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Cardiology

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  • 1. Cardiology
    The medical specialty that studies the anatomy and physiology of the cardiovascular system and uses diagnostic tests, medical and surgical procedures, and drugs to treat cardiovascular diseases.
  • 2. Figure 5-1 Cardiovascular system
  • 3. The Cardiovascular System
    A continuous, circular body system that includes the heart and the vascular structures (blood vessels such as arteries, capillaries, and veins)
    Moves blood throughout the body and transports oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, and wastes in the blood
  • 4. Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System
    • Heart
    A muscular organ that contracts at least once every second to pump blood through the body
    Has an extensive electrical system that initiates and coordinates its contractions
  • 5. Figure 5-2 Surface of the heart
  • 6. Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System (cont’d)
    • Heart Chambers
    The heart contains four chambers, two on the top and two on the bottom.
    Each small upper chamber is an atrium.
    Each large lower chamber is a ventricle.
    The septum, a center wall, divides the heart into right and left halves.
    The inferior tip of the heart is the apex.
  • 7. Figure 5-3 Chambers and valves of the heart
  • 8. Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System (cont’d)
    • Four valves control the flow of blood through the heart:
    Tricuspid
    Pulmonary
    Mitral
    Aortic
  • 9. Figure 5-4 Aortic valve
  • 10. Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System (cont’d)
    • Heart Muscle
    Mycardium — composed of cardiac muscle
    Responds to electrical impulses generated by a node within the heart itself
    Contracts in a coordinated way to pump blood
    Thickest on the left side of the heart
  • 11. Table 5-1 Layers and Membranes of the Heart
  • 12. Figure 5-5 Layers and membranes of the heart
  • 13. Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System (cont’d)
    • Thoracic Cavity
    Contains the lungs and the mediastinum, an irregularly shaped central area between the lungs
  • 14. Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System (cont’d)
    • Mediastinum
    Contains the heart and parts of the great vessels (aorta, superior vena cava, inferior vena cava pulmonary arteries and veins), as well as the thymus, trachea, and the esophagus
  • 15. Figure 5-6 Mediastinum
  • 16. Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System (cont’d)
    • Blood Vessels
    Vascular channels through which blood circulates in the body
    Have a central opening or lumen through which the blood flows
    Lined with endothelium, a smooth inner layer that promotes the flow of blood
  • 17. Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System (cont’d)
    • There are three kinds of blood vessels in the body, each performing a different function:
    Arteries
    Capillaries
    Veins
  • 18. Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System (cont’d)
    • Arteries
    Large blood vessels
    Smaller branches of an artery are arterioles
  • 19. Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System (cont’d)
    • All arteries share some important characteristics and functions:
    They carry blood away from the heart to the body.
    They carry bright red blood that has a high level of oxygen.
    Most arteries lie deep beneath the skin.
    All arteries have smooth muscle in their walls.
    Exception: pulmonary arteries
  • 20. Figure 5-7 Vasoconstriction and vasodilation
  • 21. Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System (cont’d)
    • Capillaries
    Smallest blood vessels in the body
    The lumen of a capillary is so small that blood cells must pass through in single file.
  • 22. Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System (cont’d)
    • Veins
    Capillaries combine to form small veins known as venules, which then combine to form the largest veins.
  • 23. Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System (cont’d)
    • All veins share some important characteristics and functions:
    They carry blood from the body back to the heart.
    They carry dark red-purple blood with a low level of oxygen.
    Exception: pulmonary arteries
  • 24. Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System (cont’d)
    • All veins share some important characteristics and functions:
    The largest veins have valves that keep the blood flowing in one direction―toward the heart.
    Many veins are near the surface of the body and can be seen just under the skin as bluish, sometimes bulging lines.
  • 25. Figure 5-8 Valves in a vein
  • 26. Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System (cont’d)
    • Aorta
    Largest artery in the body
    Receives blood from the left ventricle of the heart
  • 27. Figure 5-9 Arteries and veins around the heart
  • 28. Figure 5-10 Arteries in the body
  • 29. Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System (cont’d)
    • Arteries
    Coronary artery
    Carotid artery
    Subclavian artery
    Axillary artery (armpit)
    Brachial artery (upper arm)
    Radial artery (thumb side of the lower arm)
    Ulnar artery (little finger side of the lower arm)
  • 30. Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System (cont’d)
    • Thoracic Aorta and Arterial Branches
    The thoracic aorta travels inferiorly through the thoracic cavity.
    It branches into arteries that bring blood to the esophagus, muscles between the ribs, diaphragm, upper spinal cord, and the back.
  • 31. Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System (cont’d)
    • Abdominal Aorta and Arterial Branches
    Brings oxygenated blood to the stomach, liver, pancreas, spleen, gallbladder, small and large intestines, adrenal glands, kidneys, ovaries, testes, and the lower spinal cord
    Abdominal aorta ends where right and left iliac arteries begin
  • 32. Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System (cont’d)
    • Abdominal Aorta and Arterial Branches
    Iliac artery
    Femoral artery (upper leg)
    Popliteal artery (near the knee joint)
    Tibial artery (front and back of the lower leg)
    Peroneal artery (little toe side of the lower leg)
  • 33. Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System (cont’d)
    Two major veins of the body
    Superior vena cava
    Inferior vena cava
    Other major veins
    Jugular vein
    Portal vein
    Saphenous and femoral veins
  • 34. Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System (cont’d)
    • The Circulatory System
    The cardiovascular system or circulatory system circulates blood through the blood vessels.
    Systemic circulation includes the arteries, capillaries, and veins everywhere in the body, except in the lungs.
    Pulmonary circulation includes the arteries, capillaries, and veins going to, within, and coming from the lungs.
  • 35. Figure 5-11 Circulation of the blood
  • 36. Physiology of a Heartbeat
    • Heart contracts and relaxes in a regular rhythm coordinated by the conduction system
    • 37. Actually, med terms kids make my heartbeat
    Sinoatrial node (SA node), or pacemaker of the heart, initiates the electrical impulse that begins each heartbeat
  • 38. Physiology of a Heartbeat (cont’d)
    • Heart contracts and relaxes in a regular rhythm coordinated by the conduction system
    Atrioventricular node (AV node) receives the impulse to contract from the SA node
    Purkinje fibers, a network of nerves, cause both ventricles to contract simultaneously
  • 39. Figure 5-12 Conduction system of the heart
  • 40. Physiology of a Heartbeat (cont’d)
    • Two Heartbeat Phases
    Systole (contraction)
    Diastole (resting period)
  • 41. Figure 5-13 Exercise increases the heart rate
    John Garrett © Dorling Kindersley
  • 42. Diseases and Conditions
    • Myocardium
    Acute coronary syndrome
    Angina pectoris
    Cardiomegaly
    Cardiomyopathy
    Congestive heart failure (CHF)
    Myocardial infarction (MI)
  • 43. Figure 5-14 Peripheral edema
    Antonia Reeve/Photo Researchers, Inc.l
  • 44. Diseases and Conditions (cont’d)
    • Heart Valves and Layers of the Heart
    Endocarditis
    Mitral valve prolapse (MVP)
    Murmur
    Pericarditis
    Rheumatic heart disease
  • 45. Figure 5-15 Vegetation on the mitral valve
    Abrahas/Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.
  • 46. Diseases and Conditions (cont’d)
    • Conduction System
    Arrhythmia
    Bradycardia
    Fibrillation
    Flutter
    Heart block
  • 47. Figure 5-16 Arrhythmias on an EKG tracing
  • 48. Diseases and Conditions (cont’d)
    • Conduction System
    Premature contraction
    Sick sinus syndrome
    Tachycardia
    Asystole
    Palpitation
  • 49. Diseases and Conditions (cont’d)
    • Blood Vessels
    Aneurysm
    Arteriosclerosis
    Bruit
    Coronary artery disease (CAD)
    Hyperlipidemia
    Hypertension (HTN)
    Hypotension
    Peripheral artery disease (PAD)
  • 50. Figure 5-27 An aneurysm
    (b) Michael English, M.D./Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.
  • 51. Figure 5-18 Mild atheromatous plaque
    SIU BioMed/Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.
  • 52. Figure 5-19 Severe atherosclerotic plaque in an artery
    C. Abrahams, M.D./Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.
  • 53. Diseases and Conditions (cont’d)
    • Blood Vessels
    Peripheral vascular disease (PVD)
    Phlebitis
    Raynaud’s disease
    Varicose veins
  • 54. Figure 5-23 Severe varicose veins in the leg
    SPL/Photo Researchers, Inc.
  • 55. Laboratory and Diagnostic Procedures
    • Blood Tests
    Cardiac enzymes
    C-reactive protein (CRP)
    Homocysteine
    Lipid profile
    Troponin
  • 56. Laboratory and Diagnostic Procedures (cont’d)
    • Diagnostic Heart Procedures
    Cardiac catheterization
    Cardiac exercise stress test
    Electrocardiography (ECG, EKG)
    Electrophysiologic study (EPS)
  • 57. Figure 5-22 Electrocardiography
    Jupiter Images – PictureArts Corporation/Brand X Pictures-Royalty Free
  • 58. Figure 5-23 An EKG tracing
  • 59. Laboratory and Diagnostic Procedures (cont’d)
    • Diagnostic Heart Procedures
    Holter monitor
    Pharmacologic stress test
    Telemetry
  • 60. Figure 5-21 Treadmill exercise stress test
    Fotopic/Miles Simons/Phototake NYC
  • 61. Laboratory and Diagnostic Procedures (cont’d)
    • Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Procedures
    Angiography
    Echocardiography
  • 62. Figure 5-24 Echocardiogram
    Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.
  • 63. Figure 5-25 Doppler ultrasonography
    Matt Meadows/Science Photo Library/Photo Researchers, Inc.
  • 64. Medical and Surgical Procedures
    • Medical Procedures
    Auscultation
    Cardioversion
    Sclerotherapy
    Vital signs
  • 65. Figure 5-26 Defibrillation
    Pearson Education/PH College
  • 66. Figure 5-27 Pulse points
  • 67. Figure 5-28 Carotid pulse
    Michal Heron/Pearson Education/PH College
  • 68. Figure 5-29 Measuring the blood pressure
  • 69. Medical and Surgical Procedures (cont’d)
    • Surgical Procedures
    Aneurysmectomy
    Cardiopulmonary bypass
    Carotid endarterectomy
  • 70. Medical and Surgical Procedures (cont’d)
    • Surgical Procedures
    Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    Heart transplantation
    Pacemaker insertion
  • 71. Figure 5-30 Open heart surgery
    F. Schussler/PhotoDisc/Getty Images
  • 72. Figure 5-31 Pacemaker
    (left) English/Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc. (right) Alvis Upitis/Jupiter Images-PictureArts Corporation/Brand X Pictures-Royalty Free
  • 73. Medical and Surgical Procedures (cont’d)
    • Surgical Procedures (cont’d)
    Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)
    Pericardiocentesis
    Valve replacement
    Valvoplasty
    Radiofrequency catheter ablation
  • 74. Figure 5-32 Balloon angioplasty
  • 75. Figure 5-33 Stent
  • 76. Figure 5-34 Valve replacement surgery
    Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.

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