li></ul>
  11. 12. Blood Pressure 120/70 <ul><li>Diastolic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bottom number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heart relaxes as it passively fills with blood </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Systolic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Top number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highest pressure in vessels when the ventricles contract </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Pattern of Circulation <ul><li>Superior and inferior vena cava </li></ul><ul><li>Right atrium </li></ul><ul><li>Tricuspid valve </li></ul><ul><li>Right ventricle </li></ul><ul><li>Pulmonary valve </li></ul><ul><li>Pulmonary artery </li></ul><ul><li>Lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Pulmonary veins </li></ul><ul><li>Left atrium </li></ul><ul><li>Mitral valve </li></ul><ul><li>Left ventricle </li></ul><ul><li>Aortic valve </li></ul><ul><li>Aorta </li></ul><ul><li>Arteries </li></ul><ul><li>Arteriole </li></ul><ul><li>Capillaries </li></ul><ul><li>Venules </li></ul><ul><li>Veins </li></ul><ul><li>Superior and inferior vena cava </li></ul>
  13. 14. Electrical Conductive Pathway <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrical impulses in the heart cause the contraction of the muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A group of nerve cells that send out an electrical impulse which spreads out over the heart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SA Node </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sinoatrial node </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Located in the right atrium </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AV Node </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Atrioventricular node </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Located in the septum between the atriums and the ventricles </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>Bundle of HIS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nerve cells in the septum </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Right and Left Bundle Branches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Divides off Bundle of HIS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Purkinje Fibers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A network of nerve fibers throughout the ventricles </li></ul></ul>
  15. 17. EKG - Electrocardiogram <ul><li>Record of the movement of the electrical impulse as it travels through the heart </li></ul>
  16. 18. Normal EKG
  17. 19. Arrhythmias <ul><li>Abnormal or irregular heart rhythms </li></ul>
  18. 20. Defibrillators <ul><li>When the heart is in atrial or ventricular fibrillation, the heart must be shocked with an electrical current to stop the uncoordinated contraction and allow the SA node to regain control </li></ul>
  19. 22. Pacemakers <ul><li>A small battery powered device with electrodes that monitors the hearts activity and delivers an electrical impulse to stimulate contraction </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed and demand </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid electromagnetic forces like microwaves and cellular phones </li></ul>
  20. 23. Pacemakers
  21. 24. Blood Vessels <ul><li>Arteries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carry blood away from the heart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Largest is the aorta </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller arteries called arterioles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After the blood leaves the left ventricle the first branch off the aorta is the coronary arteries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Walls are more muscular and elastic </li></ul></ul>
  22. 25. Veins <ul><li>Carry blood back to the heart </li></ul><ul><li>Largest veins – superior and inferior vena cava </li></ul><ul><li>Veins are thinner and have less muscle tissue </li></ul>
  23. 26. Valves Veins contain valves to prevent the backward flow of blood
  24. 27. Capillaries One cell thick walls
  25. 28. Where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place
  26. 29. Capillary Bed
  27. 31. Blood <ul><li>Called a tissue because it contains many types of cells </li></ul><ul><li>4-6 quarts in the average adult </li></ul><ul><li>Composed of plasma and formed elements called blood cells </li></ul><ul><li>Plasma is 90% water with dissolved elements in it </li></ul>
  28. 32. Functions <ul><li>Carries oxygen from the lungs to the cells and carbon dioxide from the cells to the lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrients from the digestive tract to cells </li></ul><ul><li>Metabolic waste from the cells to organs of excretion </li></ul><ul><li>Carries heat produced by the body </li></ul><ul><li>Carries hormones to body organs </li></ul>
  29. 33. Blood Types <ul><li>O, A, B, AB </li></ul><ul><li>Rh factor positive or negative </li></ul><ul><li>Universal Donor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>O+ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Universal Recipient </li></ul><ul><li>AB+ </li></ul>
  30. 34. Blood Types <ul><li>Out of 100 people, about:        • 38 will be O +        • 7 will be O -        • 34 will be A +        • 6 will be A -        • 8 will be B +        • 2 will be B -        • 4 will be AB +        • 1 will be AB - </li></ul><ul><li>Who Can Receive Whose Red Blood Cells:        • O - can only use O -        • O + can use O + or O -        • A - can use A - or O -        • A + can use A +, A -, O + or O -        • B - can use B - or O -        • B + can use B +, B -, O + or O -        • AB - can use AB -, A -, B - or O -        • AB + can use All Blood Types </li></ul>
  31. 36. Agglutination
  32. 38. Blood Cells <ul><li>Erythrocytes </li></ul><ul><li> - Red Blood Cells RBC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Function to carry oxygen and carbon dioxide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Live for 120 days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shaped like a doughnut </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains hemoglobin – a blood protein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amount of hemoglobin gives blood its red color </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carries the O 2 and CO 2 </li></ul></ul>
  33. 39. Leukocytes <ul><li>White blood cells - WBC </li></ul><ul><li>Function – fight infection </li></ul><ul><li>Live 3-9 days </li></ul><ul><li>Fight infection by phagocytes </li></ul><ul><li>5 types of leukocytes </li></ul>
  34. 40. Phagocytosis
  35. 41. Thrombocytes <ul><li>Thrombocytes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Platelets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell fragments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formed in the bone marrow </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clotting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thrombus is a stationary clot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Embolus is a moving clot </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Live </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5 to 9 days </li></ul></ul>
  36. 42. Diseases <ul><li>Anemia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Too little RBS’s or hemoglobin or both </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many types </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sickle Cell Anemia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aplastic anemia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pernicious anemia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iron deficiency anemia </li></ul></ul>
  37. 43. Sickle Cell Anemia <ul><li>Chronic inherited anemia </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs almost exclusively in African Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Cells are abnormally shaped like a sickle </li></ul><ul><li>Crisis occur when they block the vessels and severe pain results </li></ul>
  38. 44. Aneurysm <ul><li>A ballooning out or weakness of an artery wall </li></ul><ul><li>Usually asymptomatic </li></ul><ul><li>May rupture and hemorrhage and death results </li></ul><ul><li>Repair is possible if diagnosed early </li></ul>
  39. 45. Common Aneurysm Sites Cerebral, Aortic, Abdominal
  40. 46. Repair of an Aneurysm
  41. 47. Arteriosclerosis <ul><li>Hardening of the arteries </li></ul><ul><li>Results in the loss of elasticity and contractility </li></ul><ul><li>Results of aging </li></ul><ul><li>Causes hypertension </li></ul>
  42. 48. Atherosclerosis <ul><li>Deposits of plaque on artery wall </li></ul><ul><li>If plaque breaks loose circulates as an emboli and </li></ul>
  43. 49. Surgical Repair <ul><li>CABG </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coronary artery bypass graft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A vein from the leg or chest is used to go around or “bypass” the blockage </li></ul></ul>
  44. 50. Stent <ul><li>Insertion of an expandable coil that </li></ul><ul><li>Keeps the vessel open </li></ul><ul><li>Some are medicated </li></ul>
  45. 51. Hemophilia <ul><li>Inherited disease that occurs mostly in males but carried by females </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of a clotting factor (VII most common) </li></ul><ul><li>Minor cut can cause prolonged bleeding </li></ul>
  46. 52. Hypertension <ul><li>Increased blood pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by a narrowing of the vessels or too much fluid in the vessel </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled with medication and diet very effective </li></ul><ul><li>Leading cause of stroke </li></ul>
  47. 53. Hypotension <ul><li>Low blood pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Due to dilation of the blood vessels, shock, or hemorrhage </li></ul>
  48. 54. Leukemia <ul><li>Cancer of the bone marrow or lymph tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Results in a high number of immature WBC”s </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radiation, chemo, bone marrow transplant </li></ul></ul>
  49. 55. Myocardial Infarction <ul><li>Heart Attack </li></ul><ul><li>Due to blockage in the coronary arteries that cuts off the blood supply to the heart </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment includes clot busting drugs, CABG, stents </li></ul>
  50. 56. Phlebitits <ul><li>Inflammation of a vein </li></ul><ul><li>If caused by a clot it is called thrombophlebitis </li></ul>
  51. 57. Varicose Veins <ul><li>Dilated, swollen veins </li></ul>
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