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  • 1. 實證醫學文獻討論 A case of chest tightness
  • 2. Case summary
    • Profile : An 80 y/o male
    • Chief complaint : exertional chest tightness for 1 month
    • Past medical and surgical history :
    • Patient denied of any significant past medical history, no HTN, DM, dyslipidemia.
    • BPH s/p TURP for 7-8 years.
  • 3.
    • CAD risk factors:
    • HTN -
    • DM -
    • AGE +
    • FHx -
    • SMOKING -
    • MALE +
    • Intermittent chest pain and chest tightness for 1 month
    • Chest pain was effort related, no radiation to lower jaw or neck or shoulder.
    • Lasted for 10 minutes and relieved by rest, no associated symptoms.
    • Visited CV OPD 1 week before admission, cardiac esho showed 1. adequate LV global performance(EF=60%) 2.No chamber dilatation. 3.No pericardial effusion
    • Stress and rest Tl-201 myocardial perfusion SPECT scintiphotos showed a non-compromised myocardial perfusion.
    • Chest CT showed RML nodule; TB culture was collected.
    • Antiplatelet with Bokey 100 mg 1#qd was given for possible CAD.
    • Admitted electively on 8/1 for further investigation – cardiac catheterisation
  • 5. Physical examination
    • Vital signs: T=36 °c, P=64/min, R=20/min, BP=147/76 mmHg
    • GCS 456
    • JVP supple, estimated 7 cm H2O; no goiter
    • Chest BS clear
    • Heart sounds dual no murmur, regular
    • No pitting edema, good peripheral pulse
  • 6. Investigation
    • WBC 6200, Hb 13.0, PLT 176000
    • BUN 18, Cr 1.0, GOT/GPT 19/17
    • GLU 92, Na 140.7, K 4.02
    • T. cholesetrol 207, TG 117
    • Uric acid 5.88
    • EKG normal sinus rythm
  • 7. Cardiac angiography report
    • Clinical diagnosis: angina pectoris
    • Indication for cath: angina pectoris
    • Post- cath diagnosis: CAD/left main + 3-V-D
    • EF=54%,
    • Left main : 50-60% stenosis at distal left main
    • LAD : 95% stenosis at LAD-P
    • LCX : 95% stenosis at ostium and a 90% stenois at LCX-D
    • RCA : 50% stenosis at RCA-M
    • Collateral : none
  • 8. Cardiac angiography report
    • Post- cath Diagnosis: CAD left main + 3VD s/p successful direct Taxus stenting for LAD-P and LCX-ostium and POBA and stenting for LCX-D/TIMI III
    • CABG is recommended for left main and 3VD. However the family refused the OP due to old age
    • PCI for LAD-P and LCX-ostium and LCX-D is recommended.
  • 9. Progress
    • Patient recovered well the next day
    • No active bleeding or hematoma over the puncture site, with good distal pulse and sensation.
    • Discharged with OPD follow up.
    • Medication :
    • Bokey 100 mg 1# qd po
    • Gasgel 1# tid po
    • Isosorbide 10 mg 1# tid po
    • Acetylcystein 3 pk bid po
    • Plavix 75 mg 1# qd po
  • 10. The question in mind…..
    • Did her family’s decision to perform PTCA instead of CABG affect her outcome (morbidity and mortality) in the future?
  • 11. PTCA with stents VS coronary bypass
    • PICOT 類型 : treatment
    • I : PTCA
    • O : morbidity and mortality
  • 12. Keywords
    • Acute coronary syndrome
    • Angiography
    • Coronary bypass
  • 13. Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty with stents versus coronary artery bypass grafting for people with stable angina or acute coronary syndromes Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews 2005, 2007
  • 14. Background
    • Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) is the surgical technique used to treat critical obstructions in coronary arteries caused by atherosclerotic plaque disease
    • saphenous veins OR internal mammary arteries OR radial artery
    • risk of initial surgical mortality and morbidity
    • need for a significant period of convalescence
    • surgical centres require specialised staff and facilitates.
  • 15.
    • Percutaneous Coronary Interventions (PCI), which include Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty ( PTCA ), PTCA with stenting , brachytherapy and atherectomy technologies
    • local anaesthetic , small vascular incisions in the groin or arm (percutaneously), as little as 15 minutes
    • rates of restenosis (re-narrowing of the treated vessel), 20 and 50%
    • debate on whether surgery or PCI is the most appropriate treatment
  • 16. Objectives
    • To assess the clinical effects of the use of coronary artery stents (as part of Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty) compared to Coronary Artery Bypass Graft surgery for the treatment of people with coronary artery disease.
  • 17. Criteria for considering studies for this review
    • Types of studies
    • Randomised Controlled Trials (RCTs),
    • published or unpublished
    • use of coronary artery stents (in conjunction with Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty techniques
    • compared with the application of Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) techniques.
  • 18.
    • Types of participants
    • Adults
    • Stable angina or Acute Coronary Syndrome (including AMI (ST segment elevation and depression, Q wave and non-Q wave) and unstable angina).
    • Adults with single or multivessel coronary artery disease .
    • Types of intervention
    • Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty with stents versus coronary artery bypass grafting surgery.
  • 19.
    • Types of outcome measures
    • Clinical (1) Combined event rate or event free survival (e.g. Major Adverse Cardiac Events, Major Adverse Cardiac and Cerebrovascular Events, Target Vessel Failure or other composites of the events listed below); (2) Death (both cardiac and non-cardiac death); (3) Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI); (4) Target Vessel Revascularisation (TVR); (5) Target Lesion Revascularisation (TLR); (6) Repeat treatment (PTCA, stent or CABG). Radiological Binary restenosis (greater than 50% luminal narrowing compared to diameter at completion of the procedure). Quality of life Where quality of life (QoL) data were available the nature of the measures, timings of measurement and analytical tool used to assess QoL were recorded
  • 20. Search methods for identification of studies
    • The search incorporated a number of methods to identity completed or ongoing RCTs:
    • (1) Searching of electronic databases;
    • (2) Handsearching of recent journals and conferences in relevant fields;
    • (3) Subscription to e-mail-based information newsletters and regular examination of webpages (including those supported by stent manufacturers) relevant to the review topic;
    • (4) Searching of bibliographies of identified sources;
    • (5) Use of submissions to National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE), London, UK.
  • 21. Description of studies
    • Included studies
    • Nine RCTs, involving a total of 3519 participants, are included in this review. .
    • Three studies included patients with multivessel disease
    • Five included only people with single vessel disease
    • one included a mix of vessel involvement
    • Reporting of outcomes extended beyond 1 year for ARTS ; Drenth ; ERACI II ; SIMA ; SOS , but were restricted to 6 months for Cisowski ; Diegeler ; Grip .
  • 22. Results
    • 1. Death
    • Although stents appeared to be favoured in terms of lower mortality, these differences were not statistically different
    • SOS study reports eight cancer related deaths in the stent arm
    • The uneven distribution of non-cardiac deaths in SOS would appear to contribute to it appearing to favour CABG
    • AMI
    • No significant difference observed, there was moderate to high degree of heterogeneity at 36 days, 12 months and 2 years
  • 23. Results
    • Revascularisation
    • Repeat revascularisation procedures where less common in the CABG group
    • Multiple vessel disease trials are included in the analysis at 12 months and 2 years, resulting in odds ratio 0.18 and odds ratio 0.21
    • single vessel disease studies, producing an odds ratio 0.09
    • Binary restenosis
    • Binary restenosis rate was reduced with CABG, odds ratio 0.29 (95% confidence interval 0.17 to 0.51) in the three single vessel trials at 6 months; random effects odds ratio 0.21
  • 24. Discussion
    • The main findings of the meta-analysis :
    • over the duration of follow-up available from current RCTs, there is considerable benefit, in terms of reduction in repeat revascularisation rates , with CABG over stenting .
    • These reductions were similar in single and multiple vessel disease studies
  • 25.
    • Multivessel disease
    • The four studies ( ARTS ; ERACI II ; OCTOSTENT ; SOS ) included in this meta-analysis demonstrate some differences in mortality between CABG and stent groups, however these did not reach statistical significance .
    • BUT considerable heterogeneity
    • Similarly, the rates of AMI were also not significantly different.
    • After 2 years the rates of AMI tend to favour surgery , but again this observation failed to reach statistical significance
    • At 12 months the repeat revascularisation rates with CABG were approximately one fifth of the rates for stenting with an odds ratio 0.18; 95%
  • 26.
    • Single vessel disease
    • In the four single vessel studies ( Cisowski ; Diegeler ; Drenth ; Grip ; SIMA ), given that mortality rates in the short term were generally low and the small number of total participants, the difference did not reach statistical significance
    • but would appear to favour stenting in contrast to the multivessel disease studies
    • The AMI and combined endpoint results closely mimic the respective results seen in the multivessel studies with CABG appearing to be better than stents in terms of composite event rate and repeat revascularisation at 6 months
  • 27. Clinical Interpretation
    • The mortality rate trend seen in the single vessel studies favouring stenting was not surprising given that stenting is performed under local anaesthetic and does not entail the general anaesthesia required for surgery.
    • While there would appear to be no significant difference in myocardial infarction rates at any time point, there is a trend in favour of CABG in those studies with longer follow up
    • 1. different enzyme rise thresholds for the two techniques
    • 2. grafts which are invariably placed distally on native vessels may occlude with less myocardial impact than vessels opened proximally by stent procedures;
    • 3. interventionists are more inclined to request cardiac enzymes on patients with post-PCI chest pains then surgeons who are inclined to accept a degree of chest pain from patients due to the nature of the operative procedure;
    • 4. modest follow-up duration is likely to capture stent failure more fully as opposed to graft failure
  • 28. Limitations
    • 1. patients entered into such studies had to be suitable for either intervention and were not typical of all patients seen by cardiologists or cardiothoracic surgeons
    • 2. practice changed over the periods of the trials e.g. Glycoprotein IIB/IIIA has in more recent practice reduced early stent thrombosis and the amount of Ischaemic enzyme release peri procedurally
    • 3. we could not consider subgroups of patients in the current meta-analysis
    • 4. analysis of 'other' adverse events (for example, neurological complications) were not completed as these were not commonly or consistently reported.
  • 29. Authors' conclusions
    • Implications for practice
    • Considerably more data is needed to make firm long term conclusions on the implications for practice, but in the short to medium term, CABG has far less repeat revascularisation procedures than PTCA with stents currently in common clinical use.
    • Implications for research
    • Re-evaluation of these technologies will be required as the development of new surgical techniques and stent designs is ongoing
    • Future trials should recruit more realistic patient groupings, as the population selected for inclusion in the current review were prone to bias
    • selection tended to focus on patients with generally less co-morbidities and with better left ventricular function than the overall population presenting for revascularisation in the real world setting