Delaying children’s entry into school does not necessarily provide an advantage and in some cases may actually be harmful.
Ultimately, age per se is not a critical indicator of when children should begin school.
Instead, the start of formal schooling is more reasonably tied to overall developmental readiness, the product of a complex combination of several factors.
READING: LEARNING TO DECODE THE MEANING BEHIND WORDS
Reading involves a significant number of skills, from low-level cognitive skills (the identification of single letters and associating letters with sounds) to higher level skills (matching written words with meanings located in long-term memory and using context and background knowledge to determine the meaning of a sentence).
Multicultural education Education in which the goal is to help students from minority cultures develop competence in the culture of the majority group while maintaining positive group identities that build on their original cultures
Cultural assimilation model The view of American society as a “melting pot” in which all cultures are amalgamated
Although the questions on traditional IQ tests are not so obviously dependent on test takers’ prior experiences, our examples, cultural background, and experiences do have the potential to affect intelligence-test scores.
Many educators suggest that traditional measures of intelligence are subtly biased.
Today, IQ is seen as the product of both nature and nurture interacting with one another in a complex manner.
BELOW THE NORM: MENTAL RETARDATION (INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY)
Mental retardation (intellectual disability) A significantly subaverage level of intellectual functioning that occurs with related limitations in two or more skill areas
Although limitations in intellectual functioning can be measured in a relatively straightforward manner using standard IQ tests, it is more difficult to determine how to gauge limitations in adaptive behavior.