India - Truth Alone Triumphs


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India, Narendra, Modi, Leadership, Economics, leadership, Trade, Spirituality, Religion, Science, Mythology and Quotes, outsourcing, IT, bio-tech

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India - Truth Alone Triumphs

  1. 1. India (भारत, Hindustan, Bhārata) “Truth alone triumphs” “'Nothing in the world is so powerful as an idea whose time has come.” - Victor Hugo Creative Commons License (Attribution No Derivatives)
  2. 2. Swami Vivekananda, Indian Philosopher:      ”The debt which the world owes to our motherland is immense. Civilizations have arisen in other parts of the world. In ancient and modern times, wonderful ideas have been carried forward from one race to another...But mark you, my friends, it has been always with the blast of war trumpets and the march of embattled cohorts. Each idea had to be soaked in a deluge of blood..... Each word of power had to be followed by the groans of millions, by the wails of orphans, by the tears of widows. This, many other nations have taught; but India for thousands of years peacefully existed. Here activity prevailed when even Greece did not exist... Even earlier, when history has no record, and tradition dares not peer into the gloom of that intense past, even from until now, ideas after ideas have marched out from her, but every word has been spoken with a blessing behind it and peace before it. 
 We, of all nations of the world, have never been a conquering race, and that blessing is on our head, and therefore we live....!"
  3. 3. India’s Grand Cultural Identity is “Dharmic” • Dharma (righteousness) to establish harmony: with natures law, truth, duty, ethics, wisdom. • Kāma (fulfilment of desires) to express and enjoy pleasure: art, beauty, intimacy, kindness, family and friends. • Artha (acquisition of wealth) to establish ones life mission: with material prosperity, abundance, success. • Mokṣa (spiritual liberation) to seek highest goal in life: freedom, search for ultimate reality, god.
  4. 4. Present
  5. 5. § 10,000 year old ancient civilisation § 325 languages spoken – 1,652 dialects § 22 official languages § 29 states, 5 union territories § 3.28 million sq. kilometres - Area § 7,516 kilometres - Coastline § 1.21Bn population. § 15th August 1947 - Independence Day § 82,237 registered newspapers in 21 languages with a combined circulation of 329 million. § GDP $2.5 Trillion. (GDP growth rate 7.3% - 2015) § Parliamentary form of Government § Worlds largest democracy. § Worlds 4th largest economy.
 § World-class recognition in IT, bio-technology and space. § Largest English speaking nation in the world (350M). § 2nd largest standing army force, over 2.5M strong. § 2nd largest pool of scientists and engineers in the World.
  6. 6. India has the largest movie industry in the world, producing over 800 movies a year.
  7. 7. § India plans to emerge as the choice for design and manufacturing of automobile and components with output reaching $145bn. § Ford Motors plans in 2015 to start production at a new $1 billion plant in Sanand in the state of Gujarat. § BMW manufactures the Mini Countryman and Mini One and BMW 1,3,5,7, X1 and X3 Series from its Chennai plant making 15,000 units/year. § Mercedes plans to double its manufacturing capacity to 20,000 units/year of M-series and S-Series models. § Bharat Forge has the world's largest single-location forging facility, its clients include Honda, Toyota and Volvo amongst others. § India is the 2nd largest tractor manufacturer in the world. § India is the 5th largest commercial vehicle manufacturer in the world. § Suzuki, which makes Maruti in India has decided to make India its manufacturing, export and research hub outside Japan. § Hyundai India is set to become the global small car hub for the Korean giant and will produce 25k Santros to start with. 
 § By 2010 it is set to supply half a million cars to Hyundai Korea. HMI and Ford. § The UK automaker, MG Rover is marketing 100,000 Indica cars made by Tata in Europe, under its name. § Hero Honda with 1.7M motorcycles a year is now the largest motorcycle manufacturer in the world. § Ford has just presented its Gold World Excellence Award to India's Cooper Tyres. § Aston Martin contracted prototyping its latest luxury sports car, AM V8 Vantage, to an Indian- based designer and is set to produce the cheapest Aston Martin ever.
  8. 8. India: Trade § India has attracted $45Bn in foreign direct investment (FDI) during 2015, compared to the $5Bn that flowed in during 2004-2005.
 § India in 2015, is now the top destination for attracting FDI funds, at $31Bn, surpassing China. § Kellogg Co, world's largest cereal maker, is making large investments in manufacturing and plans to set up its first Research and Development (R&D) facility in India at Taloja, near Mumbai. § Gap Inc., a US based retail chain, opened its first store in Delhi and plans to open 40 more stores in the next 4–5 years which will be spread across the top 10 cities in India. § India, in fact, accounts for 80% of all money in international cricket and has a TV viewership that is 10 times the size of all other ICC member countries put together. § India in 2015 is the world’s 3rd largest economy in terms of absolute gross domestic product (GDP) size. India was previously number 10 in 2004 and number 4 in 2007. § Bilateral trade between Indian and USA totalled $50Bn in 2008, compared to $14Bn in 2000. § China and India’s bilateral trade is expected to exceed $100bn by 2015, surpassing the $70bn in 2011-2012 and is already the largest trading partner to India. § India’s National Association of Software and Services Companies (Nasscom) , says that Software export revenues could reach $99 billion a year by 2014-2015 and $300billion by 2020. § India and Russia signed a bilateral trade agreement target of $20bn by 2015.
  9. 9. Make in India § in 2015, the govt. of Karnataka signed an agreement with the Taiwan Electrical and Electronic Manufacturers Association for the purpose of creating a Taiwanese electronic manufacturing cluster near the Bengaluru airport, with an investment expectation of $500 million. § in 2015, Posco Korea, the multinational Korean steel company, signed an agreement with Shree Uttam Steel and Power to set up a steel plant in Maharashtra.  § in 2015, Foxconn signed a MoU with Maharashtra state government to invest $5 billion over the next three years for setting up a manufacturing unit between Mumbai and Pune. § in 2015, Global giants such as Bombardier, Hyundai-ROTEM, TALGO and CAF have queued up to manufacture semi high-speed train sets in India, which will be used for faster inter-city travel. § in 2015, Swedish home furnishing brand IKEA has made a long-term plan of opening 25 stores in India by making an investment worth crore $1.9 billion. § in 2015, Germany-based ThyssenKrupp group is aiming to double its revenue from India to $1 billion in next three-four years while the group’s elevator unit, ThyssenKrupp Elevator, plans to invest $51 million to set up a manufacturing plant in Pune. § in 2015, Google plans to invest $ 234 million for a new campus in Hyderabad which will be focused on three key areas — Google Education, Google Fibre broadband and Street view. § in 2015, Warburg Pincus, a US based Private Equity firm, has planned to invest $ 133 million in Ecom Express – an India based logistics solutions provider. § in 2015, Dalian Wanda Group, one of China’s largest real estate firms, has planned to invest $10 billion in India in the next 10 years which will be used to construct retail properties and industrial townships.
  10. 10. India: Trade § Tata Motors paid $ 118 million to buy Daewoo commercial vehicle Company of Korea. 
 § Ranbaxy, the largest Indian pharmaceutical company, gets 70% of its $1 billion revenue from overseas operations and 40% from USA. 
 § India is one of the world's largest diamond cutting and polishing centres, its exports already reaching $8.6 Billion. Expected to reach $16 Billion by 2007.
 § About 11 out of 12 diamond stones sold anywhere in the world, pass through India.
 § Garment exports are expected to increase from the current level of $6 billion to $25 billion by 2010.
 § Ranbaxy Technologies acquired RPG Aventis (France) in 2003 for $70m to strengthen its market position in Europe.
 § A study by the Confederation of Indian Study (CII) and McKinsey highlights India's potential "to increase manufacturing exports from $40 billion to approximately $300 billion by 2015.”
 § Tata Group in 2000 bought Tetley of UK for $430M. 
 § Bilateral trade been UK and India is expected to increase from £12bn (2008) to £30bn by 2015. § in 2015, Mobile phones are growing by about 8.5 million units a month. § India’s share of global garment exports is expected to reach at least $50billion by 2010. § Wal-Mart sources $1.5 Billion worth of goods from India - half its apparel. Wal-Mart expects this to increase to $10 Billion in the next few years. § GAP sources about $600 million and Hilfiger $100 million worth of apparel from India.
  11. 11. A new mall called Hyderabad Central, India. In 1999 there were only 3 malls in the entire country, 300 have been built recently, and there will be 700 by 2010. I-flex office building, Bangalore, India. Bangalore is the IT hot spot of the world and now employs 150,000 IT workers, compared to 120,000 in all of Silicon Valley. A worker fixes the taillight of a Maruti Suzuki Swift diesel car at a car assembly plant opened last month south of New Delhi, India. With companies such as Honda, Toyota, GM, Ford, Volkswagen and many other foreign and Indian car makers the country has set a goal of producing 50 million cars a year by 2030 A resident of Bangalore's most sought after address, the Palm Meadows development in Whitefield, poses in front of some million dollar homes. Housing prices in the area have gone up 5 times their original value over the last 5 years. BPO Office, India. The business process outsourcing sector in India will be worth $64 billion (US) and employ 3 million people by 2012. Metro Rail, New Delhi, India. The country is replacing much of its old infrastructure and needs $330 billion (US) to complete projects, such as new rail systems. A new Sun Life Insurance Office in Mumbai, India. The Canadian insurance giant partnered with the Indian company Birla to form what is now one of the largest insurance companies in India.
  12. 12. After 10 years in India, the McDonalds food chain operates 86 restaurants all over the country and plans to open 25 more in the next three years, investing around $90 million (U.S.). Supervisor Inspects CD Quality. The World Bank has been raising India's competitiveness ranking because of its ability to absorb high levels of technology. High rise residential buildings, under construction at Gurgoan, Haryana, India. The country's red hot real estate market is having problems keeping up with the demand for luxury accommodations. An Indian farmer talks on his cell phone. There are a 150 million cell phone users in India and in March 2006 alone, more than 5 million new cell phone subscribers signed up for service. Workers put together a Honda Scooter in an Indian factory. More than 7.6 million scooters, motorcycles and mopeds were built in India last year. Inside Ranbaxy laboratories' facility in New Delhi, India. The country graduates 120,000 chemists; 7,000 science PhDs; 350,000 engineers; and a total of 2.5Million University graduates each year. India is now the number one emerging retail market in the world. Clothing sales are expected to double by 2010.
  13. 13. A technopark in the Thiruvanathapuram, Kerala. The campus houses 100 IT companies which employ almost 40,000 workers. South Extension Market at night, New Delhi, India. The Indian retail sector now worth over $300 billion (US) is expected to double over the next 5 years. BPO, Bangalore, Karnataka, India. The business process outsourcing industry, in which Indian companies handle call centres, accounting, research, billing and other back office needs of overseas companies, grew 40% in 2004. One of four Ranbaxy laboratories R&D facilities in New Delhi. India's largest generic drug company currently has global sales of $1 billion (US) and has set a goal of reaching $5 billion by 2012. PVR Cinema,Metropolitan Mall,Shopping Mall at Gurgaon, India. In 2004, paid attendance at Indian cinemas reached the 3 billion mark.
  14. 14. § Geneva-based STMicroelectronics is one of the largest semiconductor companies to develop integrated circuits and software in India. 
 § Texas Instruments was the first to open operations in Bangalore, followed by Motorola, Intel, Cadence Design Systems and several others.
 § 80 of the World’s 117 SEI CMM Level-5 companies are based in India. § Siemens announced it would set up a technology development center to conduct research in IT and medical systems. The company already employs 3,000 in India, more than half engaged in R&D.
 § 5 Indian companies recently received the globally acclaimed Deming prize. This prize is given to an organization for rigorous total quality management (TQM) practices.
 § India’s bio-technology industry already grossed $1 billion in 2004-2005. the Bio-tech industry is aiming to reach $12 Billion by 2017.
 § India now expects trade with Japan to grow to $25 billion by 2014. § This business fetched India $1.5 Billion in 2003, and will reach $110 Billion by 2020. § New emerging industries areas include, Bio- Informatics, Bio-Technology, Genomics, Clinical Research and Trials. § World-renowned TQM expert Yasutoshi Washio predicts that Indian manufacturing quality will overtake that of Japan in 2013. § McKinsey believes India's revenues from the IT industry will reach $225 Billion by 2020. § Flextronics, the $14 billion global major in Electronic Manufacturing Services, has announced that it will make India a global competence centre for telecom software development. India: Technology
  15. 15. India Inc.: M&A § Tata Group recently acquired US-based Glaceau, makes of vitamin health drink for $677M, then the largest overseas buyout by a private Indian company. 
 § In 2007, Tata Steel, acquired Anglo-Dutch steel company Corus for $13Bn, quintupling its steel making capacity. § Tata is expected to increase its Steel production from 5M tonnes in 2005 to 20M Tonnes by 2013. India will be producing and consuming 150M tonnes of steel by 2020. § India is now (2009) the Worlds 3rd largest producer of Steel.
 § Tata Group in 2008, acquired luxury car brand Jaguar and Land Rover from Ford motors for $2.3Bn. § Tata has also scooped other overseas assets: an undersea-cable business, the truck- manufacturing operations of South Korea's Daewoo group, a stake in one of Indonesia's largest coal mines, and a raft of foreign hotels, including the Ritz-Carlton in Boston. § In 2006, Mittal Steel clinched a $32 billion takeover bid for Arcelor Steel, making the conglomerate the biggest steel producer in the world. § In 2007, Hindalco Industries, part of India's Aditya Birla group, paid $3.6 billion for Canadian aluminum company Novelis. § In 2007, Vijay Mallya's United Breweries snapped up Whyte & McKay, the world's fourth-largest distiller of Scotch whisky for $1.2Bn. § In 2007, Wipro acquired New Jersey software house Infocrossing for $600 million. § In 2007 , Hindalco Industries, part of India's Aditya Birla group, paid $3.6 billion for Canadian aluminum company Novelis. § Between 2000-2006, Indian companies made over 300 acquisitions globally totaling over $10Bn. By the end of 2007, another 150 acquisitions with a total value of $21Bn had been completed.
  16. 16. India: Self-Reliance § India is among six countries that launch satellites and do so even for Italy, Germany, Belgium, South Korea, Singapore, Israel and other EU countries. § India's INSAT is among the worlds largest domestic satellite communication systems.
 § India’s Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) was indigenously manufactured with most of the components like motor cases, inter-stages, heat shield, cryogenic engine, electronic modules all manufactured by public and private Indian industry. § Kalpana Chawla was one of the 7 astronauts in the Columbia space shuttle when it disintegrated over Texas skies just 16 minutes before its scheduled landing on Feb 1st 2003, she was the second Indian in space. § India’s Space Research Organisation (ISRO) successfully placed an unmanned probe, Chandrayaan-1, on the Moon (Nov 2008). The probe on its descent placed the Indian tricolour flag on the Moons surface. Its 2-years mission will map a 3-dimensional atlas of the Moon. 
 § ISRO proposes to undertake India’s first manned moon mission by 2020.
 § Chandrayaan-1, in Mar 2010 discovered ice in the Moon's craters -- indicating as much as 600 million metric tonnes of water ice on the Moon's north pole.

  17. 17. India: Self-Reliance § India’s first ever Mars mission successfully launched in Nov 2013 its first interplanetary surface probe to Mars. The Mars probe ‘Mangalyaan’, indigenously built by ISRO costing $72M, will the 3rd nation in the world to successfully explore Mars and is expected to arrive in Sept 2014.
  18. 18. India: Self-Reliance § India is among the 3 countries in the World that have built Supercomputers on their own. The other two countries being USA and Japan. § India built its own Supercomputer after the USA denied India purchasing a Cray computer in 1987.
 India’s new ‘PARAM Padma‘ Terascale Supercomputer (1 Tn processes/sec) is also amongst only 4 nations in the world to have this capability. § The Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC), plans to send two humans into space by 2015. The manned space-flight programme will develop and launch an orbital vehicle to carry two-member crew to the Earths lower orbit. § India and Russia are jointly planning the production of 250 Russian 5th-Generation Sukhoi T-50 fighters. Worth around $8Bn.
 § India in 2009, became the 6th nation in the World to launch its own indigenously built nuclear powered submarine. The ‘INS Arihant‘ will undergo trials over the next few years before being deployed.
 § India's most ambitious missile, the Agni-V Inter- Continental Ballistic Missile (ICBM), will have a strike range of 5,000-km, and is slated to be tested for the first time in 2010. § India is expected to spend $80 billion between 2012 and 2022 to upgrade its military.

  19. 19. India: Self-Reliance § India developed jointly with Russia the worlds fastest supersonic cruise missile, BrahMos, which has a 290-km range and a speed of 2.8 Mach, which is 3x faster than the US made subsonic Tomahawk cruise missile. § The INS Kolkata is the first destroyer class warship in India and the first of 3 warships indigenously being built. § India is planning to buy 10 C-17 Globemaster III heavy-lift cargo aircraft. The deal for Boeing is worth $2.5 Bn. § India recently announced a 65,000-tonne aircraft carrier named ‘INS Vishal’. The warship is scheduled to enter the Indian Navy’s flotilla by 2025 and is presently in its design phase. § India’s biggest aircraft carrier, INS Vikramaditya, 284 metres in length, the “floating city” acquired from Russia in 2004, repair and refitted to retail under the Indian Navy in 2012.
  20. 20. India: Self-Reliance § India's 90 billionaires have a combined net worth of $295Bn.
 § The "value" of arms transfer agreements inked by India in 2005 stood at $5.4Bn. Saudi Arabia was 2nd with $3.4Bn, China ranked 3rd with $2.8Bn and Pakistan came 6th with $1.7Bn. § Back in 1968, India imported 9M tonnes of food-grains to support its people, through a grand programme of national self-sufficiency which started in 1971, today, it now has a food grain surplus stock of 60M. § In a UNESCO report had pointed out that of the 128 countries where Jews lived before Israel was created in 1948, only one country, India, did not persecute them and allowed them to prosper and practice Judaism in peace.
 § India in 2012 was the first nation to contribute funds ($50M) towards so called Aichi targets aimed at protecting the world’s biodiversity, and curb damage to the world’s ecosystems and the extinction of its plants and animals. § India is providing aid to 11 countries, writing-off their debt and loaning the IMF $300M.
 § It has also prepaid $3Bn owed to the World Bank and Asian Development Bank.
 § India’s foreign exchange (forex) reserves are the 4th largest in the world at $300Bn (Feb 2011).
 § India is the 3rd largest foreign investor in the UK. 500 Indian companies are operating in the UK.
 § Since 2002, India has contributed $1.2Bn, (the 6th largest of all nations), to the rebuilding of Afghanistan by providing administrative training, medical care, educational facilities and scholarships and a new Parliament Building in Kabul.
 § In 2011, India has pledged $5Bn in development aid for the next 3-years, from agriculture to information technology, tele-medicine.

  21. 21. India: Pharmaceuticals § The Indian pharmaceutical industry at $21 billion and growing at 12% - 14% annually, is the 3rd largest pharmaceutical industry in the world, and is expected to be worth $55 billion by 2020. § Its exports are over $9 billion. India is among the top five bulk drug makers and at home, the local industry has edged out the Multi-National companies whose share of 75% in the market is down to 35%. § India was not a signatory to the product patent of drugs. Thus allowing for a synthetic pathway of a newly marketed drug the synthetic chemist had been able to produce high quality drugs at very low prices. As a result, drug prices have been the lowest in India. 
 § Trade of medicinal plants has crossed $900M already.
 § According to a recently prepared report by Ernst & Young, “India is emerging as an integral part of the global supply chain for pharmaceuticals. Any discussion on the global pharmaceutical supply chain can now no longer ignore India’s relevance.”
 § There are over 400 biotechnology companies in India, involved in the development and manufacture of genomic drugs, whose business is growing exponentially. § Sequencing genes and delivering genomic information for big Pharmaceutical companies is the next boom industry in India.
  22. 22. Globally Competitive Indian MNC
  23. 23. India: Infrastructure § The Bandra-Worli sea link, a $400M project was designed to reduce congestion of the Mahim causeway which is connected the western suburbs to Central Mumbai. The sea link reduces travel time from 60-mins. to 7-mins.
 § The Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor (DMIC) mega-infrastructure project is a $90bn Indo-Japanese project designed to create special economic (industrial, agricultural, knowledge) zones spanning 6-states within India. The industrial corridor will span 1483km and will see major expansions of road, rail, sea ports, logistics facilities, power supply systems, integrated townships and airports. This global manufacturing hub is expected to double employment, triple industrial output and quadruple exports within 5-years of its completion in 2015.
 § The Indira Gandhi Airport in Delhi
 § The government of India has set an ambitious target of building 7,000km of highways annually for the next 5-years at a rate of 20km a day. § The Indian Civil Aviation Ministry has set itself a target of getting around 500 airports operational by 2020, which would include the redevelopment of currently unused airports.
  24. 24. India: Foreign Multi-National Companies § General Electric (GE) with $80 Million invested in India employs 16,000 staff, 1,600 R&D staff who are qualified with Ph.D’s and Master’s degrees. § The number of patents filed in USA by the Indian entities of some of the MNCs (upto September, 2002) are as follows: Texas Instruments - 225, Intel - 125, Cisco Systems - 120, IBM - 120, Phillips - 102, GE - 95. § Dell is planning to open a new production facility in India, to add to its three call centres and two testing and development units, takings the number of employees in India to 20,000 by 2009. In 2011 the company has committed to moving $25Bn worth factories labour, equipment to India. § GE's R&D centre in Bangalore is the company's largest research outfit outside the United States. The centre also devotes 20% of its resources on 5 to 10 year fundamental researchin areas such as nanotechnology, hydrogen energy, photonics, and advanced propulsion. § It is estimated that there are 150,000 IT professionals in Bangalore as against 120,000 in Silicon Valley.
 § The largest segment of Indian subsidiaries of MNC account for $4.8billion in export rev.
  25. 25. India: R&D Labs R&D Centre Highlights R&D Centre, Bangalore. Established in 1984. The centre started with just 20 people, now has 900 people working on VLSI and embedded software, which goes along with a chip or into the chip. India Development Centre, Bangalore, Hyderabad. The Bangalore centre was established in 1994; the Hyderabad one in 1999. Oracle’s largest development centre outside the US currently has 6,000 staff. Does work on Oracle's database products, applications, business intelligence products and application development tools, besides other activities. India Engineering Centre, Bangalore. Established in mid-1999 with 20 people, has scaled up to 1000 people today. Does work mainly on Sun's software which includes Solaris and Sun One. This R&D centre is expected to expand to 2000 staff. R&D Centre, Bangalore and Hyderabad. Google has just opened its first R&D centre outside of the United States. It plans to hire 100 software engineers involved in primary research and development in its offices in Bangalore and Hyderabad. Areas of research will span many fundamental areas of computer science, including cutting edge information retrieval, distributed systems, machine learning, data mining, theoretical computer science, statistics and UI. Software Lab, Bangalore, Pune. Established in 2001. Works on all IBM software like WebSphere, DB2, Lotus, Tivoli and Rational. The centre has added many new areas of activities such as middleware and business intelligence. It is estimated overall IBM will have 38,000 staff in India by the end of 2005. Labs India, Bangalore. Established in November 1998 with 100 people, the Lab swill be scaled up to 3000 staff by the middle of 2006. It is the largest single-location R&D lab for SAP outside Walldorf, Germany. Nearly 10 percent of SAP's total R&D work is carried out from the Indian lab. Innovation Campus, Bangalore. Established in 1996 with 10 people, has scaled up to 1000 by 2003, it will reach 2500 by 2007. Almost all Philips products that use software have some contribution from this centre. It is the largest software centre for Philips outside Holland. The centre's software expertise is primarily in the areas of embedded and information system engineering, architecture design, programming and testing. Bangalore. Established in 2002 with just two people, has scaled up to 20 specialists today. Plans exist to double its headcount by the beginning of 2004. Is totally dedicated to high-level research on futuristic technologies, with special focus on emerging markets. Offshoring R&D (research and development) to India is currently a US$9.35 billion industry, with R&D centers owned by multinational companies accounting for about $5.83 billion of this market
  26. 26. India: BPO § The domestic BPO sector is worth $150 billion in 2015, compared to $65 billion in 2010 and $4 billion in 2004. (McKinsey & Co., NASSCOM). § The outsourcing includes a wide range of services including design, architecture, management, legal services, accounting and drug development and the Indian BPOs are moving up in the value chain. § In 2012, call centres in India have a a turnover of $7 billion and a workforce of 330,000 . § 100 of the Fortune 500 are now present in India compared to 33 in China. § Cummins of USA uses its R&D Centre in Pune to develop the sophisticated computer models needed to design upgrades and prototypes electronically and introduce 5 or 6 new engine models a year. § Business Week of 8th December 2003 has said "Quietly but with breathtaking speed, India and its millions of world-class engineering, business and medical graduates are becoming enmeshed in America's New Economy in ways most of us barely imagine".
  27. 27. India: Technology Superpower § Over 100 MNCs have set up R&D facilities in India in the past five years. These include GE, Bell Labs, Du Pont, Daimler Chrysler, Eli Lilly, Intel, Monsanto, Texas Instruments, Caterpillar, Cummins, GM, Royal Dutch Shell, Microsoft and IBM. § Reliance Industry is a company that now has $23 billion in revenues, $2.8 billion in cash profit, $1.4 billion in new profit and exports of $3.6 billion. § India’s telecom infrastructure between Chennai, Mumbai and Singapore, provides the largest bandwidth capacity in the world, with well over 8.5 Terabits (8.5Tbs) per second. § With more than 250 universities, 1,500 research institutions and 10,428 higher-education institutes, India produces 200,000 engineering graduates and another 300,000 technically trained graduates every year. § Besides, another 2 million other graduates qualify out in India annually. § The Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) is among the top three universities from which McKinsey & Company, the world's biggest consulting firm, hires most.
 § India’s plan to spend $500 billion on build roads, ports and power supplies in the five years to 2012. It is expected that this Infrastructure investment will define the next growth engine in India like IT did in the 1990’s.
  28. 28. Indians abroad A snapshot of Indians at the helm of leading Global Business institutions 
 CEO of Google (Sundar Pichai) CEO of Microsoft (Satyanarayana Nadella) CEO and President of MasterCard (Ajay Banga) Joint-CEO of Deutsche Bank (Anshu Jain) Dean of Chicago Booth School of Business (Sunil Kumar) Founding member of Google (Ram Shriram), Director and founder of Google Adsense (Gokul Rajaram), Chief Executive of McKinsey & Co. (Rajat Gupta) The Co-founder of Sun Microsystems (Vinod Khosla), Creator of Pentium Chip (Vinod Dahm), Founder and creator of Hotmail (Sabeer Bhatia), President of United Airlines (Rono Dutta) GM of Hewlett Packard (Rajiv Gupta) President and CEO of US Airways (Rakesh Gangwal) Former CEO of Citigroup (Vikram Pandit), Chief Executives of Standard Chartered Bank (Rana Talwar) CTO of Cisco Systems (Padmasree Warrior) Former Chief Executive Officer of Vodafone (Arun Sarin) Dean of Harvard Business School (Nitin Nohria) Chief Financial Officer of eBay (Rajiv Dutta) President of AT & T-Bell Labs (Arun Netravali) Chief Financial Officer of BBC Corporation (Zarin Patel) Founder of Bose Audio (Amar Bose) President and CEO of Pepsi Cola, (Indra Nooyi) Chief Executive Officer of HSBC (Aman Mehta) Director and member of Executive Board of Goldman Sachs (Girish Reddy) Former Chief Economist of the International Monetary Fund (Raghuram Rajan) CEO of Mittal Steel Corporation (Lakshmi Mittal) Head of R&D at Yahoo! (Prabhakar Raghavan)
  29. 29. Indians in the USA. § Of the 2.8M Indians living in the USA, 1/5th of them live in the Silicon Valley. § Over 50% of Silicon Valley start-ups are by Indians. § Indian students are the second largest in number among foreign students in USA. Statistics that show: 38% of doctors in the USA, 12% of scientists in the USA, 36% of NASA scientists, 34% of Microsoft employees, 28% of IBM employees, 17% of INTEL scientists, 13% of XEROX employees, … are Indians.  1.  India 44%
  2.  China 9%
  3.  Britain 5%
  4.  Philippines 3%
  5.  Canada 3%
  6.  Taiwan 2%
  7.  Japan 2%
  8.  Germany 2%
  9.  Pakistan 2%
  10. France 2% US H1-B Visa applicants country of origin
  30. 30. “IIT = Harvard + MIT + Princeton” “IIT = Harvard + MIT + Princeton” , says CBS ‘60 Minutes’. CBS' highly-regarded ‘60 Minutes’, the most widely watched news programme in the US, told its audience of more than 10 Million viewers that “IIT may be the most important university you've never heard of."
 "The United States imports oil from Saudi Arabia, cars from Japan, TVs from Korea and Whiskey from Scotland. So what do we import from India? We import people, really smart people," co-host Leslie Stahl began while introducing the segment on IIT.
 “…the smartest, the most successful, most influential Indians who've migrated to the US seem to share a common credential: They are graduates of the IIT.” “…in science and technology, IIT undergraduates leave their American counterparts in the dust.“ “Think about that for a minute: A kid from India using an Ivy League university as a safety school. That's how smart these guys are.” There are “cases where students who couldn't get into computer science at IIT, they have gotten scholarships at MIT, at Princeton, at Caltech.”
  31. 31. Sounds of India
  32. 32. Pop Culture Influence: Music The Beatles - Sergeant Peppers Lonely Hearts Club Band Yukteswar Giri Mahavatar Babaji Paramahansa Yogananda Sri Lahiri Mahasaya
  33. 33. Star Wars Pop Culture Influence: Movies Yoda (Yoga) Mace Windu (Hindu) The Force (brahman) Padmé Amidala (Lotus - ॐ मिण पद्मे हूं,)
  34. 34. Pop Culture Influence: India Dhyāna (Meditation) Yoga Mantra Vegetarianism Ahimsa (Non-Harm) Karma Satcitānanda (Consciousness) Chakra Avatar Guru Saṃsāra (Reincarnation) Dharma (Essential Nature) Ayurveda Namasté Spirituality Swastika
  35. 35. Fashion and Miss World Year Position Miss World   2008 Runner up Parvathy Omanakuttan Nair 2006 Semi-finalist Natasha Suri 2005 Semi-finalist Sindhura Gadde 2003 3rd runner up Ami Vashi 2002 Semi-finalist Shruti Sharma 2001 Non Semi-finalist Sara Corner   2000 Winner Priyanka Chopra 1999 Winner Yukta Mookhey 1998 Non Semi-finalist Annie Thomas 1997 Winner Diana Hayden 1996 3rd runner up Rani Joan Jeyraj   1995 Non Semi-finalist Preeti Mankotia 1994 Winner Aishwariya Rai   1993 Non Semi-finalist Karminder Kaur   1992 Non Semi-finalist Celine Shyla 1991 Semi-finalist Ritu Singh   1990 Non Semi-finalist Naveeda Mehdi 1966 Winner Reita Faria
  36. 36. Science of Yoga “…The science of yoga was born in an age when mankind as a whole was more enlightened, and could easily grasp truths for which our most advanced thinkers are still grasping.” The science of yoga meditation had been taught by the ancient, sages, gurus, yogis, through oral tradition for thousands of years, they were finally put to Sanskrit by Patanjali in 500 B.C.E. “…It is because the groping for these truths has begun again that great yogis have reintroduced this ancient science to humanity at large.” Pre-eminent among them, even today, are the sages of the Himalayas. Today, the word yoga is much used and much misunderstood these days, reduced from its knowledge on the control of the conscious to that of the control of the body.
  37. 37. Science and Art The upper right hand is a drum whose sound is the sound of universe creation (big-bang). The lower right hand makes the gesture of preservation "fear not." The lower left hand he points to his raised left foot, the place of refuge and salvation for the devotee. The cosmic dance of Shiva (Nataraja) – “Lord of the Dance” symbolises the unified and dynamic composition of the cosmic cycles of creation and destruction of the Universe. The upper left hand is a tongue of flame, a reminder of the destruction of the universe. The right foot is planted on the back of the demon personifying ignorance, indifference, laziness over whom Shiva triumphs. "Modern physics has revealed that every subatomic particle not only performs an energy dance, but also is an energy dance; a pulsating process of creation and destruction. The entire Universe is then engaged in movement and endless activity, in an uninterrupted cosmic dance of energy.” “For the modern physicists, then Shiva’s dance is the dance of subatomic matter, it is a continual dance of creation and destruction involving the whole cosmos; the basis of all existence and of all natural phenomenon.” An unusual landmark was unveiled at CERN in 2004, the European Centre for Research in Particle Physics in Geneva - At the home of the large Hadron Collider Particle accelerator - a 2m tall statue of the Hindu deity ‘Nataraja’.
  38. 38. Science of Classical Music Indian Classical music is principally based on melody and rhythm, not on harmony or counterpoint. Its origin is in Vedic Hymns of the Hindu Temple, so the roots are religious. The tradition is an oral one, it is taught directly by the Guru. The heart of Indian music is the Raga: the melodic form upon which the musician improvises. The traditional performance begins with the Alap. After this slow beginning the musician moves onto Jor, where rhythm enters. There is no drum in either of these sections. Then the Gat is evolved, which is the fixed composition of the Raga. Drums enter, and this section becomes the vehicle for the musician to return to after improvising - which he can do within the format of the Raga and Tala, its time cycle. The music becomes more playful and exciting with the development of the dialogue between the tabla and the main instrument. The classical music of the India-Pakistan-Bangladesh subcontinent (in short Indian classical music) is one of the few ancient art forms still widely practised today. In recent years it has been much appreciated all over the world. There are many different styles but the two major ones are the Hindustani from the north and the Karnatic style from the south. Indian instruments are very delicate, affected by humidity and spotlights among other things and they need to be tuned and re- tuned before and also during the performance. This forms part of the concert and first-timers to an Indian Classical Concert are often amazed by this.
  39. 39. Indians of note
  40. 40. Rabindranath Tagore, Poet and writer of India’s national anthem and Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913, (1861 - 1941): "Oneness amongst men, the advancement of unity in diversity – this has been the core religion of India.“
  41. 41. Swami Vivekananda, (1863 - 1902): “Sisters and Brothers…, I am proud to belong to a religion which has taught the world both tolerance and universal acceptance. We believe not only in universal toleration, but we accept all religions as true. I am proud to belong to a nation which has sheltered the persecuted and the refugees of all religions and all nations of the earth. I am proud to tell you that we have gathered in our bosom the purest remnant of the Israelites, who came to Southern India and took refuge with us in the very year in which their holy temple was shattered to pieces by Roman tyranny. I am proud to belong to the religion which has sheltered and is still fostering the remnant of the grand Zoroastrian nation. Sectarianism, bigotry, and its horrible descendant, fanaticism, have long possessed this beautiful earth. They have filled the earth with violence, drenched it often and often with human blood, destroyed civilization and sent whole nations to despair. Had it not been for these horrible demons, human society would be far more advanced than it is now.
  42. 42. Sri Aurobindo, (1872 - 1950): “…Like the majority of educated Indians, I have passively accepted without examination, the conclusion of European scholarship.” “…That we turn always the few distinct truths and the symbols or the particular discipline of a religion into a hard and fast dogmas, is a sign that as yet we are only infants in the spiritual knowledge and are yet far from the science of the Infinite.” "...The mind is not the highest possible power of consciousness; for mind is not in possession of Truth, but only its ignorant seeker.”
  43. 43. Yogi Ashwini Dhyan Foundation (b - 1961): “Yoga is practical subject, it has a specific road map unique to each individual and there are milestones which indicate how far you have completed this journey. Direction to the next milestone can only be shown by your Guru. Therefore Guru is given utmost significance in Yoga” Without your Guru you won’t be able to evolve. Why? Because every single person is tied by his karmas. So whichever holy place you may go to or whomever you may worship, it will be of no use. You will keep on going round and round lifetime after lifetime. In order to rise you have to open your karmic bandhan, which only a Guru can open.”
  44. 44. Mahatma Gandhi (1869 - 1948): Gandhi was once asked what he thought about Western Civilization. His response was: "I think it would be a good idea.” "The greatness of a nation and its moral progress can be judged by the way its animals are treated.“ “Woman, I hold, is the personification of self-sacrifice, but unfortunately today she does not realize what tremendous advantage she has over man.” “Indians, will stagger humanity without shedding a drop of blood.” “An eye for an eye makes the whole world blind.”
  45. 45. Guru Tegh Bahadur (1621 - 1675): The Kashmiri Brahmins, were being persecuted by the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb, and seeked the council of Guru Tegh Bahadur. The Guru Tegh Bahadur upon hearing of the Brahmins predicament, responded: “Unless a holy man lays down his head for the sake of the poor Brahmins, there is no hope for their escape from imperial tyranny.”. His young son reminded him “Revered father, who would be better equipped for this than yourself?” During his subsequent imprisonment by Aurangzeb, Guru Tegh Bahadur spoke out: “Hinduism may not be my faith, …but I would fight for the right of all Hindus to live with honour and practice their faith according to their own rites…. “ “All men are created by God and therefore must be free to worship in any manner they like. I neither convert others by force, nor submit to force, to change my faith.” The enraged Aurangzeb, upon realising Guru Tegh Bahadur would not convert to Islam, ordered his public beheading by the sword. His body was left in the dust as no one dared to pick up the body for fear of the emperors reprisal.
  46. 46. Sir C.V. Raman, (1888 – 1970) 1930 - Nobel Laureate in Physics for work on scattering of light and Raman effect. Sir Jagdish Chandra Bose, (1858 – 1937) USA based IEEE has proved what has been a century old suspicion amongst academics that the pioneer of wireless-radio communication was Professor Jagdish Chandra Bose and not Guglielmo Marconi. Satyendranath Bose, (1894 - 1974) Indian Physicist, who solved one of the mysteries of quantum mechanics, showing that in the quantum world some particles are indistinguishable. His collaborations with Albert Einstein led to a new branch on statistical mechanics know commonly known as the “Einstein-Bose” statistics.
  47. 47. Dr M.S. Swaminathan, (b - 1925) Dr. Swaminathan helped India overcome the largest food deficit in the world and create a self-sustaining nation, earning him a reputation as father of India’s “Green Revolution”. He devoted himself to research in genetics and breeding to discover genetically superior strains of wheat, rice and coarse grains. Dr Varghese Kurien, (b - 1921) Dr Kurien helped India in achieving a milk surplus. earning him the reputation as the father of India’s “White Revolution”. Kurien helped modernise Anand model of cooperative dairy development, and made India the largest milk producer in the world. Har Gobind Khorana, (b - 1922 ): 1968 - Nobel Laureate in Medicine for work on interpretation of the genetic code . Currently residing as professor at MIT.
  48. 48. Srinivasa Ramanujan, (1887 – 1920): A Brahmin from a poor family, became recognized as one of the Worlds greatest mathematicians, when interest from academics at Trinity College, Cambridge led him to collaborate there and postulate and prove well over 3,542 theorems. He was elected a fellow of Trinity College and became one of the youngest fellows of the Royal Society, he died at the young age of 33. Amartya Sen, (b - 1933): 1998 - The Nobel Prize for Economics for his redefining work on ethical welfare economics. Currently residing as Lamont University Professor Emeritus at Harvard, after stepping down from the prestigious post of Master of Trinity College, Cambridge. Subramanyan Chandrasekhar, (1910 - 1995): 1983 Nobel Laureate in Physics. His many contributions to Physics at the University of Chicago, on the structure and evolution of stars including rotational figures of equilibrium, stellar interiors, black holes, radiative transfer, hydromagnetic stability, stellar dynamics.
  49. 49. Indian Freedom Fighters
  50. 50. Prithvi Raj Chauhan, (1149 - 1192): A king of the Hindu Rajput Chauhamana dynasty, who ruled a kingdom in northern India during the 12th century. He controlled much of present-day Rajasthan and Haryana, and unified the Rajputs against Muslim invasions. After his defeat, India became open to invasion by Muslim invaders, and Delhi came under the control of the Muslim rulers. Maharana Singh Pratap, (1540 - 1597): Maharana Pratap ruler of the state of Mewar, Southern Rajasthan, never accepted the Mughal Akbar as ruler of India, and fought Akbar all his life. Pratap maintained that he had no intention to fight with Akbar but he could not bow down to Akbar and accept him as the ruler. Persia and England, Baghdad and Arabia felt honoured in sending costly embassies to the court of Akbar, but Pratap was content with sending his word of defiance. Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaj, (1627 - 1680): Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaj was the founder of the Maratha Empire in western India. He is considered to be one of the greatest warriors of his time and even today, stories of his exploits are narrated as a part of the folklore. King Shivaji used the guerrilla tactics to capture a part of, the then, dominant Mughal empire.
  51. 51. Tipu Sultan, (1750 - 1799): Tipu also known as the “Tiger of Mysore” was the ruler of the kingdom of Mysore. The only State which offered stiff resistance to Colonial expansion, which fought not one but four wars. Tipu participated in all four Mysore wars, two of which he inflicted serious blows on the English. Mangal Pandey, (1827 - 1857): Mangal Pandey, a member of the 34th Regiment of the Bengal native infantry of the East India Company, led him to attack his senior British officers in an incident, which is today remembered as the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857 or The First War of Independence. The reason behind his burst of anger was that the cartridges for the Enfield rifle to be used by the Indian sepoys were greased with cow and pig fat. Bhagat Singh, (1907 - 1931): Considered to be one of the most influential revolutionaries of the Indian independence movement. Bhagat Singh, because of his interest in studying and his keen sense of history gave revolutionary movement a goal beyond the elimination of the British. A clarity of vision and determination of purpose distinguished Bhagat Singh from other leaders of the National Movement.
  52. 52. Civilized Past
  53. 53. India was the richest country on Earth until the time of the British in the early 17th Century The total amount of wealth the British plundered from India had reached £1 Billion by 1812. (over $1 Trillion in real-terms) Robert Clive’s personal wealth amassed from the plunder of Bengal during 1750’s was estimated at around £401,102 24.4%% 22.4%% 24.4%% 16.0%% 12.1%% 7.5%% 4.2%% 3.1%% 5.4%% 1.1%% 1.8%% 2.9%% 5.2%% 9.0%% 8.2%% 6.5%% 4.2%% 3.2%% 1500% 1600% 1700% 1820% 1870% 1913% 1950% 1973% 2001% India% Great%Britain% %Global Wealth (OECD)
  54. 54. India India was a unified country around 3300 B.C.E. by Emperor Bharata - whom India is named after. India’s history shows an uninterrupted historical timeline recording the development of her civilization through the Royal Dynasty of Kings and lineage of priests that go back 325 generations. India’s 3rd forgotten Epic - This ancient story called the Dasharajnya or ‘Vedic War of 10 Kings’ is the more ancient and forgotten epic that precedes the famous literary classics like the Ramayana and the Mahabarata. It is the only society in the world which has never known slavery. India never invaded any country in her last 10,000 years of history.
  55. 55. Indus & Saraswati Civilisations (Mesopotamia, Harappa, Mohenho-Daro, Mehrgarh) Vedic Civilization King Bharata Dasharajnya Era Ramayana Era Mahabarata Era Sankyha Yoga philosophy Era Mauryan Period (Ashoka) Pandya – Chola Empires Rise of Jainism and Buddhism Golden Age of Indian Arts & Sciences Vijayanagara Empire Muslim Invasions The Mughal Empire Portuguese Invasion The British East-India Company The British Empire India's Freedom Struggle Independence Modern India 2020 Vision A Brief History of Time
  56. 56. • India invented the Number System. Zero was invented by Aryabhatta. The place value system, the decimal system was developed in India in 100 BC. • Aryabhatta was the first to explain spherical shape, size ,diameter, rotation and correct speed of Earth in 499 AD. • The World's first university was established in Takshila in 700 BC. More than 10,500 students from places as far as Babylonia, Greece, Syria, Arabia, and China studied subjects such as science, mathematics, medicine, politics, warfare, astrology, astronomy, music, religion, and philosophy. • The University of Nalanda built in the 4th century A.D. was one of the greatest achievements of ancient India in the field of education and housed over 9 million book. At its peak in the 7th AD, Nalanda held some 10,000 students and teachers when it was visited by the Chinese scholar Xuanzang. The subjects taught at Nalanda University covered every field of learning, and it attracted pupils and scholars from Korea, Japan, China, Tibet, Indonesia, Persia and Turkey.
 • Trigonometry was known to Indian mathematicians and astronomers before their European counterparts. It was used in India from the Gupta period (3rd century AD) onwards, and the Surya- Siddhanta (4th century AD) gives a table of sines. • Ayurveda is the earliest school of medicine known to humans. Charaka, the father of medicine consolidated Ayurveda 2500 years ago. • Christopher Columbus was attracted to India's wealth and was looking for route to India when he discovered the American continent by mistake. • The subject of mathematics in Arabic came to be known as Hindsa which means 'from India’. • The art of Navigation was born in the river Sindh 6000 years ago. The word ‘Navigation’ is derived from the Sanskrit word NAVGATIH. The word navy is also derived from Sanskrit 'Nou'. • In Siddhanta Siromani (Bhuvanakosam 6) Bhaskaracharya II described about gravity of earth about 400 years before Sir Isaac Newton. He also had some clear notions on differential calculus, and the Theory of Continued Fraction. • Fibonnaci numbers first appeared under the name maatraamer by the Sanskrit grammarian Pingala in the Chandas Shastra in 450BC or 200 BC
  57. 57. Languages of India Hindi Sanskrit Tamil Gujarati Urdu Punjabi Malayalam Bengali Marathi Konkani Kannada Assamese Telugu Oriya Rajasthani Kashmiri
  58. 58. Vedic Philosophy The Vedas are the oldest written text on our planet today. They date back to the beginning of Indian civilization and are the earliest literary records of the human mind. They have been passed through oral tradition for over 10,000 years, and first appeared in written form between 2,500 - 5,000 years ago. Veda means “Knowledge” in Sanskrit.
  59. 59. The Ancient Vedic Hymns
 1. Rig Veda - Knowledge of Hymns, 10,859 verses “There is only one truth, only men describe it in different ways.“ 2. Yajur Veda - Knowledge of Liturgy, 3,988 verses 3. Sama Veda - Knowledge of Classical Music, 1,549 verses Ayur Veda - Knowledge of Medicine, over 100,000 verses Upanishads Jyotisha – Astrology and Astronomy. Kalpa – Rituals and Legal matters. Siksha – Phonetics. Aitareya – Creation of the Universe, Man and Evolution. Chandogya – Reincarnation, Soul. Kaushitaki – Karma. Kena – Austerity, Work, and Restraint. Dharnur Veda – Science of Archery and War. Mundaka – Discipline, Faith and warning of Ignorance. Sulba Sutra – Knowledge of Mathematics Yoga Sutra - Knowledge of Meditation Kama Sutra - Knowledge of Love and Sex
  60. 60. Sanskrit ( )
 Sanskrit was the classical language of India, older than Hebrew and Latin. It is the oldest, most scientific, systematic language in the world. It became the language of all cultured people in India and in the countries that were influenced by India. Sanskrit literally means refined or perfected. Sanskrit word English word Sanskrit meaning matar pitar bhratar svasar gyaamti trikonamiti dvaar ma naman smi eka mother papa / father brother sister geometry trigonometry door me name smile equal 'measuring the earth’ 'measuring triangular forms‘ ‘first person pronoun’ ‘the same’ NASA discovered that Sanskrit is the only unambiguous spoken language on the planet. It is regarded the most precise, and therefore suitable language for computer software - a report in Forbes magazine, July 1987.
  61. 61. § Madhavacharya discovered Taylor series of Sine and Cosine function about 250 years before Taylor. § Madhavacharya discovered Newton Power series. § Madhavacharya discovered Gregory Leibnitz series for the Inverse Tangent about 280 years before Gregory. § Madhavacharya discovered Leibnitz power series for pi about 300 years before Leibnitz. § Bhaskaracharya calculated the time taken by the earth to orbit the sun hundreds of years before the astronomer Smart. Time taken by earth to orbit the sun: (5th century) 365.258756484 days § Infinity was well known for ancient Indians. Bhaskaracharya II in Beejaganitha(stanza-20) has given clear explanation with examples for infinity. § Brahmagupta, 630 AD, gave a figure of 36,000 km for the earth's circumference, not far from the actual value. 
 § Indian atomic theory greatly predates Democritus (430 BC). Kashyapa (aka Kanada), in his Vaisheshika Sutra, formulated an advanced theory of atomic structure in the 6th century BC. He also stated the principle of volume displacement long before Archimedes. § Theory of Continued Fraction was discovered by Bhaskaracharya II. § Indians discovered Arithmetic and Geometric progression, which is explained in Yajurveda. § Govindaswamin discovered Newton Gauss Interpolation about 1800 years before Newton. § Vateswaracharya discovered Newton Gauss Backward Interpolation formula about 1000 years before Newton. § Parameswaracharya discovered Lhuiler’s formula about 400 years before Lhuiler. § Nilakanta discovered Newton’s Infinite Geometric Progression convergent series. § Positive and Negative numbers and their calculations were explained first by Brahmagupta in his book Brahmasputa Siddhanta.
 § Aryabhatta propounded the Heliocentric theory of gravitation, thus predating Copernicus by almost one thousand years. In poetic form, Aryabhata stated that the earth's diurnal rotation on its axis produced the daily rising and setting of planets and stars. 
 § Pakudha Kayayana (580 BC), taught atomic theory by propounding the theory that undifferentiated potential matter (tanmatra) forms the universal energy of the cosmos by forming atoms.
  62. 62. The Surya Siddhanta A textbook on astronomy of ancient India, last compiled in 1000 BC, believed to be handed down from 3000 BC by aid of complex mnemonic recital methods still known today. Showed the Earth's diameter to be 7,840 miles, compared to modern measurements of 7,926.7 miles. Showed the distance between the Earth and the Moon as 253,000 miles, Compared to modern measurements of 252,710 miles.
  63. 63. India § The value of "pi" was first calculated by Boudhayana, and he explained the concept of what is known as the Pythagorean Theorem. He discovered this in the 6th century long before the European mathematicians. This was ‘validated’ by British scholars in 1999. § Algebra, trigonometry and calculus came from India. Quadratic equations were propounded by Sridharacharya in the 11th century. § The largest numbers the Greeks and the Romans used were 106 whereas Hindus used numbers as big as 1053 with specific names as early as 5000 BC during the Vedic period. Even today, the largest used number is Tera: 1012. § Maharshi Sushruta is the father of surgery. 2600 years ago he and health scientists of his time conducted complicated surgeries like caesareans, cataract, artificial limbs, fractures, urinary stones and even plastic surgery. § Usage of anaesthesia was well known in ancient India. Over 125 surgical equipments were used. § Detailed knowledge of anatomy, physiology, aetiology, embryology, digestion, metabolism, genetics and immunity is also found in many texts. § When many cultures were only nomadic forest dwellers over 5000 years ago, Indians established Harappan culture in the Sindhu Valley Civilization.
  64. 64. India Brahmagupta, 630 A.D., said, the following about Gravity, “Bodies fall towards the earth as it is in the nature of the earth to attract bodies, just as it is in the nature of water to flow". A century before Brahmagupta, Varahamihira claimed that “objects remain on the earth's surface due to an internal attractive force and that a similar force keeps celestial bodies in their positions.” -- In fact, the ancient Sanskrit has a word for gravity -- Gurutvakarshan.
  65. 65. India Sulvasutras of Baudhayana , 600 B.C.E., said the following 200 years before Pythagoras "The diagonal of an oblong produces by itself both the areas which the two sides of the oblong produce separately."
  66. 66. India Aryabhata, 500 AD, the father of Indian mathematics and astronomy, computed “pi” to 3.1416, a value not equalled in Europe until Purbach (1423-61). “pi” is computed to 11 digits in the Karanapaddhati work (15th century) as 3.1415926535, a value not equaled in Europe until much later.
  67. 67. § The world famous and priceless “Kohinoor” diamond, which is set in the Crown of the British monarch (Queen Victoria, and Elizabeth II), was acquired from India. § According to the Gemological Institute of America, up until 1896, India was the only source for diamonds to the world. § Archaeologists generally believe Chess arose India, where the oldest indisputable appearance in 750 AD. The word was known as chaturanga which became transformed into chatrang by the Persians and as shatranj by the Arabic and finally to chess. § The game of snakes & ladders was created by the 13th century poet saint Gyandev. It was originally called  'Mokshapat.' The ladders in the game represented virtues and the snakes indicated vices. India § RigVedas (1.50), a hymn addressed to the Sun, refers quite clearly that the Sun traverses 2,202 yojanas in half a nimesha. This is in fact refers to the speed of light. § The World's first Granite Temple is the Brihadeeswara temple at Tanjavur in Tamil Nadu. The shikhara is made from a single '80-tonne' piece of granite. § 1 million B.C.E. - The oldest stone tool in the world, going back to 2.2 million years old, has been found at Rabat, about fifteen miles away from Rawalpindi, thus breaking the African record. The largest hand Axe has also been found in the Soan Valley.
  68. 68. Kalarippayat -Origin of Martial arts – 200 BC Kerala, South India, guardians of the origins of modern martial-arts, influenced by Yoga and connected to the ancient Indian sciences of war (dhanur-veda) and medicine (ayur-veda). Exponents and practitioners of this art were the warrior clans of Kerala and Tamil Nadu the Nairs and Maravars/vellalar/mudaliar these advocates of kalaripayattu defended South India from foreign invaders. The origin of Kung-Fu began with a monk named Bodhidharma (also known as Ta Mo) who travelled from India to China around 500 A.D to establish the Shaolin Temples .
  69. 69. Manipuri Bharata Natyam Odissi Mohini Attam Kuchipudi Kathakali Kathak 7 Classical Dance forms
  70. 70. India's ancient achievements in Medical Science Knowledge Ancient Reference Modern Reference Artificial Limb RigVed (1-116-15) 20th Century Number of Chromosomes (23) Mahabharat (5500 BCE) 1890 A.D. Combination of Male and Female Shrimad Bhagwat 20th Century Analysis of Ears RigVed Labyrinth Beginning of the Foetal Heart Eitereya Upanishad -(6000 BCE) Robinson, 1972 Parthenogenesis Mahabharat 20th Century Test Tube Babies ( from the ovum only) Test Tube Babies ( from the sperm only) Mahabharat Not possible yet Not possible yet Elongation of Life in confirmed Space Travel Shrimad Bhagwat Not yet Cell Division (in 3 layers) Shrimad Bhagwat 20th Century Embryology Eitereya Upanishad (6000 BCE) 19th Century Micro-organisms Mahabharat 18th Century A material producing a disease can prevent or cure the disease in minute quantity S-Bhagwat (1-5-33) Haneman, 18th Century Developing Embyro in Vitro Mahabharat 20th Century Life in trees and plants Mahabharat Bose, 19th Century 16 Functions of the Brain Eitereya Upanishad 19th – 20th Century Definition of Sleep Prashna-Upanishad Yogsootra Cunavidhi 20th Century Chromosomes (Mahabharat)(5500 BCE) 1860 – 1910 A.D. (Ref: Dr.P.V. Vartak, Pune, India)
  71. 71. India's ancient achievements in Physical Science Knowledge Ancient Reference Modern Reference Velocity of Light RigVed - Sayan Bhashya (1400 A.D) 19th Century Trans-Saturnean Planets Mahabharat (5500 B.C.E.) 17-19th Century Space Travel to another solar system Shrimad Bhagwat (4000 B.C.E.) Under trials Gravitational Force Prashnopanishad (6000 B.C.E.) Shankaracharya (500 B.C.E.) 17th Century Ultraviolet Band Sudhumravarna - (Mundakopanishad - M.U) ---- Infra-Red Band Sulohita (M.U) ---- Tachyons faster than light Manojava (Mundakopanishad) Sudarshan, 1968 Nuclear Energy Spullingini (Mundakopanishad) 20th Century Black Holes Vishvaruchi(Mundakopanishad) 20th Century Embryology Eitereya Upanishad (6000 B.C.E.) 19th Century Monsoon at Summer Solstice RigVed (23720 B.C.E) ---- Entry in South America by Airplanes Valmiki Ramayan (7300 B.C.E) ---- Phosphorescent Trident at the Bay of Pisco, Peru, S.America Valmiki Ramayan (7300 B.C.E.) 1960 A.D. Airplanes RigVed,Ramayana, Samarangan Sutradhara (1050 A.D.) ---- Robot Samarangan Sutradhara (1050 A.D.) ---- Atom (Divisible) & (Indivisible) Shrimad Bhagwat (4000 B.C.E.) 1800 A.D. (Ref: Dr.P.V. Vartak, Pune, India)
  72. 72. Ancient Mythologies and Epics
  73. 73. The Ancient Indian Historical Epics Ramayana Mahabharata Post Vedic Civil War of India, Longest Epic in world literature with 100,000 two-line stanzas, composed about 1,400 B.C.E. (3,400 years ago). The first Indian epic consisting of 24,000 verses divided into 7 books, composed about 4,100 B.C.E. (Rama’s exile took place 5089BC - 7,104 years ago). Dasharajnya The lost Indian epic, Vedic war of Ten Kings, preserved in the Rg Vedas, Bharata King Sudas fought a war on values, not race, 2,900 B.C.E (4,900 years ago).
  74. 74. Similarities to Greek mythology Hercules (Herakles) fighting the Lernaean Hydra Krishna (Harekrsna) fighting the Kaliya Serpent
  75. 75. Similarities to Greek mythology Dionysus (Dionysos) holding a Trident Shiva, holding the Trident, resting on a leopard skin with a Cobra perched beside him, his abode is Mount Kailas, Himalayas Dionysus (Dionysos) encircled with a snake, with leopard by his side, with the moon in the background, his abode is Mount Olympus
  76. 76. Similarities to the Bible "In the Beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. The same was in the Beginning with God. All things were made by Him; and without Him was not any thing made that was made." Gospel of St. John, New Testament, Chapter 1, Verse 1-3. In the beginning was Brahman [God] (Prajaapatir vai idam aaseet) With whom was the Vaak [Word] (Tasya vaak dvitiyaa aaseet) And the word itself was the Brahman [God] (Vag vai paramam Brahma) Rig Veda,
  77. 77. On Relativity and Vedanta Swami Vivekananda (1900)
 “If I am looking at the universe with my senses, I interpret it as matter and force. It is one and many at the same time. The manifold does not destroy the unity. The millions of waves do not destroy the unity of the ocean. It remains the same ocean. When you look at the universe, remember that we can reduce it to matter or to force. If we increase the velocity, the mass decreases. On the other hand, we can increase the mass and decrease the velocity... We may almost come to a point where all the mass will entirely disappear. Matter cannot be said to cause force nor can force be the cause of matter. Both are so related that one may disappear in the other. There must be a third factor and that third something is the mind. You cannot produce the universe from matter, neither from force. Mind is something which is neither force not matter, yet begetting force and matter all the time. In the long run, mind is begetting all force, and that is what is meant by the universal mind, the sum total of minds.” – Swami Vivekananda, San Francisco, March 28, 1900 Albert Einstein (1905)
 “The laws by which the states of physical systems alter are independent of the alternative, to which of two systems of coordinates, in uniform motion of parallel translation relatively to each other, these alterations of state are referred (principle of relativity). 
 If a body gives off the energy L in the form of radiation, its mass diminishes by L/c2 . The fact that the energy withdrawn from the body becomes energy of radiation evidently makes no difference, so that we are led to the more general conclusion that: The mass of a body is a measure of its energy-content; if the energy changes by L, the mass changes in the same sense by L/ 9 ×1020 , the energy being measured in ergs, and the mass in grammes. “ E=MC2. - Albert Einstein, “Does the inertia of a body depend upon its energy-content?”, Sept 27, 1905
  78. 78. Similarities of Rama in pre-Flood history Rama was the sun-god of the Hindus. The pre-eminent religion of Egypt was sun-worship with Ra as their sun- god. Rana a god of the Toltecs. Ra-mu was the sun-god of Mu. Raymi was the great festival of the sun in Peru. Rayam, a god of Yemen.
  79. 79. Abraham descendent from Brahma? Rama Ram Ab–Raam/Raham Ab Semitic meaning - “Father” Brahma Abraham Sanskrit meaning – “Creator” Sanskrit meaning – “to grow in number” Brah Known as – “Father of all men and Gods” Known as “Exhalted Father Semitic meaning - “Of the exhalted” Abram Sarai Known as - wife of Abram Sarah IsaacIshmael Sarai-Svati Hagar Saraswati Known as – Goddess of Knowledge, Music and Arts Sarasvati RiverKnown as – Holy river of the Vedic Indus Valley. Known as - wife of Brahma Ghaggar Tributary of Saraswati river Ishaku - Sanskrit meaning - "Friend of Shiva." Ish-Mahal – Sanskrit meaning - “Great Shiva." “A-Brahm” / “Ah-Brahm”
  80. 80. Similarities to Biblical mythology The ancient Hindu Aryan Indians (Indus Saraswati) spoke about a series of Ten Pitris (Fathers) who ruled before the global Flood. Ancient Babylonian legend speaks of a pre-Flood series of Ten kings. The ancient Egyptians described Ten Shining Ones who ruled consecutively before the Deluge. The last of these Ten kings was the hero who led seven others aboard a vessel in which they survived the global Flood. In ancient India, that hero’s name was Manu who survived the global-Flood "pralaya" with the Seven Rishis. In ancient Babylon, that hero's name was Zisudra who spear-headed the survival on the Ark of seven other humans, the Seven Apkallu. In ancient Egypt, that Flood hero was Toth who survived the Deluge along with the Seven Sages.
  81. 81. Did the people of India travel as far as Easter Island? The Easter Islands located in the Pacific Ocean, were situated far away from any civilization. The craftsmanship of these islands corresponds to the one of the ancient Incas. The sign script of the Easter Islands almost equals the ancient scripts of Indus Valley. Easter Island symbols Indus Saraswati symbols Were the Ancient Vedic civilisation of Indus Saraswati valley Trans-Oceanic seafarers?
  82. 82. Quotes
  83. 83. J. Robert Oppenheimer, American nuclear physicist (1904-1967): "If the radiance of a thousand suns were to burst into the sky, that would be like the splendor of the Mighty One. . . . Now I am become death, the destroyer of worlds.“ Oppenheimer "the father of the atomic bomb" quoting from the Hindu scripture Bhagavad-Gita upon witnessing the mushroom cloud resulting from the detonation of the world’s first atomic bomb in New Mexico, U.S.A., on July 16, 1945. “Access to the Vedas is the greatest privilege this century may claim over all previous centuries. “
  84. 84. Victor Cousin, French Philosopher (1792-1867): "When we read the poetical and philosophical monuments of the East – above all, those of India, which are beginning to spread in Europe – we discover there many a truth, and truths so profound, and which make such a contrast with the meanness of the results at which European genius has sometimes stopped, that we are constrained to bend the knee before the philosophy of the East, and to see in this cradle of the human race the native land of the highest philosophy.“
  85. 85. Dr. Arnold Joseph Toynbee, British Historian (1889-1975): "It is already becoming clear that a chapter which had a Western beginning will have to have an Indian ending, if it is not to end in the self-destruction of the human race. 
 At this supremely dangerous moment in human history, the only way of salvation for mankind is the Indian way."
  86. 86. Albert Einstein (1879 -1955): “When I read the Bhagavad-Gita and reflect about how God created this universe everything else seems so superfluous.” "We owe a lot to the Indians, who taught us how to count, without which no worthwhile scientific discovery could have been made.“
  87. 87. Will Durant, American historian, (1885-1981): "India was the motherland of our race, and Sanskrit the mother of Europe's languages; she was the mother of our philosophy; mother, through the Arabs, of much of our mathematics; mother, through the Buddha, of the ideals embodied in Christianity; mother, through the village community, of self-government and democracy. Mother India is in many ways the mother of us all". “Perhaps in return for conquest, arrogance and spoilation, India will teach us the tolerance and gentleness of the mature mind, the quiet content of the unacquisitive soul, the calm of the understanding spirit, and a unifying, a pacifying love for all living things.” "Europe and America are the spoiled child and grandchild of Asia and have never quite realized the wealth of their pre-classical inheritance."
  88. 88. Sir William Jones, Jurist, (1746-1794): “…The Sanskrit language is of wonderful structure, more perfect than the Greek, more copious than the Latin and more exquisitely refined than either. “... a stronger affinity than could possibly have been produced by accident; so strong, indeed, that no philologer could examine them all three, without first believing them to have sprung from some common source... ”
  89. 89. T.S. Eliot Jurist, (1888-1965): “A good half of the effort of understanding what the Indian philosophers were after — and their subtleties make most of the great European philosophers look like schoolboys…. And I came to the conclusion … that my only hope of really penetrating to the heart of that mystery would lie in forgetting how to think and feel as an American or a European: which, for practical as well as sentimental reasons, I did not wish to do.”
  90. 90. Hu Shih, former Ambassador of China to USA (1891-1962): "India conquered and dominated China culturally for 20 centuries without ever having to send a single soldier across her border.”
  91. 91. Ralph Waldo Emerson, American Philosopher (1803-1882): "I owed a magnificent day to the Bhagavad-Gita. It was the first of books; it was as if an empire spoke to us, nothing small or unworthy, but large, serene, consistent, the voice of an old intelligence which in another age and climate had pondered and thus disposed of the same questions which exercise us.“ “The Indian teaching, through its clouds of legends, has yet a simple and grand religion, like a queenly countenance seen through a rich veil. It teaches to speak truth, love others, and to dispose trifles. The East is grand - and makes Europe appear the land of trifles. ...all is soul and the soul is Vishnu ...cheerful and noble is the genius of this cosmogony” “When India was explored and the wonderful riches of Indian theological literature found, that dispelled once and for all, the dream about Christianity being the sole revelation. - Nature makes a Brahmin of me presently.”
  92. 92. Arthur Schopenhauer, German Philosopher (1788-1860): “The Upanishads are the production of the highest human wisdom and I consider them almost superhuman in conception.” "In the whole world there is no study so beneficial and so elevating as that of the Upanishads. It has been the solace of my life – it will be the solace of my death." “It is the most rewarding and the most elevating book which can be possible in the world.“ “I believe that the influence of the Sanskrit literature will penetrate not less deeply than did the revival of Greek literature in the fifteenth century.”
  93. 93. Henry David Thoreau, American Philosopher (1817-1862): “…In the morning I bathe my intellect in the stupendous and cosmological philosophy of the Bhagavad-Gita in comparison with which our modern world and its literature seem puny and trivial."
 “…Whenever I have read any part of the Vedas, I have felt that some unearthly and unknown light illuminated me. In the great teaching of the Vedas, there is no touch of the sectarianism. 
 It is of ages, climes, and nationalities and is the royal road for the attainment of the Great Knowledge. When I am at it, I feel that I am under the spangled heavens of a summer night.“
  94. 94. Mark Twain, American Author (1835-1920): “This is India! The land of dreams and romance, of fabulous wealth and fabulous poverty, of splendor and rags, of palaces and hovels, of famine and pestilence, of genii and giants and Aladdin lamps, of tigers and elephants, the cobra and the jungle, the country of a hundred nations and a hundred tongues, of a thousand religions and two million gods, cradle of the human race, birthplace of human speech, mother of history, grandmother of legend, great-grandmother of tradition, whose yesterdays bear date with the mouldering antiquities of the rest of the nations – the one sole country under the sun that is endowed with an imperishable interest for alien persons, for lettered and ignorant, wise and fool, rich and poor, bond and free, the one land that all men desire to see, and having seen once, by even a glimpse, would not give that glimpse for all the shows of all the rest of the globe combined. Even now, after a lapse of a year, the delirium of those days in Bombay has not left me and I hope it never will.”
  95. 95. Steve Jobs American Entrepreneur (1955-2011): “Mohandas Gandhi is my choice for the Person of the Century because he showed us the way out of the destructive side of our human nature.   Gandhi demonstrated that we can force change and justice through moral acts of aggression instead of physical acts of aggression.  Never has our species needed this wisdom more." “There is no-one that embodies what I want to become other than Gandhi, he changed the world.”
  96. 96. Professor Max Muller, (1823-1900): "India, what can it teach us?, 
 "If I were to look over the whole world to find out the country most richly endowed with all the wealth, power and beauty that nature can bestow, in some parts a very paradise on earth, I should point to India. If I were asked under what sky the human mind has most developed some of it choicest gifts, has most deeply pondered on the greatest problems of life and has found solutions of some of them which will deserve the attention even of those who have studied Plato and Kant, I should point to India. And if I were to ask myself from what literature we, here in Europe, who have been nurtured most exclusively on the thoughts of the Greeks and Romans and of the Semitic race and the Jewish may draw that corrective which is most wanted in order to make our inner life more comprehensive, more universal, in fact a more truly human life, again, I should point to India". 
 “.. the Vedas are the oldest books in existence ... and it carries us back to times of which we have no records anywhere."
  97. 97. The Encyclopedia Britannica says: "Man must have an original cradle land whence the peopling of the earth was brought about by migration. As to man’s cradle land, there have been many theories but the weight of evidence is in favour of Indo-Malaysia.” "If there is a country on earth which can justly claim the honour of having been the cradle of the Human race or at least the scene of primitive civilization, the successive developments of which carried into all parts of the ancient world and even beyond, the blessings of knowledge which is the second life of man, that country is assuredly India.“
  98. 98. George Harrison, Beatles (1943 - 2001): "For every human there is a quest to find the answer to why I am here, who am I, where did I come from, where am I going. For me that became the most important thing in my life. Everything else is secondary." "Here everybody is vibrating on a material level, which is nowhere. Over there [India], they have this great feeling of something else that's just spiritual going on. “
  99. 99. Lord Curzon British Viceroy of India, (1859-1925): "India has left a deeper mark upon the history, the philosophy, and the religion of mankind, than any other terrestrial unit in the universe." "While we hold onto India, we are a first rate power. If we lose India, we will decline to a third rate power. This is the value of India."
  100. 100. Carl G Yung, Swiss Psychiatrist (1894-1963): “No system of thought today or body control is more widely known today than Yoga. When a religious method recommends itself as scientific, it can be certain of its public [interest] in the West. Yoga fulfils this expectation. “
  101. 101. Dalai Lama, (b-1935): “Hindus and Buddhists, we are two sons of the same mother."
  102. 102. Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936): “Now it is not good for the Christian's health to hustle the Hindu brown. For the Christian riles and the Hindu smiles and weareth the Christian down ; 
 And the end of the fight is a tombstone while with the name of the late deceased and the epitaph drear ,
 ‘A fool lies here who tried to hustle the east’ ".
  103. 103. Apollonius Tyaneus Greek Thinker and Traveller, 1st Century AD "In India I found a race of mortals living upon the Earth, but not adhering to it. Inhabiting cities, but not being fixed to them, possessing everything but possessed by nothing."
  104. 104. John Archibald Wheeler Theoretical Physicist, who coined “Black Hole” (b-1911): “I like to think that someone will trace how the deepest thinking of India made its way to Greece and from there to the philosophy of our times.”

  105. 105. Joseph Campbell American Scholar on Mythology (1904-1987): "It is ironic that our great western civilisation, which has opened to
 the minds of all mankind the infinite wonders of a universe of untold
 billions of galaxies should be saddled with the tightest little cosmological
 image known to mankind? The Hindus with their grandiose Kalpas and their
 ideas of the divine power which is beyond all human. Not so alien to the imagery of modern science that it could not have been put to acceptable use."
  106. 106. Werner Heisenberg German Physicist, University of Chicago Nobel Laureate, founder of Quantum Physics, (1901-1976): “After the conversations about Indian philosophy, some of the ideas of Quantum Physics that had seemed so crazy suddenly made much more sense.”
  107. 107. Deepak Chopra, MD., Author and International speaker on holistic medicine (b-1947): "I find that Vedanta, of all great traditions, does have a framework that I can come to terms with as a person who thinks that science is the most legitimate way of understanding the secrets of nature." " I regard Vedanta as a source which inspired Hinduism."
  108. 108. Adam Smith, Father of economics, and author of “Wealth of Nations”: (1723-1790) "The difference between the genius of the British constitution which protects and governs North America, and that of the mercantile company [British East India Company] which oppresses and domineers in the East Indies[India], cannot perhaps be better illustrated than by the different state of those countries."
  109. 109. Erwin Schrödinger, Father of Quantum Physics: (1887-1961) “Vedanta teaches that consciousness is singular, all happenings are played out in one universal consciousness and there is no multiplicity of selves.” “The stages of human development are to strive for Possession [Dharma], Knowledge [Ardha], Ability [Kama], Being [Moksha].” “Nirvana is a state of pure blissful knowledge……It has nothing to do with individual. The ego or its separation is an illusion. The goal of man is to preserve his Karma and to develop it further…….when man dies his Karma lives and creates for itself another carrier"
  110. 110. H.G. Wells, Sociologist, and Historian and Author of “Time Machine” and “War of the Worlds” (1866-1946): "The history of India for many centuries had been happier, less fierce, and more dreamlike than any other history. In these favourable conditions, they built a character - meditative and peaceful and a nation of philosophers such as could nowhere have existed except in India."
  111. 111. Jean-Sylvain Bailly, French Astronomer, (1736-1793): “The motion of the stars calculated by the Hindus before some 4500 years vary not even a single minute from the tables of Cassine and Meyer (used in the 19th century). …The Hindu systems of astronomy are by far the oldest and that from which the Egyptians, Greek, Romans and - even the Jews derived from the Hindus their knowledge.”
  112. 112. George Bernard Shaw, Irish dramatist, literary critic, socialist spokesman (1856-1950): “The Indian way of life provides the vision of the natural, real way of life. We veil ourselves with unnatural masks. On the face of India are the tender expressions which carry the mark of the Creator's hand.”
  113. 113. Rajiv Malhotra Speaker, Philanthropist, Public Speaker “The reduction of dharma to concepts such as religion and law has harmful consequences: it places the study of dharma in Western frameworks, moving it away from the authority of its own exemplars. Moreover, it creates the false impression that dharma is similar to Christian ecclesiastical law-making and the related struggles for state power. The result of equating dharma with religion in India has been disastrous: in the name of secularism, dharma has been subjected to the same limits as Christianity in Europe. A non-religious society may still be ethical without belief in God, but an a-dharmic society loses its ethical compass and falls into corruption and decadence.”
  114. 114. Dr David Frawley, American Teacher, Doctor, Author, Speaker, Historian “India possesses a great indigenous civilisation dating back to 7000 BC, such as recent archaeological discoveries at Mehrgarh clearly reveal. It had the most extensive urban culture in the world in the third millennium BCE with the many cities of the Indus and Sarasvati rivers. 
 When the Sarasvati river of Vedic fame dried up in the second millennium BCE, the culture shifted east to the more certain rivers of the Gangetic plain, which became the dominant region of the subcontinent. Gone is the old idea of the Aryan invasion and an outside basis for Indian culture. In its place is the continuity of a civilisation and its literature going back to the earliest period of history. Unfortunately, over the first fifty years since Independence, India has not discovered its real roots. Its intellectuals have mimicked Western trends in thought. They have forgotten their own profound modern sages like Swami Vivekananda and Sri Aurobindo who projected modern and futuristic views of the Indian tradition. While Westerners come to India seeking spiritual knowledge, Indian intellectuals look to the West with an adulation that is often blind, if not obsequious.”
  115. 115. Annie Wood Besant, British Theosophical Society, (1847-1933): “After a study of some forty years and more of the great religions of the world, I find none so perfect, none so scientific, none so philosophical and none so spiritual than the great religion known by the name of Hinduism. Make no mistake, without Hinduism, India has no future. Hinduism is the soil in to which India's roots are stuck and torn out of that she will inevitably wither as a tree torn out from its place.  And if Hindus do not maintain Hinduism - who shall save it?  If India's own children do not cling to her faith - who shall guard it? - India alone can save India and India and Hinduism are one.”
  116. 116. Sights of India
  117. 117. Mount Kailas, Himalayas “abode of bliss” – in Sanskrit
  118. 118. Tirupati Sacred shrine of Lord Sri Venkateswara or the Lord of Seven hills, this temple is located on a hill at Tirumala. Tirupati has overtaken the Vatican, not just as the richest temple in the world but also the most visited place of worship. 
 Golconda Fort An extraordinary monument of Hyderabad, built in the 13th century by the Kakatiya kings. The present structure of the Golconda Fort was renovated by Qutub Shahi kings into a massive fort. Lepakshi Temple The famous Veerabhadra temple is a notable example of the Vijayanagar architectural style. It is famous for its sculptures, which were created by the artisans of Vijayanagara empire. A huge Nandi bull made out of a single granite stone is one of the attractions in Lepakshi. Andra Pradesh Hussain Sagar Lake, Lumbini Park A lake in Hyderabad, India built by Hazrat Hussain Shah Wali in 1562, during the rule of Ibrahim Quli Qutb Shah. There is a large monolithic statue of the Gautam Buddha in the middle of the lake.
  119. 119. Dakshineswar Temple The famous Dakshineswar Kali temple is located on the eastern banks of the Hoogly river. It became the workplace for Ramakrishna Paramahamsa, the famous 20th century saint of India. West Bengal Victoria Memorial Built by British Viceroy Lord Curzon in the memory of Queen Victoria. Built in the Italian Renaissance style with elements of Mughal architecture incorporated in it. Built by the Mala rulers in the 7th –18th century, unlike the temples and monuments built out of marble and stones brought from far-off places, the basic construction material for the Bishnupur temples was the local red soil. Bishnupur Terracota Temples Sunderbans Situated at the mouth of the Ganges and is spread across areas of West Bengal. Known for the Royal Bengal Tigerand numerous fauna including species of birds, spotted deer, crocodiles and snakes. It is estimated that there are 500 Bengal tigers and about 30,000 spotted deer in the area. The forest spreads over 10,000 It is intersected by a complex network of tidal waterways, mud flats and small islands of salt-tolerant mangrove forests.
  120. 120. Caves of Badami Carved on top of a hill, about 500 km from Bangalore. There are four major caves. They are temples dedicated to different religions. All the four caves are carved out of Deccan sandstone. They were built by the Chalukya Empire around 6th century. Hampi Hampi is the site of the once magnificent capital of the Vijayangar Empire, is a UNESCO world heritage site. The ruins of Hampi lies scattered in about 26 sq. km area, amidst giant boulders and vegetation. The first historical settlement in Hampi date back to 1 BC. Pattadakal Pattadakalal is renowned for the group of the 700AD-800AD monuments. These are listed in the UNESCO’s list of World Heritage Sites. Located on the banks of the river Malaprabha, Pattadakal is the capital of the Chalukya rulers. Karnataka Mysore Palace Situated in the city of Mysore, it was the official residence of the former Royal family. Every Autumn, the palace is the venue for the famous Mysore Dasara festival. Jog Falls Jog Falls, formed by the Sharavathi River falling from a height of 253 meters (829 ft) it is the highest plunge waterfall in India. Located in Shimoga District of Karnataka state, these segmented falls are a major tourist attraction.
  121. 121. Golden Temple Golden Temple, informally referred to as The Golden Temple or Temple of God. It is culturally the most significant place of worship of the Sikhs and one of the oldest Sikh gurdwaras. Located in the city of Amritsar. Its architecture represents a unique harmony between the Muslims and the Hindu architecture. Punjab Qila Mubarak A historical national monument of India, forms the heart of the city of Bathinda, in Punjab . It has been in existence for approximately 1900 years in its current form. Some sources have the structure in its original, primitive form dating back to the Harrapa period. Jallianwala Bagh The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre (Amritsar Massacre), in the northern Indian city of Amritsar where, on April 13th 1919, 90 British Indian Army soldiers under the command of Brigadier-General Reginald Dyer opened fire on an unarmed gathering of men, women and children. Official British Raj sources placed the fatalities at 379, and with 1100 wounded. Wagah Border Often called the ‘Berlin’ Wall of Asia it is the only road order crossing between India and Pakistan, and lies on the Grand Trunk Road between the cities of Amritsar and Lahore. Each evening, there is a retreat ceremony called 'lowering of the flags'. At that time there is very energetic and thrilling posturing done by Border Security Force (B.S.F), India and Pakistan Rangers soldiers.
  122. 122. Himachal Pradesh Vice Regal Lodge The Viceregal Lodge of Shimla is a heritage building that is situated on the Observatory Hill of Shimla. This building originally used to be the dwelling hub of the then Viceroy of India Lord Dufferin. It was the center of important decision making earlier like the historic Shimla conference of 1945 as well as the 1947 decision of partitioning India into Pakistan and Bangladesh. Tabo Monastery "Ajanta of the Himalayas", is popularly known, was founded in 996A.D. Located at an altitude of 3050 m, it offers magnificent views of the valley below. The monastery temples houses a priceless collection of manuscripts and Buddhist scroll paintings, exquisite statues in stuccos, frescos and murals depicting tales from the Mahayana Buddhist Pantheon. Masroor Temple The famous 15 monolithic rocks cut temples in the indo-aryan style, richly carved. The main Shrine contains three stone images of Lord Ram, his brother Lakshman and wife Sita. Located about 40 kms from Dharamshala. Kangra Fort The Kangra Fort is located 20 kilometers from the town of Dharamsala on the outskirts of the town of Kangra. The fort dates back to 1009 AD. It is the largest fort in the Himalayas and probably the oldest dated fort in India.
  123. 123. Vivekananda Memorial The Vivekananda rock temple, located in the midst of the ocean, just 400 meters from Kanyakumari, is dedicated to one of the greatest spiritual philosophers of India, Swami Vivekananda. It is said that Swami Vivekananda meditated here before setting out on one of the most crucial religious campaigns in India and to the West in 1892. Rameshwaram Rameshwaram is one of the most sacred pilgrimage destinations in India. It is located on an island separated from mainland India by the Pamban channel and is less than 40 kilometers from the Jaffna Peninsula, Sri Lanka. 
 Mahabalipuram Local lore had long mentioned the existence of seven magnificent temples in the area, years ago, however six of them were submerged in the sea, the 7th temple, a UNESCO World heritage site, still stands on the shore. Tamil Nadu Madurai Meenakshi Amman Temple' is a historic Hindu temple located in the holy city of Madurai. It is dedicated to Lord Shiva and his consort, Goddess Parvati. The temple forms the heart and lifeline of the 2500 year old city of Madurai.
  124. 124. Red Fort The Red Fort (Lal Quila) and the city of Shahjahanabad was constructed by the Emperor Shah Jahan in 1639 A.D, and is a UNESCO World Heritage site. Every year on Independence Day the Prime Minister of India hoists the national flag and addresses the nation, from the ramparts of Red fort. Lotus Temple The Bahá'í House of Worship in Delhi, India, popularly known as the Lotus Temple due to its flowerlike shape, is a Bahá'í House of Worship and also a prominent attraction in Delhi. Though it serves as the mother temple of the Bahá'í religion, it is built by the Bahá'í’s for all to unite, regardless of religion or any other distinction. India Gate The India Gate is one of the largest war memorials in India. Situated in the heart of New Delhi, it is a prominent landmark in Delhi and commemorates the members of the erstwhile British Indian Army who lost their lives fighting for the Indian Empire in World War I and the Afghan Wars.
 Haryana (Delhi) Jama Masjid The Mosque was built by Shah Jahan in 1648 and dedicated to his favorite daughter, Jahanara Begum. Qutub Minar The Qutab Minar, a tower in Delhi, India, is the world's tallest brick minaret. Construction commenced in 1193 under the orders of India's first Muslim ruler Qutb-ud-din Aibak. The Qutub Minar is notable for being one of the earliest and most prominent examples of Indo-Islamic architecture.
  125. 125. - Kushinagar - Garhwal Himalaya (Nanda Devi peak) - Varanasi (Ghats) - Varanasi (Sarnath) - Corbett National Park - Agra Fort - Taj Mahal - Rani Mahal - Valley of Flowers Uttar Pradesh DRAFT
  126. 126. Ganges River, Varanasi
  127. 127. City Palace City Palace Udaipur is a palace situated in Udaipur. , India. Built by Maharana Udai Singh, it is one of the main tourist attractions of the city. Standing on the east bank of Lake Pichola is a massive series of palaces built at different times from 1559. Ranthambore National Park Ranthambore National Park is one of the largest and famous national parks in India. It is situated in Sawai Madhopur district of southeastern Rajasthan, about 130 km from Jaipur. It is is most famous for its large tiger population. Hawa Mahal The Hawa Mahal palace, Jaipur, was built in 1799 by Maharaja Sawai Pratap Singh, and designed in the form of the crown of Krishna, the Hindu god. It forms part of the City Palace and extends the women's chambers of the harem. Rajasthan Jaisalmer Fort Standing almost 30 m above the city of Jaisalmer is the Jaisalmer fort. The fort is also known as the Sonar Quila. This is because standing against the backdrop of the desert with its golden sand. Mehrangarh Fort Mehrangarh Fort, located in Jodhpur city is one of the largest forts in India. The fort is situated on a lofty height, 400 ft above the city, and is enclosed by imposing thick walls. The fort is amongst the popular tourist places in India.
  128. 128. Western Thar Desert, Rajasthan
  129. 129. Konark (Sun Temple) Situated at a distance from the famous religious and tourist centre of Puri (35 Km.) and the capital city of Bhubaneswar (65 Km). The Sun Temple of Konark, in worship of Surya the Sun god, marks the highest point of achievement of Kalinga architecture depicting the grace, the joy and the rhythm of life all in its wondrous variety. It was built by King Raja Narasimhadeva-I of the Eastern Ganga Dynasty in the 13th Century. Orissa Bhubaneswar Located in Bhubaneswar, the Lingaraja Shiva temples are located in a spacious courtyard. The Lingaraja temple is about 1000 years old. The origin of the rock cut caves of Udaygiri and Khandagiri dates back to the 2nd century B.C.E. The caves are located atop the twin hills known as Udayagiri and Khandagiri which rise abruptly from the coastal plain, about 6km West of Bhubaneswar. The main attraction of these caves consists of its stupendous carvings. Of all the caves in Udaygiri, the largest one is the Rani Gumpha. Olive Ridley Sea Turtles Found in the Indian Ocean along the Bay of Bengal. This sea turtle is especially known for its mass nesting when several thousand turtles migrate to the breeding ground to mate and nest simultaneously. Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves
  130. 130. Bihar & Jharkhand Nalanda University, located about 55 miles south east of Patna was one of the first universities in the world, founded in 500 CE, and reported to have been visited by the Buddha during his lifetime. Located in Bodhgaya in Gaya District of Bihar. Constructed of brick, the temple is surrounded on all four sides by stone railings, about two metres high. Is the place where Buddha attained enlightenment. Buddhist Emperor Asoka visited Bodh Gaya with the intention of establishing a monastery and shrine. BodhGaya (Mahabodhi Temple) Maluti Located near Shikaripara in Dumka District of Jharkhand. Built in Shikara style, which contains two rooms with a verandah. It is made of burnt bricks and lime mortars and items such as terracotta plates are used to decorate them. Most of the temples belong to the late medieval age. Majority of these temples are dedicated to Lord Shiva, & the rest to gods and goddesses such as Vishnu and Durga. Nalanda University