Julius P. Mario, RMT, MS Chem.Julius P. Mario, RMT, MS Chem.
The purpose & function of laboratoriansThe purpose & function of laboratorians
through clinical pathology & laboratorythrough clinical pathology & laboratory
medicine are to assist clinicians in:medicine are to assist clinicians in:
1.1. Confirming or rejecting a diagnosisConfirming or rejecting a diagnosis
2.2. Providing guidelines in patient managementProviding guidelines in patient management
3.3. Establishing a prognosisEstablishing a prognosis
4.4. Detecting disease through case finding orDetecting disease through case finding or
5.5. Monitoring follow-up therapyMonitoring follow-up therapy
Clinical ChemistryClinical Chemistry
TheThe systematic studysystematic study ofof
biochemical processesbiochemical processes associatedassociated
withwith health & diseasehealth & disease &&
thethe measurement of constituentsmeasurement of constituents inin
body fluids or tissuesbody fluids or tissues toto
facilitatefacilitate diagnosis of disease.diagnosis of disease.
SCOPE OF CLINICAL CHEMISTRYSCOPE OF CLINICAL CHEMISTRY
It is much easier toIt is much easier to detect a MALFUNCTIONdetect a MALFUNCTION
than to elucidate or document the cause.than to elucidate or document the cause.
Malfunction of a cell maybe caused by a variety ofMalfunction of a cell maybe caused by a variety of
1.1. Destruction by trauma or by invasive agentsDestruction by trauma or by invasive agents
2.2. Genetic deficiency of a vital enzymeGenetic deficiency of a vital enzyme
3.3. Insufficient supply of one or more essential nutrientsInsufficient supply of one or more essential nutrients
4.4. Insufficient blood supplyInsufficient blood supply
5.5. Insufficient oxygen supplyInsufficient oxygen supply
7.7. Accumulation of waste productsAccumulation of waste products
8.8. Failure of a control systemFailure of a control system
9.9. Defect in the cellular recognition of certain signalsDefect in the cellular recognition of certain signals
Point-of-care TestingPoint-of-care Testing (POCT)(POCT)
Also known asAlso known as near-patient testingnear-patient testing,, alternate-sitealternate-site
testingtesting oror patient-focused testingpatient-focused testing
Used in emergency dept., operating suites, clinics,Used in emergency dept., operating suites, clinics,
health maintenance organization (HMO),health maintenance organization (HMO),
physicians, offices & nursing homesphysicians, offices & nursing homes
AddressesAddresses acute patient needsacute patient needs
Instrumentation includesInstrumentation includes portable chemistryportable chemistry
analyzers, glucometers, BG Analyzers,analyzers, glucometers, BG Analyzers,
hemoglobin metershemoglobin meters && coagulation testingcoagulation testing
Specimens or samples areSpecimens or samples are
substances in them aresubstances in them are
measuredmeasured oror quantitated.quantitated.
Substances measured in serum fall generallySubstances measured in serum fall generally
into the following categories:into the following categories:
1.1. SubstancesSubstances normally presentnormally present with a function in thewith a function in the
2. Metabolites- nonfunctioning waste products in
the process of being cleared
3.3. SubstancesSubstances released from cells as a result ofreleased from cells as a result of
cell damage & abnormal permeability orcell damage & abnormal permeability or
abnormal cellular proliferationabnormal cellular proliferation
enzymes such as LD, ALT, AST, CK, AMS,enzymes such as LD, ALT, AST, CK, AMS,
GGT, ALP & ACPGGT, ALP & ACP
4. Drugs & toxic substances
substances of abuse
Quick QuizQuick Quiz
Tissue injury is greatly associated with elevatedTissue injury is greatly associated with elevated
levels of bloodlevels of blood
a.a. electrolyteselectrolytes b.b. hormoneshormones
c.c. enzymesenzymes d.d. albuminalbumin
Electrochemical methods are ideal for theElectrochemical methods are ideal for the
measurement of serum/plasmameasurement of serum/plasma
a.a. glucoseglucose b.b. enzymesenzymes
c.c. proteins & amino acidsproteins & amino acids d.d. metal ionsmetal ions
Laboratory TestsLaboratory Tests
Chemical testsChemical tests
Direct or IndirectDirect or Indirect
Degradative testsDegradative tests ((EnzymaticEnzymatic))
One-step or Multi-stepOne-step or Multi-step
NADH ConsumptionNADH Consumption
Measurement of ActivityMeasurement of Activity (not concentration)(not concentration)
Quick QuizQuick Quiz
Identify theIdentify the analyte measuredanalyte measured using theusing the
following tests and thefollowing tests and the typetype of each test:of each test:
1.1. Jaffe reactionJaffe reaction
2.2. Hantzsch testHantzsch test
5.5. Schales and SchalesSchales and Schales
LAB REQUESTSLAB REQUESTS
““STAT”STAT” = immediate; urgent requests;= immediate; urgent requests;
= usually less than 1 hour TAT= usually less than 1 hour TAT
PRIORITYPRIORITY = important for clinical decisions= important for clinical decisions
= less than 2 hour TAT= less than 2 hour TAT
ROUTINEROUTINE = non urgent; standard or special= non urgent; standard or special
= generally 4-6 hours= generally 4-6 hours
Ideal for acidic solutionsIdeal for acidic solutions
High thermal & corrosionHigh thermal & corrosion
Good optical propertiesGood optical properties
Low costLow cost
Highly shock proof; shatterproof
Ideal for alkaline solutions
For cryogenic experiments
GLASS: 5 GENERAL TYPESGLASS: 5 GENERAL TYPES
1.1. High thermal resistant glassHigh thermal resistant glass
Borosilicate glass with low alkali contentBorosilicate glass with low alkali content
Resists heat, corrosion and thermal shockResists heat, corrosion and thermal shock
Most common areMost common are PyrexPyrex,, KimaxKimax andand ExaxExax
- 6x stronger than borosilicate glass- 6x stronger than borosilicate glass
-- Alumina-silicate glassAlumina-silicate glass
- Better able to resist clouding due to to alkali or scratching- Better able to resist clouding due to to alkali or scratching
- Ideal for- Ideal for higher temperature thermometers, graduatedhigher temperature thermometers, graduated
cylinders and centrifuge tubescylinders and centrifuge tubes..
-- recommended for use inrecommended for use in application involving highapplication involving high
temperature and drastic heat shock and extremetemperature and drastic heat shock and extreme
chemical treatment with acids and dilute alkalieschemical treatment with acids and dilute alkalies
- heatable to 900- heatable to 900oo
C and withstand downshock from 900C and withstand downshock from 900oo
C toC to
ice waterice water
- ideal for- ideal for ashing and ignition techniquesashing and ignition techniques
2. High silica glass2. High silica glass
-- 96% silica content96% silica content comparable tocomparable to fused quartzfused quartz inin
itsits thermal endurance, chemical stability andthermal endurance, chemical stability and
electrical characteristicselectrical characteristics
-- radiation resistant, good optical qualities andradiation resistant, good optical qualities and
temperature capabilitiestemperature capabilities
- ideal for- ideal for high precision analytical workhigh precision analytical work and canand can
also be used foralso be used for optical reflectors and mirrorsoptical reflectors and mirrors
3. Glass with high resistance to alkalies3. Glass with high resistance to alkalies
-- boron-freeboron-free glassware for strong alkali solutionsglassware for strong alkali solutions
and digestion with strong alkaliesand digestion with strong alkalies
- less thermal resistant than borosilicate glass- less thermal resistant than borosilicate glass
- known as- known as soft glasssoft glass
4. Low actinic glass4. Low actinic glass
-- amber or red-coloredamber or red-colored to reduce the amount of light passingto reduce the amount of light passing
through the substance within the glasswarethrough the substance within the glassware
- highly protective laboratory glassware for handling- highly protective laboratory glassware for handling heat-heat-
labile substances in the 300-500nm rangelabile substances in the 300-500nm range
(bilirubin, carotene and vitamin A)(bilirubin, carotene and vitamin A)
5. Standard flint glass5. Standard flint glass
-- soda-lime glasssoda-lime glass which is composed of a mixture ofwhich is composed of a mixture of
oxides of Si, Ca and Naoxides of Si, Ca and Na
- Lowest in cost and readily fabricated- Lowest in cost and readily fabricated
- poorly resistant to high temperature and sudden changes in- poorly resistant to high temperature and sudden changes in
- easy to melt and shape thus used as- easy to melt and shape thus used as reagent bottles andreagent bottles and
disposable laboratory glasswaresdisposable laboratory glasswares
- release alkali into the pipetted liquid- release alkali into the pipetted liquid
Quick QuizQuick Quiz
Which of the following is an aluminum-silicate glassWhich of the following is an aluminum-silicate glass
that is at least six times stronger than borosilicatethat is at least six times stronger than borosilicate
and is resistant to alkaline etching and scratching?and is resistant to alkaline etching and scratching?
a.a. KimaxKimax b.b. PyrexPyrex
c.c. Corning boron freeCorning boron free d.d. CorexCorex
The tinted glass which is ideal for delayed testing ofThe tinted glass which is ideal for delayed testing of
light-sensitive substances islight-sensitive substances is
a.a. standard flintstandard flint b.b. soda limesoda lime
c.c. low actiniclow actinic d.d. boron-freeboron-free
1.1. PolyolefinsPolyolefins (polyethylenes, polypropylenes)(polyethylenes, polypropylenes)
Unique group ofUnique group of resinsresins with relatively inertwith relatively inert
chemical propertieschemical properties
Unaffected by acids (however, conc. sulfuric acidUnaffected by acids (however, conc. sulfuric acid
slowly attacks polyethylene at RT), alkalies,slowly attacks polyethylene at RT), alkalies,
salt solutions and most aqueous solutionssalt solutions and most aqueous solutions
Aromatic, aliphatic and chlorinated hydrocarbonsAromatic, aliphatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons
cause moderate swelling at RTcause moderate swelling at RT
Organic acids, essential oils and halogens slowlyOrganic acids, essential oils and halogens slowly
penetrate these plasticspenetrate these plastics
Polyolefins (polyethylenes, polypropylenes)Polyolefins (polyethylenes, polypropylenes)
Strong oxidizing agents attack this group atStrong oxidizing agents attack this group at
elevated temperatures onlyelevated temperatures only
Polypropylene is more expensivePolypropylene is more expensive thanthan
polyethylene therefore the latter is used inpolyethylene therefore the latter is used in
most disposable plastic waresmost disposable plastic wares
Polypropylene is sterilizablePolypropylene is sterilizable however ithowever it
absorbs pigment and tends to becomeabsorbs pigment and tends to become
2. Polycarbonate resin2. Polycarbonate resin
twice as strong as polypropylene (from –100twice as strong as polypropylene (from –100oo
C toC to
Chemical resistance is not as wide as theChemical resistance is not as wide as the
Unsuitable for use with bases as amines,Unsuitable for use with bases as amines,
ammonia and alkalies as well as oxidizing agentsammonia and alkalies as well as oxidizing agents
Glass-clear and shatterproofGlass-clear and shatterproof
Ideal forIdeal for centrifuge tubes and graduatedcentrifuge tubes and graduated
3. Tygon3. Tygon
Nontoxic, clear plastic of modified PVCNontoxic, clear plastic of modified PVC
Used extensively for theUsed extensively for the manufacture of ACAmanufacture of ACA
Flexible and used to handle most chemicalsFlexible and used to handle most chemicals
Can beCan be steam-autoclaved or chemically sterilizedsteam-autoclaved or chemically sterilized
Tubing is soft and flexible and quickly slips overTubing is soft and flexible and quickly slips over
tubulatures buttubulatures but gripping tightly on glass or metalsgripping tightly on glass or metals
4. Teflon fluorocarbon resins4. Teflon fluorocarbon resins
Almost chemically inert withAlmost chemically inert with high corrosion resistancehigh corrosion resistance
at extreme temperaturesat extreme temperatures
ForFor cryogenic experiments and work at highcryogenic experiments and work at high
temperatures over extended periods (-270temperatures over extended periods (-270oo
C toC to
Pure translucent white and inertPure translucent white and inert
Easy to clean and fast dryingEasy to clean and fast drying but it can be scratchedbut it can be scratched
and misshapedand misshaped
Quick QuizQuick Quiz
The internal tubings of clinical analyzers should beThe internal tubings of clinical analyzers should be
made ofmade of
a.a. Teflon fluorocarbonTeflon fluorocarbon b.b. polycarbonatepolycarbonate
c.c. TygonTygon d.d. polyvinylchloridepolyvinylchloride
The advantages of this plastic is that it can be madeThe advantages of this plastic is that it can be made
into very thin sheets and can withstand extremeinto very thin sheets and can withstand extreme
a.a. PolyolefinsPolyolefins b.b. PolycarbonatePolycarbonate
c.c. TygonTygon d.d. TeflonTeflon
Two General TypesTwo General Types
1.1. Volumetric or Transfer pipetVolumetric or Transfer pipet
DesignedDesigned to deliver (TD) a fixed volume of liquidto deliver (TD) a fixed volume of liquid
Consists of aConsists of a cylindrical bulbcylindrical bulb joined at both ends tojoined at both ends to
narrower glass tubingnarrower glass tubing
Calibration mark is etched around the upper suction tubeCalibration mark is etched around the upper suction tube
Lower delivery tube is drawn out to a fine tipLower delivery tube is drawn out to a fine tip
used forused for accurate measurements of aliquots ofaccurate measurements of aliquots of
nonviscous samples, filtrates, controls, andnonviscous samples, filtrates, controls, and
standard solutionsstandard solutions
OSTWALD-FOLIN PIPETOSTWALD-FOLIN PIPET
Similar to volumetric pipet but have their bulbSimilar to volumetric pipet but have their bulb
closer to the delivery tipcloser to the delivery tip
Used forUsed for measuring viscous fluids as blood ormeasuring viscous fluids as blood or
Has anHas an etched ring near the mouthpieceetched ring near the mouthpiece
(blowout pipet)(blowout pipet)
Blown out only when the fluid has drained toBlown out only when the fluid has drained to
the last drop in the delivery tipthe last drop in the delivery tip
2. Graduated or Measuring Pipets2. Graduated or Measuring Pipets
Plain, narrow tube drawn out to a tipPlain, narrow tube drawn out to a tip
Graduated uniformly along its lengthGraduated uniformly along its length
Two types which are calibrated for delivery areTwo types which are calibrated for delivery are
Mohr pipetMohr pipet
-- calibrated between two markscalibrated between two marks on theon the
Serological pipetSerological pipet
- has- has graduation marks down on the tipgraduation marks down on the tip
and blown out to deliver the entire volume ofand blown out to deliver the entire volume of
the pipet if etched ring or double rings arethe pipet if etched ring or double rings are
evident near the mouth of the pipetevident near the mouth of the pipet
Serological pipetSerological pipet
Intended for theIntended for the delivery of predetermineddelivery of predetermined
Principally used for thePrincipally used for the measurements ofmeasurements of
reagentsreagents andand are not generallyare not generally
considered accurate enough forconsidered accurate enough for
measuring viscous samples andmeasuring viscous samples and
Serological pipets have larger orifice thanSerological pipets have larger orifice than
the Mohr pipet and thus drain fasterthe Mohr pipet and thus drain faster
Quick QuizQuick Quiz
The College of American Pathologists (CAP)The College of American Pathologists (CAP)
requires that volumetric pipets and flasks berequires that volumetric pipets and flasks be
certified ascertified as
a.a. Class AClass A b.b. Class BClass B
c.c. Class CClass C d.d. Class DClass D
““To deliver”(TD) pipettes are identified byTo deliver”(TD) pipettes are identified by
a.a. two etched bands near the mouthpiecetwo etched bands near the mouthpiece
b.b. self-draining capacityself-draining capacity
c.c. dual purpose pipet labelsdual purpose pipet labels
d.d. blue graduation levelsblue graduation levels
TheThe American Chemical SocietyAmerican Chemical Society (ACS) established the(ACS) established the
specifications of chemicals in the analytical grade category.specifications of chemicals in the analytical grade category.
The analytical reagent grade chemicals are of very high purity.The analytical reagent grade chemicals are of very high purity.
They are labeledThey are labeled Analytical ReagentAnalytical Reagent (AR) or ACS which state(AR) or ACS which state
the actual purity of each lot. These include chemicals suchthe actual purity of each lot. These include chemicals such
nanograde, andnanograde, and
High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) grade.grade.
The AR grade chemical are used in:The AR grade chemical are used in:
a.a. most analytical laboratory proceduresmost analytical laboratory procedures
b. making up reagents forb. making up reagents for spectrophotometry,spectrophotometry,
chromatography, trace metal analysis, atomic absorptionchromatography, trace metal analysis, atomic absorption
spectrophotometry, fluorometry and standardizationspectrophotometry, fluorometry and standardization
United States PharmacopoeiaUnited States Pharmacopoeia (USP) and the(USP) and the
National FormularyNational Formulary (NF) grade chemicals are not(NF) grade chemicals are not
injurious to humans and are used to producedinjurious to humans and are used to produced
drugs.drugs. They are not pure enough for use in mostThey are not pure enough for use in most
chemical procedures.chemical procedures.
Less pure grade chemicals are referred to asLess pure grade chemicals are referred to as
purified and technical. Thepurified and technical. The chemically purechemically pure (CP)(CP)
oror pure gradepure grade chemicals do not recommend forchemicals do not recommend for
reagent preparations.reagent preparations.
TechnicalTechnical oror commercialcommercial grade reagents aregrade reagents are
primarily used in manufacturing and should notprimarily used in manufacturing and should not
be used in the clinical laboratory. The technicalbe used in the clinical laboratory. The technical
grade is the lowest quality and should not begrade is the lowest quality and should not be
used for analytical work.used for analytical work.
AA primary standardprimary standard (PS) is a chemical that is the(PS) is a chemical that is the
highest purity and can be measured directly tohighest purity and can be measured directly to
produce a substance of exact known concentration.produce a substance of exact known concentration.
TheThe International Union of Pure and Applied ChemistryInternational Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
(IUPAC) requires that(IUPAC) requires that
PS be at least 99.98% purePS be at least 99.98% pure and that theand that the
working standards be 99.95% pureworking standards be 99.95% pure..
Grade AGrade A - atomic weight standards- atomic weight standards
Grade BGrade B – ultimate standards– ultimate standards
Grade CGrade C* – primary standards with >0.002% impurity* – primary standards with >0.002% impurity
Grade DGrade D* – working standards with >0.5% impurity* – working standards with >0.5% impurity
Grade EGrade E – secondary standards derived from using– secondary standards derived from using
Grade C standardsGrade C standards
**commercially availablecommercially available
TheThe National Bureau of StandardsNational Bureau of Standards (NBS) now(NBS) now
National Institute of Science and TechnologyNational Institute of Science and Technology
(NIST) purified materials known as(NIST) purified materials known as StandardStandard
Reference MaterialsReference Materials (SRM) are used as(SRM) are used as
primary standard materials in the clinicalprimary standard materials in the clinical
laboratory. They are relatively expensive andlaboratory. They are relatively expensive and
should be used as ashould be used as a reference for thereference for the
comparison of commercially obtainedcomparison of commercially obtained
standards and reagents.standards and reagents.
AA secondary standardsecondary standard is a substance of loweris a substance of lower
purity whose concentration is determined bypurity whose concentration is determined by
comparison to a primary standard.comparison to a primary standard.
Quick QuizQuick Quiz
Regarded as the ultimate standard by IUPAC isRegarded as the ultimate standard by IUPAC is
a.a. Grade AGrade A b.b. Grade BGrade B
c.c. Grade CGrade C d.d. Grade DGrade D
What is the most common use of a standard inWhat is the most common use of a standard in
the clinical laboratory?the clinical laboratory?
a.a. to verify accuracy of resultsto verify accuracy of results
b.b. to standardize the testingto standardize the testing
c.c. to compare its value with the results obtainedto compare its value with the results obtained
d.d. to obtain the concentration of the substanceto obtain the concentration of the substance
Reagent grade waterReagent grade water (RGW) is water suitable(RGW) is water suitable
for reagent and standard preparation. Mostfor reagent and standard preparation. Most
procedures use distilled water or deionized water.procedures use distilled water or deionized water.
Distilled waterDistilled water is purified to remove almost allis purified to remove almost all
organic materials. Water may be distilled moreorganic materials. Water may be distilled more
than once and each distillation cycle will removethan once and each distillation cycle will remove
Deionized waterDeionized water is produced from distilled wateris produced from distilled water
using either an anion or cation exchange resinusing either an anion or cation exchange resin
followed by replacement of the removed particlesfollowed by replacement of the removed particles
with hydroxyl or hydrogen ions respectively.with hydroxyl or hydrogen ions respectively.
TheThe College of American PathologistsCollege of American Pathologists (CAP) and the(CAP) and the NationalNational
Committee for Clinical LaboratorCommittee for Clinical Laboratoryy StandardsStandards (NCCLS) issued(NCCLS) issued
minimum specifications for RGW. The NCCLS requirements for eachminimum specifications for RGW. The NCCLS requirements for each
type are tabulated below:type are tabulated below:
SpecificationsSpecifications Type IType I Type II Type IIIType II Type III
Bacterial content (maximumBacterial content (maximum <10<10 101022
colony forming unit/mL)colony forming unit/mL)
pHpH NANA NANA NANA
Resistivity (megaohms/cmResistivity (megaohms/cm 1.0 (in-line) 1.01.0 (in-line) 1.0 0.10.1
at 25at 25oo
Silicates, mg/L SiOSilicates, mg/L SiO22 maximummaximum 0.050.05 0.10.1 1.01.0
Particulate matter (filter in system)Particulate matter (filter in system) 0.220.22 µmµm NANA
Organic contaminantsOrganic contaminants activated carbonactivated carbon NANA
Type I RGWType I RGW is used for procedures that require maximumis used for procedures that require maximum
water purity such as :water purity such as :
preparations of standard solutions,preparations of standard solutions,
ultramicro chemical analysis,ultramicro chemical analysis,
measurement of nanogram or subnanogrammeasurement of nanogram or subnanogram
and tissue or cell culture (or both).and tissue or cell culture (or both).
Type II RGWType II RGW is used in most laboratory determination inis used in most laboratory determination in
chemistry, hematology, microbiology, immunology and otherchemistry, hematology, microbiology, immunology and other
chemical laboratory areas.chemical laboratory areas.
Type III RGWType III RGW is used in most qualitative measurement /is used in most qualitative measurement /
examinations, most procedures in urinalysis, parasitology andexaminations, most procedures in urinalysis, parasitology and
histology, washing glasswares and procedures not requiringhistology, washing glasswares and procedures not requiring
Type I or Type II water.Type I or Type II water.
Carbon dioxide-free water is obtained by boiling Type II water.Carbon dioxide-free water is obtained by boiling Type II water.
This is used when carbon dioxide, ammonia and oxygen mayThis is used when carbon dioxide, ammonia and oxygen may
affect analysis.affect analysis.
CLEANING GLASSWARES AND PLASTIC WARESCLEANING GLASSWARES AND PLASTIC WARES
Routine washing may be done by soaking in dilute bleach followedRoutine washing may be done by soaking in dilute bleach followed
by drying in an oven, soaking in 20% nitric acid solution for 12-24by drying in an oven, soaking in 20% nitric acid solution for 12-24
hours and soaking in acid-dichromate solution.hours and soaking in acid-dichromate solution.
For blood clots, soak in 10% NaOHFor blood clots, soak in 10% NaOH
For new pipets, soak in 5% HCI or 5% HNOFor new pipets, soak in 5% HCI or 5% HNO33
For metal ion determination, soak in 20% nitric acidFor metal ion determination, soak in 20% nitric acid
For grease, soak in any organic solvent or 50% KOHFor grease, soak in any organic solvent or 50% KOH..
For permanganate stains, soak in 50% HCI or a mixture of 1%For permanganate stains, soak in 50% HCI or a mixture of 1%
ferrous sulfate in 25% sulfuric acidferrous sulfate in 25% sulfuric acid
For bacteriologic glassware, soak in 2% to 4% cresol solutionFor bacteriologic glassware, soak in 2% to 4% cresol solution
followed by autoclaving and thorough washingfollowed by autoclaving and thorough washing
For iron determination, soak in 1:2 dilution of conc. HCI solution orFor iron determination, soak in 1:2 dilution of conc. HCI solution or
1:3 dilution of conc. HNO1:3 dilution of conc. HNO33
Quick QuizQuick Quiz
What is the most appropriate term to describeWhat is the most appropriate term to describe
water that is used as a solvent in the clinicalwater that is used as a solvent in the clinical
a.a. distilled waterdistilled water b.b. deionized waterdeionized water
c.c. reagent grade waterreagent grade water d.d. tap watertap water
The type of water desired for use in testThe type of water desired for use in test
methods requiring maximum accuracy andmethods requiring maximum accuracy and
precision isprecision is
a.a. distilleddistilled b.b. pure gradepure grade
c.c. type Itype I d.d. type IItype II
What is effectively removed by activated charcoalWhat is effectively removed by activated charcoal
adsorption in water purification?adsorption in water purification?
a.a. charged chemicalscharged chemicals b.b. microbes and pyrogensmicrobes and pyrogens
c.c. toxic gasestoxic gases d.d. organic compoundsorganic compounds
WhatWhat purification method is ideal for the removal ofpurification method is ideal for the removal of
pyrogens and microorganisms?pyrogens and microorganisms?
a.a. activated charcoal adsorptionactivated charcoal adsorption
b.b. semipermeable membrane filtrationsemipermeable membrane filtration
c.c. reverse osmosisreverse osmosis
d.d. distillation and deionization combineddistillation and deionization combined
Chemical HazardsChemical Hazards
CausticCaustic – can cause burns– can cause burns
FlammableFlammable – also combustible, that is, can– also combustible, that is, can
easily catch fireeasily catch fire
CorrosiveCorrosive – harmful to mucous membranes,– harmful to mucous membranes,
skin, eyes or tissuesskin, eyes or tissues
CarcinogenCarcinogen – can produce or incite cancer– can produce or incite cancer
MutagenMutagen – cause changes in RNA or DNA– cause changes in RNA or DNA
TeratogenTeratogen – cause birth defects– cause birth defects
Quick QuizQuick Quiz
Xylene, ethanol, methanol, and acetone would be inXylene, ethanol, methanol, and acetone would be in
which hazard class?which hazard class?
a.a. corrosivecorrosive b.b. flammableflammable
c.c. oxidizeroxidizer d.d. all of the aboveall of the above
Precautions such asPrecautions such as using a fume hood, wearingusing a fume hood, wearing
rubber gloves, donning a respirator, and cleaningrubber gloves, donning a respirator, and cleaning
glassware with a strong acid or organic solvent areglassware with a strong acid or organic solvent are
consistent with working withconsistent with working with
a.a. corrosivescorrosives b.b. carcinogenscarcinogens
c.c. azidesazides d.d. all reagentsall reagents
TheThe relative centrifugal forcerelative centrifugal force (RCF) is obtained by(RCF) is obtained by
using a nomogram or by using this formula:using a nomogram or by using this formula:
RCF = 1.118 x 10-5
x r x rpm2
Where: r = radius in cm. between the axis of rotation and the center of
the centrifuge tube
rpm = speed in revolutions per minute
The CAP recommends cleaning of any spills or debris
such as blood, glass and others daily; checking of the
timer, brushes and speed every three months. The speed
of the centrifuge is checked using the tachometer or
All laboratories are required to haveAll laboratories are required to have safetysafety
showers, eyewash stations and fireshowers, eyewash stations and fire
extinguishersextinguishers and to periodically test andand to periodically test and
inspect the equipment of proper operation.inspect the equipment of proper operation.
Other items that must be available forOther items that must be available for
personnel include fire blankets, spill kits andpersonnel include fire blankets, spill kits and
first aid supplies.first aid supplies.
Mechanical pipetting devices must be usedMechanical pipetting devices must be used
for manipulating all types of liquids in thefor manipulating all types of liquids in the
laboratory, including water.laboratory, including water. MouthMouth
pipetting is strictly prohibited.pipetting is strictly prohibited.
Quick QuizQuick Quiz
Which of the following may be safely pipettedWhich of the following may be safely pipetted
by mouth?by mouth?
a.a. serumserum b.b. urineurine
c.c. saline solutionsaline solution d.d. none of the abovenone of the above
The speed of the centrifuge should be checkedThe speed of the centrifuge should be checked
at least once every three (3) months with a /anat least once every three (3) months with a /an
a.a. tachometertachometer b.b. wiperwiper
c.c. potentiometerpotentiometer d.d. ergometerergometer
BIOLOGIC SAFETYBIOLOGIC SAFETY
All samples and other body fluids should beAll samples and other body fluids should be
collected, transported, handled andcollected, transported, handled and
processed usingprocessed using strict precautions.strict precautions.
Gloves, gowns and face protection must beGloves, gowns and face protection must be
used ifused if splash or splatteringsplash or splattering is likely tois likely to
Specimen should remainSpecimen should remain cappedcapped duringduring
centrifugation because biologiccentrifugation because biologic
specimens could produce finelyspecimens could produce finely
dispersed aerosolsdispersed aerosols that are athat are a high-riskhigh-risk
source of infection.source of infection.
Any blood, body fluid or other potentially infectious material spillAny blood, body fluid or other potentially infectious material spill
must be cleaned up and the area of equipment disinfectedmust be cleaned up and the area of equipment disinfected
Recommended clean upRecommended clean up includes the following:includes the following:
A.A. Wear appropriate protective equipmentWear appropriate protective equipment
B.B. Use mechanical devices to pick up broken glass orUse mechanical devices to pick up broken glass or
other sharp objects.other sharp objects.
C.C. Absorb the spill with paper towels, gauze pads or tissue,Absorb the spill with paper towels, gauze pads or tissue,
D.D. Clean the spill site using common aqueous detergentClean the spill site using common aqueous detergent..
E.E. the spill site using approved disinfectant or 10% bleachthe spill site using approved disinfectant or 10% bleach
using appropriate contact time.using appropriate contact time.
F.F. Rinse the spill site with water.Rinse the spill site with water.
G.G. Dispose all materials in appropriate biohazardDispose all materials in appropriate biohazard
Occupational Safety and Health OrganizationOccupational Safety and Health Organization
AdministrationAdministration (OSHA) “Blood –Borne Pathogens”(OSHA) “Blood –Borne Pathogens”
standard requires writtenstandard requires written “Exposure Control Plan”“Exposure Control Plan”
Categories of exposure are the following:Categories of exposure are the following:
Category I-Category I- daily exposuredaily exposure to blood and body fluidsto blood and body fluids
Category II-Category II- regular exposureregular exposure to blood and bodyto blood and body
Category III-Category III- no exposureno exposure to blood and body fluidto blood and body fluid
Employers must offer Hepatitis B vaccine at noEmployers must offer Hepatitis B vaccine at no
costcost to all personnel in Category I and II.to all personnel in Category I and II.
Biological safety cabinetsBiological safety cabinets should be installed in strategicshould be installed in strategic
places to facilitate manipulations of infectious material.places to facilitate manipulations of infectious material.
ItIt reduces risk of exposurereduces risk of exposure of laboratory personnel andof laboratory personnel and
SAFETY AGAINST EXPOSURE TO TOXIC CHEMICALSSAFETY AGAINST EXPOSURE TO TOXIC CHEMICALS
OSHA published itsOSHA published its Hazard Communication StandardHazard Communication Standard inin
1983 to minimize the incidence of chemically related1983 to minimize the incidence of chemically related
occupational illnesses and injuries in the workplaces.occupational illnesses and injuries in the workplaces.
OSHA requires the following:OSHA requires the following:
a. Manufacturers of chemicals shoulda. Manufacturers of chemicals should evaluate the hazards ofevaluate the hazards of
the chemicalsthe chemicals they produce andthey produce and develop hazarddevelop hazard
communication programscommunication programs for employees exposed tofor employees exposed to
hazardous chemicals.hazardous chemicals.
b. Clinical laboratories shouldb. Clinical laboratories should develop and institute adevelop and institute a
chemical hygiene plan.chemical hygiene plan.
c. Hospitals and laboratories are obliged toc. Hospitals and laboratories are obliged to maintain anmaintain an
inventory of all hazardous substancesinventory of all hazardous substances used in theused in the
OSHA requires thatOSHA requires that material safety data sheetsmaterial safety data sheets ((MSDSMSDS) be) be
provide for each chemical by manufacturers andprovide for each chemical by manufacturers and
suppliers and must be made available on site forsuppliers and must be made available on site for
laboratory personnel.laboratory personnel.
MSDS will specifically includeMSDS will specifically include
the chemical identity;the chemical identity;
chemical and common name;chemical and common name;
physical and chemical characteristics;physical and chemical characteristics;
signs and symptoms of exposure;signs and symptoms of exposure;
routes of entry;routes of entry;
exposure limits;exposure limits;
carcinogenic potential;carcinogenic potential;
safe handling procedures;safe handling procedures;
spill cleanup procedures; andspill cleanup procedures; and
emergency first-aid.emergency first-aid.
MSDSs contain information on the nature of the chemical,MSDSs contain information on the nature of the chemical,
precautions if spilled and disposal recommendations.precautions if spilled and disposal recommendations.
TheThe National Fire Protection AssociationNational Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has(NFPA) has
developed the Hazards Identification system todeveloped the Hazards Identification system to
provide common, recognizable warning signs forprovide common, recognizable warning signs for
chemical hazards. The system consists of four color-chemical hazards. The system consists of four color-
coded, diamond-shaped symbols arranged to form acoded, diamond-shaped symbols arranged to form a
larger diamond shape.larger diamond shape.
(top) designates(top) designates flammabilityflammability
(left) indicates(left) indicates health hazardshealth hazards
(right) indicates(right) indicates reactivity-stabilityreactivity-stability
(bottom) indicates(bottom) indicates special considerationspecial consideration
Contained within each color-coded diamond is aContained within each color-coded diamond is a
number ranging from 0 to 4, indicating the severity ofnumber ranging from 0 to 4, indicating the severity of
the respective hazard (0 = none and 4 = extreme)the respective hazard (0 = none and 4 = extreme)
Special ConsiderationsSpecial Considerations
Water ReactiveWater Reactive
Oxidizing AgentOxidizing Agent
ELECTRICAL SAFETYELECTRICAL SAFETY
Lockout/tag outLockout/tag out malfunctioning electrical ormalfunctioning electrical or
mechanical equipment until services.mechanical equipment until services.
ReportReport any small shocks, unplug andany small shocks, unplug and
tag equipment until serviced.tag equipment until serviced.
If a severely shocked person can not let go ofIf a severely shocked person can not let go of
instrument,instrument, unplug it without touchingunplug it without touching
the person or knock person loosethe person or knock person loose
with nonconductive materialwith nonconductive material such assuch as
RADIATION SAFETYRADIATION SAFETY
A radiation-safety policy should include environmental andA radiation-safety policy should include environmental and
personnel protection.personnel protection.
All areas where radioactive materials are used or storedAll areas where radioactive materials are used or stored
must be posted withmust be posted with caution signscaution signs andand traffic in thesetraffic in these
areas should be restricted to essential personnel onlyareas should be restricted to essential personnel only..
Records must be maintained as to the quantity ofRecords must be maintained as to the quantity of
radioactive material on hand as well as the quantity that isradioactive material on hand as well as the quantity that is
disposed.disposed. Records must be maintained for the length ofRecords must be maintained for the length of
employment plus 30 yearsemployment plus 30 years..
Radiation monitoring utilizes film badge or survey meter.Radiation monitoring utilizes film badge or survey meter.
The exposure limit (maximum permissible doseThe exposure limit (maximum permissible dose
equivalents isequivalents is 5000 mrem/year whole body5000 mrem/year whole body))
TheThe Wipe test (Leak test)Wipe test (Leak test) involves wiping laboratoryinvolves wiping laboratory
surfaces with moistened absorbent material and thesurfaces with moistened absorbent material and the
radiation contained in each wipe is counted.radiation contained in each wipe is counted.
Quick QuizQuick Quiz
A corrosive material was spilled onto the hand of aA corrosive material was spilled onto the hand of a
laboratorian. After diluting the material under running coldlaboratorian. After diluting the material under running cold
water, what should be done next?water, what should be done next?
a.a. consult the MSDSconsult the MSDS
b.b. wipe up spills with paper towelswipe up spills with paper towels
c.c. dilute spills and remove it in a biohazard bagdilute spills and remove it in a biohazard bag
d.d. go to the emergency roomgo to the emergency room
Which of the following information is found in the MSDS?Which of the following information is found in the MSDS?
a.a. Health hazard dataHealth hazard data b.b. Fire & explosion hazard dataFire & explosion hazard data
c.c. First Aid measuresFirst Aid measures d.d. All of the aboveAll of the above
FIRE SAFETYFIRE SAFETY
Fires have been divided into four classes onFires have been divided into four classes on
the nature of the combustible material andthe nature of the combustible material and
requirements for extinguishments.requirements for extinguishments.
Class A-Class A- ordinary combustible solidordinary combustible solid
materialsmaterials such as paper,such as paper, wood,wood,
plastic and rubberplastic and rubber
Class B-Class B- flammable liquids/ gases andflammable liquids/ gases and
combustible petroleum productscombustible petroleum products
Class C-Class C- energized electrical equipmentenergized electrical equipment
Class D-Class D- combustible/reactive metalscombustible/reactive metals suchsuch
as Mg, Na and Kas Mg, Na and K
Class EClass E –– nuclear reactionnuclear reaction
Class KClass K –– cooking mediacooking media
(Type A) Pressurized water extinguishers(Type A) Pressurized water extinguishers (foam and(foam and
multipurpose dry-chemical types) are formultipurpose dry-chemical types) are for Class AClass A fires.fires.
(Type ABC) Multi-purpose dry chemical and carbon(Type ABC) Multi-purpose dry chemical and carbon
dioxidedioxide extinguishers are used forextinguishers are used for Class B and C firesClass B and C fires..
(Type C) Halogenated hydrocarbon(Type C) Halogenated hydrocarbon extinguishers areextinguishers are
recommended particularly for use withrecommended particularly for use with computercomputer
(Type D) Class D(Type D) Class D fires present special problems andfires present special problems and
extinguishments is left to trained fire fighters usingextinguishments is left to trained fire fighters using
special dry-chemical extinguishersspecial dry-chemical extinguishers..
Personnel should know the location and type of portablePersonnel should know the location and type of portable
fire extinguisher near the work area and know how to usefire extinguisher near the work area and know how to use
an extinguisher before a fire occurs.an extinguisher before a fire occurs.
Quick QuizQuick Quiz
A fire extinguisher used in the event of anA fire extinguisher used in the event of an
electrical fire should include which of theelectrical fire should include which of the
following classifications ?following classifications ?
a.a. type Atype A b.b. type Btype B
c.c. type Ctype C d.d. type Dtype D
In the Hazards Identification System, whatIn the Hazards Identification System, what
hazard does the blue diamond positioned to thehazard does the blue diamond positioned to the
left identify ?left identify ?
a.a. flammableflammable b.b. healthhealth
c.c. reactivityreactivity d.d. contactcontact
SAFETY AWARENESS FOR CLINICALSAFETY AWARENESS FOR CLINICAL
LABORATORY PERSONNELLABORATORY PERSONNEL
Health Care Organizations focus their responsibility inHealth Care Organizations focus their responsibility in
protecting their employees from infection especiallyprotecting their employees from infection especially
againstagainst hepatitis B virus (HBV), humanhepatitis B virus (HBV), human
immunodeficiency virus (HIV) & TB bacilli.immunodeficiency virus (HIV) & TB bacilli.
TheThe Centers for Disease Control (CDC)Centers for Disease Control (CDC) updatedupdated
the 1983 Guidelines for Isolation Precautions inthe 1983 Guidelines for Isolation Precautions in
hospitals with the release of its Universal Precautionshospitals with the release of its Universal Precautions
in 1987 because of the growing concern about HIV.in 1987 because of the growing concern about HIV.
TheThe CDC recommends that blood and body fluidCDC recommends that blood and body fluid
precautionsprecautions should be consistently used for allshould be consistently used for all
patients regardless of their blood-borne infectionpatients regardless of their blood-borne infection
Potentially infectious materials include:Potentially infectious materials include:
a.a. body fluids (semen, vaginalbody fluids (semen, vaginal
secretions, pericardial fluid, peritoneal fluid,secretions, pericardial fluid, peritoneal fluid,
synovial fluid, pleural fluid, amniotic fluid,synovial fluid, pleural fluid, amniotic fluid,
saliva, tears, CSF, urine and breast milk)saliva, tears, CSF, urine and breast milk)
b.b. unfixed tissues, organs or blood slidesunfixed tissues, organs or blood slides
Infective agents may be inactivated byInfective agents may be inactivated by
= heat sterilization (250= heat sterilization (250OO
C for 15 minutes),C for 15 minutes),
= ethylene oxide (450-500 mg/L at 55-60= ethylene oxide (450-500 mg/L at 55-60OO
= 2% glutaraldehyde,= 2% glutaraldehyde,
= 10% hydrogen peroxide= 10% hydrogen peroxide,,
= 10% formaldehyde= 10% formaldehyde,,
= 5-25% hypochlorite= 5-25% hypochlorite,,
= 10% v/v with tap water of a common household= 10% v/v with tap water of a common household
bleachbleach makes a very effective and economicalmakes a very effective and economical
disinfectant inactivatingdisinfectant inactivating HBV in 10 minutesHBV in 10 minutes
andand HIV in 2 minutes.HIV in 2 minutes.
DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALSDISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS
There are four basic waste disposalThere are four basic waste disposal
techniques. These include:techniques. These include:
flushing down the drain toflushing down the drain to
the sewer systemthe sewer system
landfill buriallandfill burial
It is permissible toIt is permissible to flush water-soluble substances down theflush water-soluble substances down the
drain with large quantities of water.drain with large quantities of water.
Strong acids and basesStrong acids and bases should beshould be neutralized beforeneutralized before
Foul smelling chemicalsFoul smelling chemicals shouldshould never be disposed of downnever be disposed of down
the drainthe drain..
Other liquid wastes, including flammable solvents,Other liquid wastes, including flammable solvents, must bemust be
collected in approved containers and segregated intocollected in approved containers and segregated into
compatible classescompatible classes..
flammable material can be burned in specially designedflammable material can be burned in specially designed
incinerators with after burners and scrubbers to removeincinerators with after burners and scrubbers to remove
toxic products of combustion.toxic products of combustion.
solid chemicals wastes that are unsuitable for incinerationsolid chemicals wastes that are unsuitable for incineration
must be buried in a landfill.must be buried in a landfill.
Biohazardous WastesBiohazardous Wastes
Medical waste is defined as aMedical waste is defined as a specialspecial wastewaste
fromfrom health care facilitieshealth care facilities and is further definedand is further defined
asas solid wastesolid waste that, if improperly treated orthat, if improperly treated or
handledhandled may transmit infectious diseasesmay transmit infectious diseases..
it comprises ofit comprises of animal waste, bilk blood and bloodanimal waste, bilk blood and blood
products, microbiologic wastes, pathologicproducts, microbiologic wastes, pathologic
wastes and sharps.wastes and sharps.
The approved methods for treatment andThe approved methods for treatment and
disposition of medical wastes aredisposition of medical wastes are incineration,incineration,
steam sterilization, burial, thermalsteam sterilization, burial, thermal
inactivation, chemical disinfection, orinactivation, chemical disinfection, or
encapsulation in a solid matrix.encapsulation in a solid matrix.
Quick QuizQuick Quiz
The major job-related hazard in clinical laboratoriesThe major job-related hazard in clinical laboratories
produces symptoms of malaise, anorexia, nausea,produces symptoms of malaise, anorexia, nausea,
vomiting, fatigue, diarrhea, and abdominal tendernessvomiting, fatigue, diarrhea, and abdominal tenderness
a.a. AIDSAIDS b.b. salmonellosissalmonellosis
c.c. tuberculosistuberculosis d.d. hepatitishepatitis
A laboratory professional was askedA laboratory professional was asked to send a bloodto send a blood
specimen from an HIV-positive patient to a laboratoryspecimen from an HIV-positive patient to a laboratory
for special tests. The specimen must be properlyfor special tests. The specimen must be properly
labeled and shipped aslabeled and shipped as
a.a. infectious substanceinfectious substance b.b. diagnostic specimendiagnostic specimen
c.c. biological productbiological product d.d. clinical specimenclinical specimen
UNITS OF MEASUREMENTUNITS OF MEASUREMENT
TheThe Systeme InternationaleSysteme Internationale (SI) defines seven(SI) defines seven base unitsbase units asas
QuantityQuantity Basic UnitBasic Unit SymbolSymbol
LengthLength metermeter mm
MassMass kilogramkilogram kgkg
TimeTime secondsecond ss
Electric currentElectric current ampereampere AA
TemperatureTemperature KelvinKelvin KK
Luminous intensityLuminous intensity CandelaCandela cdcd
Amount of substanceAmount of substance molemole molmol
Catalytic amountCatalytic amount katalkatal
SI-Derived UnitsSI-Derived Units are obtained by combining twoare obtained by combining two
or more basic units by multiplication or division.or more basic units by multiplication or division.
Derived QuantityDerived Quantity Derived UnitDerived Unit SymbolSymbol
Substance concentrationSubstance concentration moles per cubic metermoles per cubic meter mol/mmol/m33
or mol m-or mol m-33
ConductanceConductance SiemensSiemens SS
Activity (radionuclide)Activity (radionuclide) BecquerelBecquerel BqBq
VolumeVolume cubic metercubic meter mm33
The National Institute of Standards andThe National Institute of Standards and
Technology (NIST)Technology (NIST) recognizes the use of fiverecognizes the use of five
specific types of calibrating weights.specific types of calibrating weights.
Class S weightsClass S weights – for monthly calibration of– for monthly calibration of
analytical balancesanalytical balances
Class M weightsClass M weights - to calibrate the weights- to calibrate the weights
themselves since their quality is that of primarythemselves since their quality is that of primary
Class S-1Class S-1 - used for routine analytical work.- used for routine analytical work.
Class P weightsClass P weights - are allowed greater tolerance- are allowed greater tolerance
levels than Class S-1levels than Class S-1
Class J weightsClass J weights - used for microanalytical work.- used for microanalytical work.
TheThe accuracy of the thermometer used to monitor the incubationaccuracy of the thermometer used to monitor the incubation
temperature of an instrumenttemperature of an instrument should beshould be verified every 6 to 12verified every 6 to 12
Reference thermometersReference thermometers must bemust be certified by the NISTcertified by the NIST..
For theFor the monitoring of enzymatic reactionsmonitoring of enzymatic reactions, thermometers should, thermometers should
agree within 0.1agree within 0.1oo
C with the NIST reference thermometerC with the NIST reference thermometer..
Thermometers used toThermometers used to check refrigerator and freezercheck refrigerator and freezer
temperaturestemperatures shouldshould agree within 1.0agree within 1.0oo
C with the referenceC with the reference
thermometerthermometer. Thermometers should be. Thermometers should be discarded if they differ bydiscarded if they differ by
more than 1more than 1oo
C from the referenceC from the reference..
On a daily basis, the temperature of the incubation area should beOn a daily basis, the temperature of the incubation area should be
checked, and the thermometer itself should be observed for splits inchecked, and the thermometer itself should be observed for splits in
the mercury column.the mercury column.
It is imperative thatIt is imperative that preventive maintenancepreventive maintenance
proceduresprocedures be performed and the results recordedbe performed and the results recorded
for all laboratory instrumentation.for all laboratory instrumentation.
This includesThis includes maintenance of analyticalmaintenance of analytical
balances, refrigerators, freezers, centrifuges,balances, refrigerators, freezers, centrifuges,
ovens, water baths, heating blocks,ovens, water baths, heating blocks,
thermometers, pipettors, dilutors, automatedthermometers, pipettors, dilutors, automated
analyzers, and all other laboratory equipmentanalyzers, and all other laboratory equipment
used for analyzing specimens.used for analyzing specimens.
Preventive maintenance is performed at scheduledPreventive maintenance is performed at scheduled
times such astimes such as per shift, daily, weekly, monthly,per shift, daily, weekly, monthly,
or yearly.or yearly.
Quick QuizQuick Quiz
SI units are designated units employed by theSI units are designated units employed by the
International System of Units. The unit class thatInternational System of Units. The unit class that
encompasses the seven fundamental quantities ofencompasses the seven fundamental quantities of
measurement ismeasurement is
a.a. basebase b.b. primaryprimary
c.c. derivedderived d.d. elementalelemental
Which of the folllowing is most commonlyWhich of the folllowing is most commonly
represented by a derived unit ?represented by a derived unit ?
a.a. amount of substanceamount of substance b.b. electric currentelectric current
c.c. massmass d.d. substancesubstance
FACTORS THAT INFLUENCEFACTORS THAT INFLUENCE
LABORATORY TESTINGLABORATORY TESTING
ExerciseExercise Immediate effects:Immediate effects:
Alanine and lactateAlanine and lactate
Long-term effectsLong-term effects
CK, LD, AST, platelets,CK, LD, AST, platelets,
androstenedione and LHandrostenedione and LH
FastingFasting Most analytesMost analytes
((8-12 hrs for common8-12 hrs for common bilirubin, FFA, TAGbilirubin, FFA, TAG GlucoseGlucose
metabolites andmetabolites and
12-14 hrs for lipid profile12-14 hrs for lipid profile))
EFFECT ON LABORATORY
After eatingAfter eating K, TAG (chylomicrons),K, TAG (chylomicrons),
ALP intestinal isoenzyme,ALP intestinal isoenzyme,
turbidity of serum and plasmaturbidity of serum and plasma
High meatHigh meat NPNs (esp. urea, ammonia,NPNs (esp. urea, ammonia,
and urate except creatinine)and urate except creatinine)
High ratio of unsaturatedHigh ratio of unsaturated SerumSerum
to saturated fatto saturated fat cholesterolcholesterol
High caffeineHigh caffeine FFA, catecholamine releaseFFA, catecholamine release
Bananas, pineapple,Bananas, pineapple, Serotonin in bloodSerotonin in blood
tomatoes andtomatoes and 5’HIAA in urine5’HIAA in urine
Alcohol ingestionAlcohol ingestion
ImmediateImmediate Lactate, urate, ketone bodies,Lactate, urate, ketone bodies,
and FFAand FFA
Chronic abuseChronic abuse HDL-cholesterol, GGT, and MCVHDL-cholesterol, GGT, and MCV
Tobacco smokingTobacco smoking
Acute effectsAcute effects Catecholamines, cortisolCatecholamines, cortisol EosinophilEosinophil
neutrophils, monocytesneutrophils, monocytes
and FFAand FFA
Chronic effectsChronic effects CO-Hb, MCV and leukocyteCO-Hb, MCV and leukocyte
Prolonged tourniquet applicationProlonged tourniquet application Serum enzymes, protein,Serum enzymes, protein,
protein-bound substances,protein-bound substances,
cholesterol, TAG, Ca, bloodcholesterol, TAG, Ca, blood
cell concentrationcell concentration (hemoconcentration(hemoconcentration)**)**
Postural changesPostural changes same as ** due to hydrostaticsame as ** due to hydrostatic
efflux of waterefflux of water
StressStress lactate, FFA and alterationlactate, FFA and alteration
iin electrolyte levelsn electrolyte levels
Quick QuizQuick Quiz
Which of the following substances does not requireWhich of the following substances does not require
the patient a fasting blood specimen?the patient a fasting blood specimen?
a.a. uric aciduric acid b.b. triglyceridestriglycerides
c.c. cholesterolcholesterol d.d. phosphatesphosphates
Expected to be increasedExpected to be increased in blood in situationsin blood in situations
characterized by hemoconcentration ischaracterized by hemoconcentration is
a.a. calciumcalcium b.b. potassiumpotassium
c.c. ferritinferritin d.d. creatininecreatinine
BLOOD COLLECTIONBLOOD COLLECTION
Venipuncture (Phlebotomy)Venipuncture (Phlebotomy)
Venous blood isVenous blood is deoxygenated blooddeoxygenated blood that containsthat contains
substances that come from metabolic activities ofsubstances that come from metabolic activities of
different organsdifferent organs..
Venous blood is mostly used in analysis ofVenous blood is mostly used in analysis of bloodblood
chemistry and immunologic studies.chemistry and immunologic studies.
Venous blood is more easily collected than arterialVenous blood is more easily collected than arterial
Maybe obtained viaMaybe obtained via one-movementone-movement oror two-two-
movement techniques.movement techniques.
Sites of venipuncture includes:Sites of venipuncture includes:
Antecubital fossa veins (most preferred site) –Antecubital fossa veins (most preferred site) –
median cubital veins and cephalic veinsmedian cubital veins and cephalic veins
Wrist veins, ankle veins, hand veinsWrist veins, ankle veins, hand veins
Complications of venipuncture-classified asComplications of venipuncture-classified as
immediate or delayedimmediate or delayed andand local or systemiclocal or systemic
HematomaHematoma due to missed veindue to missed vein
Collapsed small veinsCollapsed small veins due to excessive pull ofdue to excessive pull of
Excessive bleedingExcessive bleeding
Thrombosis of veinThrombosis of vein
Infection is situInfection is situ
Blood-borne infectionBlood-borne infection like hepatitis B andlike hepatitis B and
Clean the venipuncture site with 70% alcohol orClean the venipuncture site with 70% alcohol or
1% iodine.1% iodine.
Apply the tourniquet several inches above theApply the tourniquet several inches above the
puncture site.puncture site.
Never leave the tourniquet longer than oneNever leave the tourniquet longer than one
The needle, as it enters the skin, is positioned atThe needle, as it enters the skin, is positioned at
approximately 15-degree angle to the site with theapproximately 15-degree angle to the site with the
bevel upbevel up..
Ensure prompt and adequate mixture of bloodEnsure prompt and adequate mixture of blood
and anticoagulant to prevent coagulation and toand anticoagulant to prevent coagulation and to
prevent formation of “unwanted” blood clot.prevent formation of “unwanted” blood clot.
Blood should not be drawn in an area withBlood should not be drawn in an area with
intravenous line.intravenous line.
Safety Measures in PhlebotomySafety Measures in Phlebotomy
(1) Observe universal (standard) safety precautions. (1) Observe universal (standard) safety precautions.
(2) Wash hands in warm, running water with the chlorhexidine(2) Wash hands in warm, running water with the chlorhexidine
gluconate hand washing product (approved by the Infectiongluconate hand washing product (approved by the Infection
Control Committee), or if not visibly contaminated with aControl Committee), or if not visibly contaminated with a
commercial foaming hand wash product before and after eachcommercial foaming hand wash product before and after each
patient collection.patient collection.
(3) Gloves are to be worn during all phlebotomies, and changed(3) Gloves are to be worn during all phlebotomies, and changed
between patient collections. Palpation of phlebotomy site may bebetween patient collections. Palpation of phlebotomy site may be
performed without gloves providing the skin is not broken.performed without gloves providing the skin is not broken.
(4) A lab coat or gown must be worn during blood collection(4) A lab coat or gown must be worn during blood collection
(5) Needles and hubs are single use and are disposed of in an(5) Needles and hubs are single use and are disposed of in an
appropriate 'sharps' container as one unit. NOTE:appropriate 'sharps' container as one unit. NOTE: NeedlesNeedles
are never recapped, removed, broken, or bent afterare never recapped, removed, broken, or bent after
phlebotomy procedure.phlebotomy procedure.
(6) Gloves are to be discarded in the appropriate container(6) Gloves are to be discarded in the appropriate container
immediately after the phlebotomy procedure. All other itemsimmediately after the phlebotomy procedure. All other items
used for the procedure must be disposed of according toused for the procedure must be disposed of according to
proper biohazardous waste disposal policy.proper biohazardous waste disposal policy.
(7) Contaminated surfaces must be cleaned with freshly(7) Contaminated surfaces must be cleaned with freshly
prepared 10% bleach solution. All surfaces are cleaned dailyprepared 10% bleach solution. All surfaces are cleaned daily
with bleach.with bleach.
(8) In the case of an accidental needlestick, immediately wash(8) In the case of an accidental needlestick, immediately wash
the area with an antibacterial soap, express blood from thethe area with an antibacterial soap, express blood from the
Factors to consider in site selectionFactors to consider in site selection
* Extensive scarring or healed burn areas should be avoided* Extensive scarring or healed burn areas should be avoided
* Specimens should not be obtained from the arm on the same side* Specimens should not be obtained from the arm on the same side
as a mastectomy.as a mastectomy.
* Avoid areas of hematoma.* Avoid areas of hematoma.
* If an IV is in place, samples may be obtained below but NEVER* If an IV is in place, samples may be obtained below but NEVER
above the IV site. above the IV site.
* Do not obtain specimens from an arm having a cannula, fistula, or* Do not obtain specimens from an arm having a cannula, fistula, or
vascular graft.vascular graft.
* Allow 10-15 minutes after a transfusion is completed before* Allow 10-15 minutes after a transfusion is completed before
obtaining a blood sample.obtaining a blood sample.
Which of the following areWhich of the following are
allowed in phlebotomy?allowed in phlebotomy?
________Observe universal safety precautions.Observe universal safety precautions.
___Handwashing before and after phlebotomy.___Handwashing before and after phlebotomy.
______Collecting blood without a lab gown.Collecting blood without a lab gown.
___Recapping or removal of needles after withdrawing the___Recapping or removal of needles after withdrawing the
______Reuse of gloves for as long as they were autoclavedReuse of gloves for as long as they were autoclaved
___Weekly cleaning of all lab surfaces with 10% bleach___Weekly cleaning of all lab surfaces with 10% bleach
______Outpatients are identified by making them say their nameOutpatients are identified by making them say their name
and date of birth.and date of birth.
___Doing the venipuncture twice on a patient.___Doing the venipuncture twice on a patient.
______Obtaining blood below the IV line of a patient.Obtaining blood below the IV line of a patient.
______Mixing of anticoagulated blood by shaking the tube gentlyMixing of anticoagulated blood by shaking the tube gently
5-8 times.5-8 times.
___Obtaining a blood sample from a patient who underwent___Obtaining a blood sample from a patient who underwent
blood transfusion just 30 minutes ago.blood transfusion just 30 minutes ago.
______Drawing blood from the feet.Drawing blood from the feet.
___Applying tourniquet for two minutes.___Applying tourniquet for two minutes.
______Avoiding to touch again a thoroughly cleaned punctureAvoiding to touch again a thoroughly cleaned puncture
___Collecting SST before a yellow vacutainer in one-___Collecting SST before a yellow vacutainer in one-
movement technic.movement technic.
______Collecting PST before a dark green heparinized tube inCollecting PST before a dark green heparinized tube in
one-movement technicone-movement technic..
Quick QuizQuick Quiz
Which of the following is an unnecessary step in theWhich of the following is an unnecessary step in the
proper phlebotomy procedure?proper phlebotomy procedure?
a.a. recapping the needle after userecapping the needle after use
b.b. placing bandage over the punctured siteplacing bandage over the punctured site
c.c. washing the hands prior to venipuncturewashing the hands prior to venipuncture
d.d. sterilizing the puncture sitesterilizing the puncture site
Which vein cannot be used in obtaining venousWhich vein cannot be used in obtaining venous
blood in an adult?blood in an adult?
a.a. radial veinradial vein b.b. jugular veinjugular vein
c.c. ankle veinankle vein d.d. dorsal hand veindorsal hand vein
Arterial punctureArterial puncture
Arterial blood isArterial blood is oxygenated bloodoxygenated blood. It is uniform in. It is uniform in
composition throughout the body.composition throughout the body.
Arterial blood is used to measureArterial blood is used to measure oxygen tension,oxygen tension,
carbon dioxide tensioncarbon dioxide tension andand blood pH.blood pH.
Blood gas analysesBlood gas analyses (BGA) are critical to patients(BGA) are critical to patients
withwith pulmonary problems, oxygen therapy,pulmonary problems, oxygen therapy,
cardiovascular problems and those undergoingcardiovascular problems and those undergoing
major operationsmajor operations..
Sites of arterial punctureSites of arterial puncture
Radial arteriesRadial arteries
Brachial arteriesBrachial arteries
Femoral arteriesFemoral arteries
Radial and brachial arteriesRadial and brachial arteries are the preferred sites.are the preferred sites.
Each site of arterial puncture uses different gauge ofEach site of arterial puncture uses different gauge of
Brachial artery- 18-20 gaugeBrachial artery- 18-20 gauge
Radial artery- 23-25 gaugeRadial artery- 23-25 gauge
In collecting arterial blood, needle is positioned atIn collecting arterial blood, needle is positioned at
different angles in each site:different angles in each site:
Brachial artery- 45-60 degreesBrachial artery- 45-60 degrees
Femoral artery- 90 degreesFemoral artery- 90 degrees
HeparinHeparin is used as anticoagulant for arterial puncture.is used as anticoagulant for arterial puncture.
Complications of arterial punctureComplications of arterial puncture
HematomaHematoma due to increased pressure indue to increased pressure in
the arterythe artery
Restriction of blood flowRestriction of blood flow due to reflexdue to reflex
constrictionconstriction ((arterial spasmarterial spasm))
Temporary discomfortTemporary discomfort ((aching,aching,
throbbing, tenderness, sharp sensation, andthrobbing, tenderness, sharp sensation, and
Thrombosis, hemorrhage and infectionThrombosis, hemorrhage and infection
Intense care should be administered to patients undergoingIntense care should be administered to patients undergoing
arterial puncture.arterial puncture.
Sites that are irritated, edematous, near a wound or in anSites that are irritated, edematous, near a wound or in an
area of arteriovenous (AV) shunt or fistula should not bearea of arteriovenous (AV) shunt or fistula should not be
selected for arterial puncture.selected for arterial puncture.
Samples are placed in ice water or other coolantSamples are placed in ice water or other coolant
(temperature of(temperature of 1-51-5ººCC)) toto minimize leukocyteminimize leukocyte
consumption of oxygen.consumption of oxygen.
Capillary blood may be aCapillary blood may be a suitable substitute forsuitable substitute for
arterial blood determination of pH and pCO2arterial blood determination of pH and pCO2
provided that the site must be warmed prior to collection.provided that the site must be warmed prior to collection.
Warning increases blood flow through capillaries andWarning increases blood flow through capillaries and
arterioles and result in arterial-rich blood.arterioles and result in arterial-rich blood.
Quick QuizQuick Quiz
Which test does not require an arterial blood sample?Which test does not require an arterial blood sample?
a.a. oxygen tensionoxygen tension b.b. blood pHblood pH
c.c. pCOpCO22 determinationdetermination d.d. plasma hemoglobinplasma hemoglobin
Which statement is false regarding arterial blood?Which statement is false regarding arterial blood?
a.a. Arterial blood collection always requires the useArterial blood collection always requires the use
of anticoagulant.of anticoagulant.
b.b. Arterial blood is a must in blood gas analyses.Arterial blood is a must in blood gas analyses.
c.c. Arterial blood collection requires a glass syringeArterial blood collection requires a glass syringe
to minimize leukocyte consumption of gases.to minimize leukocyte consumption of gases.
d.d. Arterial blood has lower pCOArterial blood has lower pCO22, therefore, is less, therefore, is less
acidic than venous blood.acidic than venous blood.
Skin puncture/Capillary punctureSkin puncture/Capillary puncture
Capillary blood is anCapillary blood is an admixture of venous, arterial andadmixture of venous, arterial and
capillary blood and may contain tissue fluidscapillary blood and may contain tissue fluids..
Skin punctures are suitable inSkin punctures are suitable in pediatric patients, obesepediatric patients, obese
patients with thrombotic tendencies and severe burnspatients with thrombotic tendencies and severe burns
It isIt is often preferred to geriatric patientsoften preferred to geriatric patients due todue to
thinness and less elasticity of skin.thinness and less elasticity of skin.
Sites of skin punctureSites of skin puncture
Lateral plantar heel surfaceLateral plantar heel surface
Median plantar heel surfaceMedian plantar heel surface
Plantar surface of the big toePlantar surface of the big toe
Plantar surface of the last digit of the 2Plantar surface of the last digit of the 2ndnd
, 3, 3rdrd
or 4or 4thth
may be used in older infantsmay be used in older infants
Lateral side of the finger adjacent to the nailLateral side of the finger adjacent to the nail
Ear lobeEar lobe
Capillary blood can be collected for analysis of bloodCapillary blood can be collected for analysis of blood
gas (site must be pre-warmed before collection).gas (site must be pre-warmed before collection).
The best method of arterial blood collection inThe best method of arterial blood collection in
newbornnewborn is theis the umbilical artery catheterumbilical artery catheter..
Skin puncture site must be warmed before collectionSkin puncture site must be warmed before collection
to increase the blood flow (to increase the blood flow (arterializationarterialization).).
ThermalThermal using dry heat or paper towel withusing dry heat or paper towel with
warm water (39-42warm water (39-42OO
MechanicalMechanical byby fflicking with index finger untillicking with index finger until
flushing is observedflushing is observed
ChemicalChemical usingusing Trafuril paste or Histamine creamsTrafuril paste or Histamine creams
Arterial blood collected from capillaryArterial blood collected from capillary
puncture may yieldpuncture may yield unreliableunreliable results if:results if:
Systolic pressures is less than 95Systolic pressures is less than 95
Cardiac output is severely restrictedCardiac output is severely restricted
Vasoconstriction is presentVasoconstriction is present
Puncture depth ranges from 0.85 to 2.00Puncture depth ranges from 0.85 to 2.00
mm deep and 1.75-3.00 mm in length.mm deep and 1.75-3.00 mm in length.
Quick QuizQuick Quiz
Which test requires finger skin puncture?Which test requires finger skin puncture?
a.a. Rumpel-LeedeRumpel-Leede b.b. Schryver and WaughSchryver and Waugh
c.c. Ivy Bleeding TimeIvy Bleeding Time d.d. Lee-WhiteLee-White
Which blood collection technic requires an armWhich blood collection technic requires an arm
maneuver known as Allen test to check for collateralmaneuver known as Allen test to check for collateral
a.a. phlebotomyphlebotomy b.b. arterial puncturearterial puncture
c.c. skin punctureskin puncture d.d. peripheral punctureperipheral puncture
VACUTAINER/EVACUATED TUBESVACUTAINER/EVACUATED TUBES
These are tubes for blood collection whichThese are tubes for blood collection which
areare color-coded based on the anticoagulantcolor-coded based on the anticoagulant
presentpresent. They come in various sizes; 2, 5, 7,. They come in various sizes; 2, 5, 7,
and 10 ml.and 10 ml.
Blood is drawn in this order:Blood is drawn in this order: Blood cultureBlood culture
tubestubes,, red topred top,, blue topblue top,, green topgreen top,, lavenderlavender
toptop andand gray topgray top
COLORCOLOR ADDITIVEADDITIVE ACTIONACTION USEUSE
LavenderLavender EthylenediaminetetraaceticEthylenediaminetetraacetic chelates calcium hematologic assayschelates calcium hematologic assays
Acid (EDTA)Acid (EDTA) lead assay, CEAlead assay, CEA
** VerseneVersene (disodium salt)(disodium salt) Determination andDetermination and
** SequestreneSequestrene (dipotassium salt)(dipotassium salt) cell countscell counts
RedRed NoneNone Allows blood to clot Most chemistry,Allows blood to clot Most chemistry,
immunologic andimmunologic and
blood bank testsblood bank tests
RedRed GrayGray oror None but containsNone but contains Allows blood to clot Most chemistry testsAllows blood to clot Most chemistry tests
Red BlackRed Black separator materialseparator material
and serves as aand serves as a
barrier between cellsbarrier between cells
and serumand serum
YellowYellow Citrate dextroseCitrate dextrose preserves RBCs Blood culturepreserves RBCs Blood culture
GreenGreen Heparin (Na+, Li+,Heparin (Na+, Li+, inhibits thrombin ammonia CO-Hbinhibits thrombin ammonia CO-Hb
or, NHor, NH44
)) activation and methemoglobinactivation and methemoglobin
Anticoagulant InterferenceAnticoagulant Interference
Dilution errorsDilution errors especially oxalates which areespecially oxalates which are
highly osmotichighly osmotic
Inhibition of plasma enzyme activitiesInhibition of plasma enzyme activities activitiesactivities
especially withespecially with fluoridefluoride which is an enzymewhich is an enzyme
poison,poison, EDTAEDTA which chelates metallic enzymeswhich chelates metallic enzymes
activators.activators. OxalateOxalate inhibitsinhibits AMS, LD and ACP,AMS, LD and ACP,
andand citratecitrate whichwhich inhibitsinhibits AMSAMS
Oxalates, citrate and EDTAOxalates, citrate and EDTA lower plasma calciumlower plasma calcium
False increase in electrolyte analysesFalse increase in electrolyte analyses due to thedue to the
anticoagulants in the salt formanticoagulants in the salt form
If multiple tubes are needed, theIf multiple tubes are needed, the proper order of drawproper order of draw toto avoid crossavoid cross
contamination and erroneous resultscontamination and erroneous results is as follows: is as follows:
1st - 1st - Blood culture vials or bottles, sterile Blood culture vials or bottles, sterile ((yellowyellow oror yellowyellow--blackblack top)top)
2nd -2nd - Coagulation tubeCoagulation tube ((light bluelight blue top) NOTE:top) NOTE: If just a routine coagulation assayIf just a routine coagulation assay
is the only test ordered, then a single light blue top tube may be drawn. If there is a concernis the only test ordered, then a single light blue top tube may be drawn. If there is a concern
regarding contamination by tissue fluids or thromboplastins, then one may draw a non-regarding contamination by tissue fluids or thromboplastins, then one may draw a non-
additive tube first, and then the light blue top tube.additive tube first, and then the light blue top tube.
3rd -3rd - Non-additive tube or Serum tubeNon-additive tube or Serum tube
Last draw - additive tubes in this order:Last draw - additive tubes in this order:
1. SST (1. SST (redred--graygray oror goldgold top). Contains a gel separator and clot activator.top). Contains a gel separator and clot activator.
2. Sodium heparin (2. Sodium heparin (dark greendark green top)top)
3. PST (3. PST (light greenlight green top). Contains lithium heparin anticoagulant and a geltop). Contains lithium heparin anticoagulant and a gel
4. EDTA (4. EDTA (lavenderlavender top)top)
5. ACDA or ACDB (5. ACDA or ACDB (pale yellowpale yellow top). Contains acid citratetop). Contains acid citrate dextrose.dextrose.
6. Oxalate/fluoride (6. Oxalate/fluoride (light graylight gray top)top)
Quick QuizQuick Quiz
The light-sensitive substance that provides the normalThe light-sensitive substance that provides the normal
straw color of serum and plasma isstraw color of serum and plasma is
a.a. urochromeurochrome b.b. bilirubinbilirubin
c.c. flavin compoundsflavin compounds d.d. beta-carotenebeta-carotene
TheThe vacutainer required in the measurement of serumvacutainer required in the measurement of serum
ammonia isammonia is
a.a. green topgreen top b.b. red topred top
c.c. blue topblue top d.d. lavender toplavender top
Specimen Handling and ProcessingSpecimen Handling and Processing
20-30 minutes is the ideal clotting time20-30 minutes is the ideal clotting time
Generally more preferred than plasmaGenerally more preferred than plasma
1.1. Interfering substances are co-precipitatedInterfering substances are co-precipitated
during clotting such as LPLduring clotting such as LPL
2.2. Optically clearerOptically clearer
3.3. Free from anticoagulant interferenceFree from anticoagulant interference
Must ideally reach the laboratory within 45Must ideally reach the laboratory within 45
Agitation must be avoided during transportAgitation must be avoided during transport
Use amber containers for photolabileUse amber containers for photolabile
Transport in ice (4 deg C) those specimens forTransport in ice (4 deg C) those specimens for
BGA, renin, enzymes and catecholaminesBGA, renin, enzymes and catecholamines
Specimen InterferenceSpecimen Interference
Lysis of cells or Laking (Hemolyzed serum)Lysis of cells or Laking (Hemolyzed serum)
Results in leakage of intracellular substancesResults in leakage of intracellular substances
Lysis of RBCs is calledLysis of RBCs is called laking or hemolysislaking or hemolysis
which may occurwhich may occur in vivo or in vitroin vivo or in vitro
In vitro hemolysisIn vitro hemolysis is more common which mayis more common which may
be due to:be due to:
1.1. Use of vacuum tubesUse of vacuum tubes
2.2. Vigorous mixingVigorous mixing
3.3. Use of too narrow or too wide needle boresUse of too narrow or too wide needle bores
4.4. Effect of alcoholEffect of alcohol
5.5. Centrifugation and separation stepsCentrifugation and separation steps
Hemolysis is visible only not until aHemolysis is visible only not until a 200 mg/L200 mg/L
of hemoglobin level in presentof hemoglobin level in present
Icteresia (Icteric serum)Icteresia (Icteric serum)
Intensely yellow serum sampleIntensely yellow serum sample due todue to
elevated bilirubinelevated bilirubin valuevalue
Jaundice in a patient is caused by aJaundice in a patient is caused by a
bilirubin level of greater than 430bilirubin level of greater than 430 µM (25µM (25
Bilirubin interferes with tests using dyesBilirubin interferes with tests using dyes
and turbidity testsand turbidity tests
Interference due to bilirubin may beInterference due to bilirubin may be
minimized by sample blankingminimized by sample blanking or dualor dual
wavelength method known as thewavelength method known as the AllenAllen
Lactescence (Lipemic serum)Lactescence (Lipemic serum)
Obtained normally after a meal due toObtained normally after a meal due to
elevated chylomicronselevated chylomicrons
Characterized byCharacterized by milky or highly turbidmilky or highly turbid
Lactescence appears when theLactescence appears when the TAG levelTAG level
reaches 4.6 mM (4g/L)reaches 4.6 mM (4g/L)
Errors due to lipemia may beErrors due to lipemia may be correctedcorrected
by ultracentrifugation of the serumby ultracentrifugation of the serum
Grounds for rejecting a specimenGrounds for rejecting a specimen
Inadequate sample identificationInadequate sample identification
Insufficient volume of specimen collectionInsufficient volume of specimen collection
Inappropriate collection tubeInappropriate collection tube
Improper transportationImproper transportation
Last Quick QuizLast Quick Quiz
Which sample below will likely requireWhich sample below will likely require
ultracentrifugation to minimize sample interference?ultracentrifugation to minimize sample interference?
a.a. icteresiaicteresia b.b. lipemialipemia
c.c. lakinglaking d.d. all of the aboveall of the above
Prompt separation of the clot from serum shouldPrompt separation of the clot from serum should
always be observed because this substancealways be observed because this substance
substantially decrease by 5% per hour if serum is leftsubstantially decrease by 5% per hour if serum is left
in contact with clot. This substance isin contact with clot. This substance is
a.a. sodiumsodium b.b. albuminalbumin
c.c. glucoseglucose d.d. phosphatephosphate
QUALITY MANAGEMENTQUALITY MANAGEMENT
Quality Assurance (QA)Quality Assurance (QA)
includes maneuvers encountered in theincludes maneuvers encountered in the
analyticanalytic,, pre-analytic and post-analyticpre-analytic and post-analytic
phasesphases of laboratory testingof laboratory testing
Pre-analytical phasePre-analytical phase includes:includes:
test orderingtest ordering
specimen collectionspecimen collection
transport of the specimen in the laboratorytransport of the specimen in the laboratory
Pre-analytical phase includes:Pre-analytical phase includes:
processing of specimenprocessing of specimen
entering patient informationentering patient information
separating aliquoting specimenseparating aliquoting specimen
delivery to proper laboratory locationdelivery to proper laboratory location
Analytical phaseAnalytical phase includesincludes
specimen analysis (manual or automated)specimen analysis (manual or automated)
use of commercial controlsuse of commercial controls
record keepingrecord keeping
Post-analytical phasePost-analytical phase includesincludes
reporting out results of analysis (manual orreporting out results of analysis (manual or
physician contactphysician contact
Post-analytical phase also includesPost-analytical phase also includes
monitors quality performance starting frommonitors quality performance starting from
the ordering of a laboratory determinationthe ordering of a laboratory determination
to its reporting, interpretation of results,to its reporting, interpretation of results,
and then application to patient careand then application to patient care
involves total quality control which requiresinvolves total quality control which requires
constant attention of all involved in theconstant attention of all involved in the
laboratory testinglaboratory testing
Quality Control (QC)Quality Control (QC)
is concerned with theis concerned with the analytic phaseanalytic phase of QAof QA
monitors themonitors the over-all reliability of laboratoryover-all reliability of laboratory
resultsresults in terms ofin terms of accuracy and precisionaccuracy and precision
relies on the diligent and persistent execution of therelies on the diligent and persistent execution of the
following QC associated activities:following QC associated activities:
assay of control samplesassay of control samples
instrument maintenanceinstrument maintenance
statistical data analysesstatistical data analyses
proficiency testing surveyproficiency testing survey
has two major typeshas two major types
External QC (Interlaboratory QC)External QC (Interlaboratory QC) was establishedwas established
byby BelkBelk which monitors primarily thewhich monitors primarily the accuracyaccuracy ofof
laboratory tests; the use oflaboratory tests; the use of Youden plotsYouden plots
Internal QC (Intralaboratory QC)Internal QC (Intralaboratory QC) was establishedwas established
byby LeveyLevey which primarily monitors the day-to-daywhich primarily monitors the day-to-day
performance of laboratory tests -performance of laboratory tests - precisionprecision
assessment. Intralaboratory QC can be basedassessment. Intralaboratory QC can be based
either from the results of control specimens or oneither from the results of control specimens or on
the results of patient specimens; the use ofthe results of patient specimens; the use of Levey-Levey-
Jennings chartJennings chart
Quick QuizQuick Quiz
Which QC chart is a graphic representation of theWhich QC chart is a graphic representation of the
acceptable limits of variation in the results of anacceptable limits of variation in the results of an
analytical method?analytical method?
a.a. GaussianGaussian b.b. YoudenYouden
c.c. Levey-JenningsLevey-Jennings d.d. CusumCusum
Which of the following has as its purpose to promoteWhich of the following has as its purpose to promote
the incorporation of principles of qualitythe incorporation of principles of quality
management and QA into daily work routines?management and QA into daily work routines?
a.a. ISO 9000ISO 9000 b.b. NCCLSNCCLS
c.c. CAPCAP d.d. NISTNIST
Analytical errorsAnalytical errors are usuallyare usually systematic errors orsystematic errors or
determinate errorsdeterminate errors that are caused by some factors inthat are caused by some factors in
the analytical system such asthe analytical system such as erroneously calibratederroneously calibrated
pipettor, deteriorating reagentpipettor, deteriorating reagent andand fluctuatingfluctuating
electrical current.electrical current.
Personnel or operator errorsPersonnel or operator errors are usually calledare usually called
random errors or indeterminate errorsrandom errors or indeterminate errors that usuallythat usually
affect several analyses. Examples areaffect several analyses. Examples are mislabeling themislabeling the
specimen, wrong number entryspecimen, wrong number entry andand instability ofinstability of
needle due to electronic component ofneedle due to electronic component of
Interpretation of the Levey-Jennings ChartInterpretation of the Levey-Jennings Chart
Days of a particular monthDays of a particular month
TrendTrend suggests asuggests a systematic driftsystematic drift or error. Valuesor error. Values
move continuously away from the mean in just onemove continuously away from the mean in just one
direction. Among its causes include deterioratingdirection. Among its causes include deteriorating
reagents, changes in standard concentration or failingreagents, changes in standard concentration or failing
ShiftShift also suggestsalso suggests systematic errorsystematic error. Seen as an abrupt. Seen as an abrupt
change from the established mean and continue in achange from the established mean and continue in a
linear fashion parallel to the mean.linear fashion parallel to the mean.
Increased dispersionIncreased dispersion suggestssuggests random errorrandom error. High or. High or
low outliers are frequently observed. Causes of this arelow outliers are frequently observed. Causes of this are
variations in operation of instrument, interferingvariations in operation of instrument, interfering
substances, electronic fluctuations, and clerical errors.substances, electronic fluctuations, and clerical errors.
Quick QuizQuick Quiz
Which of the following terms refers to deviationWhich of the following terms refers to deviation
from the true value caused by indeterminate errorsfrom the true value caused by indeterminate errors
inherent in every laboratory management?inherent in every laboratory management?
a.a. random errorrandom error b.b. standard error of the meanstandard error of the mean
c.c. parametric analysisparametric analysis d.d. nonparametric analysisnonparametric analysis
When comparing a potential new test with a comparativeWhen comparing a potential new test with a comparative
method in order to bring a new method into themethod in order to bring a new method into the
laboratory, one observes error that is consistentlylaboratory, one observes error that is consistently
affecting results in one direction. This type of error isaffecting results in one direction. This type of error is
a.a. systematic errorsystematic error b.b. random errorrandom error
c.c. constant systematic errorconstant systematic error d.d. proportional randomproportional random
Westgard Multi-Rule TechnicWestgard Multi-Rule Technic
1:2s1:2s = one control observation exceeds the control limit set at= one control observation exceeds the control limit set at
M±2SD; warning ruleM±2SD; warning rule
1:3s1:3s = reject when one observation exceeds M±3SD; suggests= reject when one observation exceeds M±3SD; suggests
random errorrandom error
2:2s2:2s = reject when two consecutive observations exceed the same= reject when two consecutive observations exceed the same
M+2SD or the same M-2SD; suggests systematicM+2SD or the same M-2SD; suggests systematic
R:4sR:4s = reject when one control observation in the run exceeds its= reject when one control observation in the run exceeds its
M+2SD and another exceeds M-2SD; suggestsM+2SD and another exceeds M-2SD; suggests
random errorsrandom errors
4:1s4:1s = reject when four consecutive control observations exceed= reject when four consecutive control observations exceed
the same M+1SD limit or the same M-1SD limit; suggeststhe same M+1SD limit or the same M-1SD limit; suggests
systematic errorsystematic error
10:Mean10:Mean= reject when 10 consecutive control observations= reject when 10 consecutive control observations
fall on one side of the mean; suggests systematic errorfall on one side of the mean; suggests systematic error
Quick QuizQuick Quiz
What does the preparation of a Levey-Jennings chart forWhat does the preparation of a Levey-Jennings chart for
any single constituent of serum require?any single constituent of serum require?
a.a. analysis of control serum over a period of 20analysis of control serum over a period of 20
consecutive daysconsecutive days
b.b. 20-30 analyses of the control serum, on 1 day, in one20-30 analyses of the control serum, on 1 day, in one
c.c. analyses consistently performed by one personanalyses consistently performed by one person
d.d. weekly analyses of the control serum for 1 monthweekly analyses of the control serum for 1 month
In addition to utilizing Levey-Jennings charts, what otherIn addition to utilizing Levey-Jennings charts, what other
criteria should be applied to interpret internal QC data?criteria should be applied to interpret internal QC data?
a.a. Westgard multiruleWestgard multirule b.b. CusumCusum
c.c. linear regressionlinear regression d.d. YoudenYouden
Accuracy and PrecisionAccuracy and Precision
AccuracyAccuracy is the extent to which theis the extent to which the meanmean
measurement is close to the true value.measurement is close to the true value.
The accuracy of the method is reflected by itsThe accuracy of the method is reflected by its
ability to obtain the same values of the referenceability to obtain the same values of the reference
samples of known concentration.samples of known concentration. Expressed asExpressed as %%
absolute error.absolute error.
% absolute error = true value – actual value x 100%% absolute error = true value – actual value x 100%
true valuetrue value
PrecisionPrecision is theis the reproducibilityreproducibility of a laboratoryof a laboratory
determination when it is run repeatedly underdetermination when it is run repeatedly under
identical conditionsidentical conditions
precision is commonly expressed in terms ofprecision is commonly expressed in terms of
standard deviation (SD), variancestandard deviation (SD), variance oror coefficient ofcoefficient of
variation (CV)variation (CV)
Standard deviation =Standard deviation = ΣΣ (M – x)(M – x)22
Variance = (SD)Variance = (SD)22
Coefficient of variation = SD x 100%Coefficient of variation = SD x 100%
ReliabilityReliability refers to the ability of arefers to the ability of a test totest to
maintain its accuracy and precision for anmaintain its accuracy and precision for an
extended period of timeextended period of time..
Quick QuizQuick Quiz
Which of the following terms refers to theWhich of the following terms refers to the
closeness with which the measured value agreescloseness with which the measured value agrees
with the true value?with the true value?
a.a. random errorrandom error b.b. precisionprecision
c.c. accuracyaccuracy d.d. variancevariance
Given that a method mean is 25 mg/dl and theGiven that a method mean is 25 mg/dl and the
SD is 1.2 mg/dl, what would be the CV?SD is 1.2 mg/dl, what would be the CV?
a.a. 2.1%2.1% b.b. 2.4%2.4%
c.c. 4.8%4.8% d.d. 9.6%9.6%
SDSD is a measure of dispersion of the values aroundis a measure of dispersion of the values around thethe
mean and in normal or Gaussian distribution,mean and in normal or Gaussian distribution,
68%68% of the values fall withinof the values fall within +/-1 SD around the mean+/-1 SD around the mean
95%95% of the values fall withinof the values fall within +/-2 SD around the mean+/-2 SD around the mean
99.7%99.7% of the values fall withinof the values fall within +/-3 SD around the mean+/-3 SD around the mean
most laboratories choose themost laboratories choose the 95% confidence limit95% confidence limit inin
expressing precisionexpressing precision
thethe medianmedian is the value that is middlemost in an array ofis the value that is middlemost in an array of
numbers while thenumbers while the modemode is the value that occurs mostis the value that occurs most
In aIn a Gaussian distributionGaussian distribution, the mean, median and mode, the mean, median and mode
are very close in value as shown by its bell-shaped curve.are very close in value as shown by its bell-shaped curve.
Quick QuizQuick Quiz
In a QC program the confidence interval hasIn a QC program the confidence interval has
been set at 95%. How many test results arebeen set at 95%. How many test results are
expected to fall beyond the established limits?expected to fall beyond the established limits?
a.a. 1 in 51 in 5 b.b. 1 in 101 in 10
c.c. 1 in 201 in 20 d.d. 1 in 951 in 95
What percentage of values will fall betweenWhat percentage of values will fall between
±2SD in a Gaussian distribution?±2SD in a Gaussian distribution?
a.a. 34.13%34.13% b.b. 68.26%68.26%
c.c. 95.45%95.45% d.d. 99.74%99.74%
SensitivitySensitivity is the ability of the test tois the ability of the test to detect thedetect the
smallest amount of the analyte in a solution orsmallest amount of the analyte in a solution or
samplesample. It expresses the ability of the test to be. It expresses the ability of the test to be
positive in the presence of the analyte or thepositive in the presence of the analyte or the
disease. A highly sensitive test is characterized by adisease. A highly sensitive test is characterized by a
decreased probability of obtaining false negativedecreased probability of obtaining false negative
SpecificitySpecificity refers to the ability of the test torefers to the ability of the test to detectdetect
analyte without detecting other analytes that areanalyte without detecting other analytes that are
also present in the samplealso present in the sample. It expresses the ability of. It expresses the ability of
the test to be negative in the absence of the analytethe test to be negative in the absence of the analyte
or the disease. A highly specific test leads to aor the disease. A highly specific test leads to a
decreased probability of obtaining false positivedecreased probability of obtaining false positive
ControlControl is a solution (usuallyis a solution (usually pooled serumpooled serum
samplessamples) whose constituents are) whose constituents are diversediverse but arebut are
known (known (a range of values per analytea range of values per analyte). This). This
can be run simultaneously with thecan be run simultaneously with the TestTest toto
check, verify or validate the accuracy of thecheck, verify or validate the accuracy of the
StandardStandard is a solution ofis a solution of a particular analytea particular analyte ofof
known characteristics and known value (known characteristics and known value (exactexact
concentrationconcentration). It is used as). It is used as reference for thereference for the
calculation of the value of the Unknowncalculation of the value of the Unknown..
Quick QuizQuick Quiz
To determine the predictive value of a positive test, allTo determine the predictive value of a positive test, all
of the following parameters must be knownof the following parameters must be known exceptexcept
a.a. sensitivitysensitivity b.b. specificityspecificity
c.c. disease prevalencedisease prevalence d.d. precisionprecision
Which activity will not check on the accuracy of theWhich activity will not check on the accuracy of the
results obtained?results obtained?
a.a. make a Youden plotmake a Youden plot b.b. use of abnormal controluse of abnormal control
c. use of normal controlc. use of normal control d.d. use of a calibratoruse of a calibrator (standard)(standard)
Figures of Merit of AnalyticalFigures of Merit of Analytical
2. Precision2. Precision
3. Limit of detection3. Limit of detection
4. Applicable concentration range or4. Applicable concentration range or
linear rangelinear range
5. Sensitivity5. Sensitivity
6. Selectivity6. Selectivity
2. Ease and convenience2. Ease and convenience
3. Skill required of the3. Skill required of the
4. Cost of analysis and4. Cost of analysis and
availability of equipmentavailability of equipment
5. Per sample cost5. Per sample cost