Beyond the Interface to the Interaction<br />David Roth<br />VP MISI Experience Design (XD) <br />October 6, 2011<br />
Warning<br />Humanist<br />Romantic <br />Optimist<br />XDPragmatist<br />
An idea that is so 300 BCE…<br />Purpose of philosophical study…<br />A happier life<br />More pleasure, less sadness (str...
An idea that is so 300 BCE…<br />Error lies in the hasty interposition of opinion without waiting for corroboration of fur...
Beyond the interface...<br />
Beyond the interface...<br />to the interaction<br />Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) <br />vs. <br />Human interaction (H...
An idea that is so 2011…<br />“Human-centered design as a paradigm shift takes the term ‘human centered’ to mean more than...
www.xdtruths.com<br />
Immutable Truth of Experience Design #4<br />www.xdtruths.com<br />
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs<br />Self-actualization<br />Esteem<br />Love/Belonging<br />Safety<br />Physiological<b...
Roth’s Hierarchy of “User” Demands<br />Meet my basic expectations.<br />Usable<br />
Roth’s Hierarchy of “User” Demands<br />Make  it do this.<br />Useful<br />Usable<br />
Roth’s Hierarchy of “User” Demands<br />Make it do this, but let me tweak it to my taste.<br />Customizable<br />Useful<br...
Roth’s Hierarchy of “User” Demands<br />Make  it do this, but the way I do  it.<br />Personal<br />Customizable<br />Usefu...
Roth’s Hierarchy of “User” Demands<br />Make  it do this the way I do it, when I do it, where I do it and on my device. <b...
What does it mean for experience designers?<br />
Immutable Truth of Experience Design #5<br />www.xdtruths.com<br />
No interaction stands alone…<br />Customer Service: “Nothing I can do.”<br />Interaction<br />No Interaction<br />To a cus...
Beyond interaction design to service design…<br />Drops<br />Off Car<br />Picks Up<br />Car<br />Calls <br />Dealer<br />C...
Get Human…understand WHO you are designing for<br />Get out of the lab and into the field.<br />
Get Human…understand the CONTEXT you’re designing within<br />Not just scenarios, tell stories.<br />
Get Human…CO-CREATE with your audience<br />Tap into the wisdom of your crowd.<br />
Regarding the customer experience…<br />Know Who:  Get out of the lab <br />Get Contextual:  Stories, not just scenarios<b...
An idea that is so 2006…<br />As enterprises better understand the interrelationship between roles, collaboration, content...
Employees Are Customer Experience Pros’ Best Weapon<br />The benefits include:<br /><ul><li>Discovering emerging customer ...
Generating improvement ideas more easily
Building strong links between the quality of the employees’ and the customers’ experiences</li></ul>Forrester Research Rep...
Knowing WHO your audience is still applies<br />Get out of the lab and into the workplace.<br />
CO-CREATION still applies<br />Collaborators become advocates.<br />Project Goals…<br /><ul><li>Rapid adoption
Greater efficiency
Fewer errors
Employee satisfaction
???</li></li></ul><li>Understanding the CONTEXT still applies<br />Take employee experience design to SEA level.<br />Stra...
SEA is an indicator of an organization’s CX/EX maturity<br />
Lots of maturity models emerging…discipline maturing<br />CEMM - Peppers and Rogers Group<br />
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Beyond the interface to the interaction

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UX Russia 2011 presentation on emphasizing the human in human-centric interaction design.

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  • Before we begin – in the interest of full disclosure you should know a bit about me to set you expectations for the next hour…I am a humanist in a world of rapidly changing technology – I am not an early adopter or tech evangelist – this will be evident from my presntationI am a bit of a romantic and can sometimes let my emotions get the better of me…and related to that romanticism, I am an optimist when it comes to the work we do – I believe we really can make the world a better place one interaction at a timeBut ultimately I am also a pragmatist when it comes to the practice of experience design. I believe what we do has to result in observable and measurable benefits for the people and organizations we serve or we’re merely entertaining ourselves. So I will make an effort to include some practical suggestions in my presentation.
  • Picking up on that practical theme, I’d like to begin with an idea that’s well over 2000 years old, going back to the followers of Epicurus in the third century BC. They believed that the main reason for studying philosophy was practical - to make a happy life for yourself. They said that you would be happy if you had more pleasure in your life and less sadness…or what we might today call stress. I consider this an appropriate starting point for a discussion of the role of interaction or experience design in the 21st century…our role – our intention as designers should be to help those living with the things we design live a happier, less stressful life…agreed?
  • To that end, Epicurus offers some very practical guidance for how to go about achieving this…of particular relevance to our chosen field is this caution…Based on my personal experience and sense evidence - experience design is most effective when it is not guided by our opinions but rather by observable and measurable evidence. We cannot truly know if we have improved an interaction unless we know what was wrong with it in the first place and then observe and/or measure the improvement – agreed?
  • So if we agree that our goal is to help people live happier lives less burdened by stress and that as designers that means our intention must be to demonstrably improve interactions between humans and he tools they use, then it follows that our design processes, methodologies, and thinking must move beyond the interface…
  • …to a human-centered view of the interaction. What I’m talking about is really a significant shift in the way most designers and companies who hire us go about designing. At the most fundamental level what I’m talking about is shifting from a discipline focused on Human-Computer Interaction to one focused on Human Interaction.
  • In his recent article titled Reimagining HCI: Toward a More Human-Centered Perspective, published in the conveniently named interactions magazine, Prof. Liam Bannon summarized the distinction nicely…
  • My colleagues and I at MISI have also summarized this idea among others on a site where we have gathered what we call the 10 Immutable Truths of XD.
  • Truth #4 speaks to this issue of designing for people…
  • So what does it mean to design for people – for an analogy I turned to a familiar model - Maslow’s hierarchy of needs - a view of what motivates people; what they consider to be important to live a happier more pleasurable life.Not surprisingly, at the bottom of Maslow’s pyramid are basic needs or expectations – food, water, shelter, safety. According to Maslow, these base needs must be satisfied before a person can aspire to satisfying the higher needs. As basic needs are met people naturally start raising their expectations of what it means to be happy and fulfilled in life.
  • It’s similar when designing tools or solutions for people – not designing for the problem or challenge, but designing for the people who are trying to overcome the problem or challenge. The people you are designing for have developed various levels of expectation or need. At the base is Usable – I’m here, so you better meet my basic expectations …and btw, my expectations are a lot higher than they were last year, so you better know what they are. (Anecdote about a teenager selecting a cell phone – she made her judgments in approximately 8 secs.Useful – I have things I need to get done. If you can’t help me, you’re hindering me. So you need to know what I need to get done.Customizable – Gee, there’s a lot of things I can do with this tool, but a lot of things I don’t need or want – you don’t have it right, so let me pick an choose.Personal – You have all kinds of information about me. I enter it into the system. I tell you you can use it – you tell me you’re going to use it. So why is there all this information and stuff I don’t need…and why doesn’t this work like I want it to?Ubiquitous – and now that you’ve learned all about me and my preferences and needs, make all that available when, where and how I want it.Where in this continuum are most of the people you design for?
  • It’s similar when designing tools or solutions for people – not designing for the problem or challenge, but designing for the people who are trying to overcome the problem or challenge. The people you are designing for have developed various levels of expectation or need. At the base is Usable – I’m here, so you better meet my basic expectations …and btw, my expectations are a lot higher than they were last year, so you better know what they are. (Anecdote about a teenager selecting a cell phone – she made her judgments in approximately 8 secs.Useful – I have things I need to get done. If you can’t help me, you’re hindering me. So you need to know what I need to get done.Customizable – Gee, there’s a lot of things I can do with this tool, but a lot of things I don’t need or want – you don’t have it right, so let me pick an choose.Personal – You have all kinds of information about me. I enter it into the system. I tell you you can use it – you tell me you’re going to use it. So why is there all this information and stuff I don’t need…and why doesn’t this work like I want it to?Ubiquitous – and now that you’ve learned all about me and my preferences and needs, make all that available when, where and how I want it.Where in this continuum are most of the people you design for?
  • It’s similar when designing tools or solutions for people – not designing for the problem or challenge, but designing for the people who are trying to overcome the problem or challenge. The people you are designing for have developed various levels of expectation or need. At the base is Usable – I’m here, so you better meet my basic expectations …and btw, my expectations are a lot higher than they were last year, so you better know what they are. (Anecdote about a teenager selecting a cell phone – she made her judgments in approximately 8 secs.Useful – I have things I need to get done. If you can’t help me, you’re hindering me. So you need to know what I need to get done.Customizable – Gee, there’s a lot of things I can do with this tool, but a lot of things I don’t need or want – you don’t have it right, so let me pick an choose.Personal – You have all kinds of information about me. I enter it into the system. I tell you you can use it – you tell me you’re going to use it. So why is there all this information and stuff I don’t need…and why doesn’t this work like I want it to?Ubiquitous – and now that you’ve learned all about me and my preferences and needs, make all that available when, where and how I want it.Where in this continuum are most of the people you design for?
  • It’s similar when designing tools or solutions for people – not designing for the problem or challenge, but designing for the people who are trying to overcome the problem or challenge. The people you are designing for have developed various levels of expectation or need. At the base is Usable – I’m here, so you better meet my basic expectations …and btw, my expectations are a lot higher than they were last year, so you better know what they are. (Anecdote about a teenager selecting a cell phone – she made her judgments in approximately 8 secs.Useful – I have things I need to get done. If you can’t help me, you’re hindering me. So you need to know what I need to get done.Customizable – Gee, there’s a lot of things I can do with this tool, but a lot of things I don’t need or want – you don’t have it right, so let me pick an choose.Personal – You have all kinds of information about me. I enter it into the system. I tell you you can use it – you tell me you’re going to use it. So why is there all this information and stuff I don’t need…and why doesn’t this work like I want it to?Ubiquitous – and now that you’ve learned all about me and my preferences and needs, make all that available when, where and how I want it.Where in this continuum are most of the people you design for?
  • It’s similar when designing tools or solutions for people – not designing for the problem or challenge, but designing for the people who are trying to overcome the problem or challenge. The people you are designing for have developed various levels of expectation or need. At the base is Usable – I’m here, so you better meet my basic expectations …and btw, my expectations are a lot higher than they were last year, so you better know what they are. (Anecdote about a teenager selecting a cell phone – she made her judgments in approximately 8 secs.Useful – I have things I need to get done. If you can’t help me, you’re hindering me. So you need to know what I need to get done.Customizable – Gee, there’s a lot of things I can do with this tool, but a lot of things I don’t need or want – you don’t have it right, so let me pick an choose.Personal – You have all kinds of information about me. I enter it into the system. I tell you you can use it – you tell me you’re going to use it. So why is there all this information and stuff I don’t need…and why doesn’t this work like I want it to?Ubiquitous – and now that you’ve learned all about me and my preferences and needs, make all that available when, where and how I want it.Where in this continuum are most of the people you design for?
  • What does thisconstantly evolving hierarchy of needs mean for us as very young, hip and attractive designers…
  • Well – as we conveniently summarize in our Immutable Truth #5 – real people have real expectations.
  • And as a result of these evolving expectations, we can no longer think of one interaction as standing alone, separate from the rest of the experience we’re designing within. This is a simplistic illustration of an experience that is far from optimal because interactions are disconnected in the minds of those who designed the experience. Each interaction in a larger experience has to make sense not to the people who designed it but to the people it is intended to serve; it has to meet expectations…and one thing you learn quickly when you start designing in the context of the larger experience is that customers experience people and technology synonymously.
  • Once you start looking at interactions as being inter-related, suddenly the complexities of those relationships starts to reveal itself…soon you are beyond interaction design and you have to start thinking about a more integrated and holistic approach to your design challenge…a term commonly applied to this approach is “service design”
  • Okay, so I’ve beat the problem to death. What’s the solution? Get Human…Don’t just understand how someone might use the thing you’re designing – understand what motivates him, what engages him, what inspires trust and loyalty, how he forms expectations and how you can influence them…the only way to do this really effectively is to get out of the artificial controlled setting of the test lab for the thing you’re designing and go meet the people you’re designing for where they live or work. I know you know this isn’t new – social anthropology and human behavior have been aspects of design forever. But we forget…we think we know…or our clients tell us they know…but do we or they really know? There’s only one way to find out.
  • Secondly – as you get out among the people you’re designing for and begin to understand the context you are designing within, don’t settle for scenarios of use or use cases. Get to the stories – get at the emotion, get at what really matters.
  • Finally – and most importantly from my perspective is that that getting human means co-creating. Get the people you’re designing for involved in the process. Don’t merely observe them, listen to them, engage them, make it their solution. Tap into the wisdom of the crowd that is the people you are designing for.
  • So I have been talking about experience design primarily thinking in terms of customer experience. But as well all know, if you only focus on the customer you’re missing a big piece of the experience design puzzle.
  • As Immutable Truth #6 reminds us, employees are people too.
  • Again, not a new idea, just the truth. As Forrester noted in a report on their research into changing work environments…
  • Forrester revisited this theme earlier this year in a report titled Employees Are Customer Experience Pros’ Best Weapon…basically, if we or our clients hadn’t managed to make the connection between customers and employees, they made it for us.
  • When people are in their roles as employees, their needs are very specific the tasks at hand. Emotions and motivations are different. But the principles of design still apply. You’re designing a work day. You need to understand how that looks and feels.
  • In the world of employee experience design, usually the intention is not to start from scratch. The challenge is usually part designing the solution to meet the employees’ needs and part bringing the employees to the chosen solution. The measures of success are usually pretty predictable – adoption of new systems and/or processes, employee satisfaction, greater efficiency in operations, fewer errors and less rework…etc. A big part of starting to see results quickly is to have people within the organization who help lead the way by being peer advocates for the new. Co-creation with dynamic people within the organization is a great way to create advocates.
  • Context remains a key component of effective employee experience design – you need to know what’s working, what’s not and why before you can have a design impact.At MISI we’ve taken this a bit further and coined the phrase Strategic Experience Alignment to describe an organizational steady state in which all people-systems-processes aligned to provide the experiences employees and customers must have for a company to meet its strategic business objectives. Of course this is an aspirational condition – rarely do organizations reach such a state. However, no organization that is committed to creating a consistent and differentiating business experience can aspire to anything less than this.
  • We’ve illustrated the value of SEA using this four square grid that plots an organizations commitment to the strategic advantages of taking a human-centric view of experience design…particularly as it applies to the development of technology-based solutions.
  • Based on this understanding that organizations need to get both the employee and the customer experience right if they are to achieve their business goals, many organizational maturity models are emerging. This is Peppers &amp; Rogers Customer Experience Maturity Monitor - just one example of any number of models that have been suggested by consultants to chart the path to a more customer-centric approach to doing business. Clearly there is an appetite for a more human-centric approach to doing business in the world or all these consultants and experience designers wouldn’t be talking about it…right?
  • I understand from a practical standpoint this is not a conference about design philosophy or design for design’s sake. The idea is that what we share should have practical application. So as I wrap up my musings I just want to assure you that if you aren’t seeing acceptance in your marketplace of this holistic , humanistic view of experience design now, you have a real opportunity to get ahead of the market. By way of example, I’d like to share a couple of quotes from the opening chapter of Shaun Smith &amp; Joe Wheelers book on Managing the Customer Experience…these are from the world of business in the US…the kinds of companies that hire us to do this work…These quotes go back 10 year…and 10 years after this book came out, the market for this approach is still maturing.
  • In closing I’m drawn back to Professor Bannon’s article and the sentiment he ended on…I believe there is a better world to be imagined out there and we all have a role in creating it…one interaction at a time.
  • Beyond the interface to the interaction

    1. 1. Beyond the Interface to the Interaction<br />David Roth<br />VP MISI Experience Design (XD) <br />October 6, 2011<br />
    2. 2. Warning<br />Humanist<br />Romantic <br />Optimist<br />XDPragmatist<br />
    3. 3. An idea that is so 300 BCE…<br />Purpose of philosophical study…<br />A happier life<br />More pleasure, less sadness (stress)<br />Epicurus341 BCE – 270 BCE<br />
    4. 4. An idea that is so 300 BCE…<br />Error lies in the hasty interposition of opinion without waiting for corroboration of further sense evidence. *<br />* As attributed by Wikipedia<br />Epicurus341 BCE – 270 BCE<br />
    5. 5. Beyond the interface...<br />
    6. 6. Beyond the interface...<br />to the interaction<br />Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) <br />vs. <br />Human interaction (Hi) <br />
    7. 7. An idea that is so 2011…<br />“Human-centered design as a paradigm shift takes the term ‘human centered’ to mean more than simply ‘considering the user’ in technology development. Rather it places our understanding of people, their concerns, and their activities at the forefront in the design of new technology.”<br />Prof. Liam Bannon– Reimaging HCI: Toward a More Human-Centered Perspective, Interactions magazine © 2011<br />
    8. 8. www.xdtruths.com<br />
    9. 9. Immutable Truth of Experience Design #4<br />www.xdtruths.com<br />
    10. 10. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs<br />Self-actualization<br />Esteem<br />Love/Belonging<br />Safety<br />Physiological<br />
    11. 11. Roth’s Hierarchy of “User” Demands<br />Meet my basic expectations.<br />Usable<br />
    12. 12. Roth’s Hierarchy of “User” Demands<br />Make it do this.<br />Useful<br />Usable<br />
    13. 13. Roth’s Hierarchy of “User” Demands<br />Make it do this, but let me tweak it to my taste.<br />Customizable<br />Useful<br />Usable<br />
    14. 14. Roth’s Hierarchy of “User” Demands<br />Make it do this, but the way I do it.<br />Personal<br />Customizable<br />Useful<br />Usable<br />
    15. 15. Roth’s Hierarchy of “User” Demands<br />Make it do this the way I do it, when I do it, where I do it and on my device. <br />Ubiquitous<br />Personal<br />Customizable<br />Useful<br />Usable<br />
    16. 16. What does it mean for experience designers?<br />
    17. 17. Immutable Truth of Experience Design #5<br />www.xdtruths.com<br />
    18. 18. No interaction stands alone…<br />Customer Service: “Nothing I can do.”<br />Interaction<br />No Interaction<br />To a customer, people & technology are experienced synonymously.<br />Customer<br />Customer <br />Dot Com<br />Backend System<br />Account Activation: “Nothing I can do.”<br />
    19. 19. Beyond interaction design to service design…<br />Drops<br />Off Car<br />Picks Up<br />Car<br />Calls <br />Dealer<br />Chooses<br />Date/Time<br />Experience as service: many points, modes and means of interaction.<br />Pulls Info <br />From/Updates <br />System<br />Coordinates<br />Pick-up/<br />Billing<br />Coordinates <br />Post-Service<br />CRM<br />Coordinates<br />Scheduling/<br />Updates System<br />Coordinates<br />Details<br />Coordinates<br />Billing<br />Calls<br />Customer<br />Updates <br />System<br />Generates<br />Reminder<br />Routes<br />Calls<br />Print Materials<br />For Customer<br />Print Billing<br />Info<br />Print Final<br />Invoice<br />Connect to the<br />Sales Department<br />
    20. 20. Get Human…understand WHO you are designing for<br />Get out of the lab and into the field.<br />
    21. 21. Get Human…understand the CONTEXT you’re designing within<br />Not just scenarios, tell stories.<br />
    22. 22. Get Human…CO-CREATE with your audience<br />Tap into the wisdom of your crowd.<br />
    23. 23. Regarding the customer experience…<br />Know Who: Get out of the lab <br />Get Contextual: Stories, not just scenarios<br />Co-Create: Be crowd smart<br /><ul><li> So what’s missing?</li></li></ul><li>Immutable Truth of Experience Design #6<br />www.xdtruths.com<br />
    24. 24. An idea that is so 2006…<br />As enterprises better understand the interrelationship between roles, collaboration, content, and business processes, the need to provide information within the context of an information worker's daily activities will drive the implementation of Information Workplaces. <br />Forrester Research - Context Is King In The New World Of Work © 2006<br />
    25. 25. Employees Are Customer Experience Pros’ Best Weapon<br />The benefits include:<br /><ul><li>Discovering emerging customer issues more quickly
    26. 26. Generating improvement ideas more easily
    27. 27. Building strong links between the quality of the employees’ and the customers’ experiences</li></ul>Forrester Research Report:<br />Customer Experience (1/28/2011)<br />
    28. 28. Knowing WHO your audience is still applies<br />Get out of the lab and into the workplace.<br />
    29. 29. CO-CREATION still applies<br />Collaborators become advocates.<br />Project Goals…<br /><ul><li>Rapid adoption
    30. 30. Greater efficiency
    31. 31. Fewer errors
    32. 32. Employee satisfaction
    33. 33. ???</li></li></ul><li>Understanding the CONTEXT still applies<br />Take employee experience design to SEA level.<br />Strategic Experience Alignment (SEASM)<br />All people-systems-processes aligned to provide the experiences employees and customers must have for a company to meet its strategic business objectives.<br />
    34. 34. SEA is an indicator of an organization’s CX/EX maturity<br />
    35. 35. Lots of maturity models emerging…discipline maturing<br />CEMM - Peppers and Rogers Group<br />
    36. 36. Regarding the employee experience…<br />Know Who: Get into the workplace<br />Co-Create: And make advocates<br />Get Contextual: Take experience design to SEA level<br />
    37. 37. The Age of Experience<br />The customer experience is the next competitive battleground.<br />Jerry Gregoire, CIO Dell Computer<br />“HP now has two large customer enterprises – one for consumers and one for business customers. Each has a president and reporting directly to that president is a vice-president responsible for thetotal customer experience.” <br />S. Smith & J. Wheeler, © 2002<br />
    38. 38. In closing…<br />“Perhaps the issue is no longer simply about reimagining HCI – it’s about reimagining, and then acting out, a better world.”<br />Prof. Liam Bannon– Reimaging HCI: Toward a More Human-Centered Perspective, Interactions magazine © 2011<br />
    39. 39. Thank youСпасибозавнимание<br />David Roth<br />Humanist, Romantic, Optimist<br />droth@misicompany.com<br />linkedin.com/in/drroth<br />
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