3. What is Fire…? Fire is a by-product of a process called combustion . Combustion is the rapid oxidation of a fuel with the release of energy in the form of heat and light.
4. How do fires start…? Fuel Oxygen Source of Ignition There are 3 ingredients necessary for a FIRE to occur: “ The Fire Triangle”
5. What makes fire so dangerous…? <ul><li>Toxic Smoke ! </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon Monoxide (CO) </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Other toxic gases </li></ul>Intense Heat ! > 1,000 deg. F
6. FIRE PREVENTION
7. Fire Hazards Fuel , Heat , and Oxygen must be present for a fire to occur. A Fire can NOT occur unless all 3 ingredients are present in the right proportions and in close proximity . Therefore, these 3 ingredients, when brought together, present a Fire Hazard . FUEL: A material (solid, liquid, or gas) that burns. Examples: Wood, paper, cloth, plastic, rubber, alcohol, gasoline, natural gas. OXYGEN: Oxygen is necessary for combustion. Examples: Air, compressed oxygen, oxidizers HEAT: A source of energy (flame, heat, or spark) that starts the chain reaction. Examples: Lighter, cigarettes, oven, friction, electrical spark. Prevent fires by Reducing or Eliminating Fire Hazards
8. Common Fire Hazards Poor Housekeeping Improper Storage & Usage of Flammable Liquids & Gases Improper Usage of Heat or Flame Producing Equipment Improper Use of Electrical Equipment Improper Storage around Electrical Equipment Improper Storage & Usage of Compressed Oxygen Cylinders Carelessness!
9. FIRE PROTECTION
10. FIRE EXTINGUISHERS
11. Types of fire extinguishers at the Hospital Multi-Purpose Dry Chemical Carbon Dioxide
12. How to use a fire extinguisher: P.A.S.S. PULL the pin AIM the nozzle SQUEEZE the handle SWEEP from side to side
13. How to use a fire extinguisher: Demonstration
14. FIRE SPRINKLERS
15. Types of Fire Sprinklers Side Wall Pendant Concealed Upright
16. Sprinkler Obstructions Must Maintain 18” Clearance between sprinkler and top of storage at ALL TIMES
17. EMERGENCY RESPONSE: “CODE RED”
18. University Hospitals – ST. PAUL & ZALE LIPSHY FIRE EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLAN: There are 3 levels of response to a fire emergency at the University Hospitals (depending on your proximity to the fire…)
19. In a Level 1 fire response, the fire is located on your floor, within your unit. In this case, staff should follow the R.A.C.E. procedure… Level 1 Fire Response:
20. RESCUE any patients in immediate danger from the room or area where the fire is located. In most cases, only the patient(s) in the room where the fire originated will need to be rescued and relocated . All other patients can usually be left in their room with the door shut as long as there is no smoke in the room. This places less stress on the patient and hospital staff, while keeping the corridors clear.
21. ALERT staff members in the immediate area, activate the nearest fire alarm pull station, and call 3333. Alert other staff members to the situation in a manner that does NOT cause panic. Pull down the handle on the fire alarm pull station. Call 3333 and report Code Red to the Operator, who then makes a “code red” announcement over the hospital PA system. State the building, the floor or unit, and room number . The announcement over the PA system will be as follows: “ Code Red, ___building,___ floor, ___ “ (room number)
22. CONFINE the fire and smoke to the room of origin by closing all doors and windows. To keep patients safe, doors and windows must be closed to contain the smoke and heat, as well as reduce the amount of oxygen available to the fire. Be sure to close patient room doors since they do not close automatically upon a fire alarm .
23. EXTINGUISH the fire if it is safe to do so. Otherwise, EVACUATE to an adjacent smoke compartment or floor. Fire extinguishers are designed to extinguish small fires, NOT large, well developed or rapidly spreading fires. If the fire cannot be extinguished, follow the evacuation procedures detailed in the “Evacuation Plan”. In general, evacuate horizontally first into an adjacent smoke compartment, or to the outside if on the ground floor. If multiple smoke compartments are involved, it may be necessary to evacuate vertically to an adjacent floor using the enclosed exit stairwells. However, due to the difficultly involved in transporting non-ambulatory patients down the stairs, this should be a last resort.
24. In a Level 2 response, the fire is located on your floor, but NOT within your unit. In this case, staff should follow the following procedure: Level 2 Fire Response: Close all patient room doors. Wait for further instructions. Remove objects from the corridor.
25. In a Level 3 response, the fire is NOT located on your floor. In this case, staff should follow the following procedure: Level 3 Fire Response: Wait for further instructions.