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The Ultimate Question of  How to Cut the Pie?  Revenue Sharing of Gorilla Tourism  in Rwanda Miko Watanabe PhD Candidate, ...
Theme:   <ul><li>Why mountain gorillas survived the conflict? </li></ul><ul><li>The role of mountain gorilla tourism and c...
Why Tourism:   <ul><li>3.2 % of GDP </li></ul><ul><li>Number of travelers increasing (Ecotourism to 7%) </li></ul><ul><li>...
Virunga-Bwindi  in the Central Albertine Rift :
Recurrent Conflict in the Region :   Rwanda: 1994  Over 800,000 lives were lost in the genocide  2003 Presidential and Leg...
Geographic Focal Areas:  PNV, PNVi, MGNP and BINP
Mountain gorillas ( Gorilla beringei beringei )  :   <ul><li>Considered threatened to extinction (IUCN)  </li></ul><ul><li...
Mountain gorilla  population dynamics:   <ul><li>Mountain gorilla population increased even during the conflict period. </...
Factors contributing to  Virunga gorillas’ survival:   <ul><li>Cultural reasons (do not eat gorillas); </li></ul><ul><li>C...
Post-conflict recovery  and peacebuilding:   <ul><li>Generating wealth:  tourism and conservation </li></ul><ul><li>Buildi...
Socio-economic dimension:   <ul><li>1979 Gorilla-based Ecotourism started in Rwanda (Tourism as a tool for conservation) <...
Booming Eco-tourism in Rwanda:   (Source: Nielsen et al based on ORTPN data 2010) National park visits, 1974-2008
Increase in tourism revenue  in Rwanda:   (Source: Nielsen et al based on IMF and WDI, 2010)
Gorillas to pay their own way? :   <ul><li>End 1980s, ORTPN became self-financed for three parks. The revenue dropped duri...
Economic value of the Virungas:
Socio-economic dimension:   <ul><li>Revenue-sharing in Rwanda </li></ul><ul><li>Since 2005, 5% of the tourism revenue (par...
Socio-economic dimension:   <ul><li>Community livelihoods initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>Labor intensive quick impact proje...
Governance dimension: <ul><li>Arusha Peace Agreement (”take due consideration of the protection of endangered animal speci...
Governance dimension: <ul><li>Transboundary collaboration (TB) by PAs and field-based park staff (Facilitated by IGCP) </l...
Security dimension: <ul><li>Military escort up to 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>Para-military training and conservation training ...
Lessons and Way Forward:   <ul><li>The status of natural resource base during the conflict will be the foundation for post...
Lessons and Way Forward:   <ul><li>During the conflict, in the absence of legitimate government, NR NGOs could be effectiv...
THANK YOU! Photo by International Gorilla Conservation Programme
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The Ultimate Question of How to Cut the Pie? Revenue Sharing of Gorilla Tourism in Rwanda

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Presented at the CAPRi International Workshop on Collective Action, Property Rights, and Conflict in Natural Resources Management. June 28th to July 1st, 2010, Siem Reap, Cambodia.
http://www.capri.cgiar.org/wks_0610.asp

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  • A business (also called a company , enterprise or firm ) is a legally recognized organization designed to provide goods and/or services to consumers.[1] Businesses are predominant in capitalist economies, most being privately owned and formed to earn profit that will increase the wealth of its owners and grow the business itself. The owners and operators of a business have as one of their main objectives the receipt or generation of a financial return in exchange for work and acceptance of risk. Notable exceptions include cooperative enterprises and state-owned enterprises. Businesses can also be formed not-for-profit or be state-owned.
  • A business (also called a company , enterprise or firm ) is a legally recognized organization designed to provide goods and/or services to consumers.[1] Businesses are predominant in capitalist economies, most being privately owned and formed to earn profit that will increase the wealth of its owners and grow the business itself. The owners and operators of a business have as one of their main objectives the receipt or generation of a financial return in exchange for work and acceptance of risk. Notable exceptions include cooperative enterprises and state-owned enterprises. Businesses can also be formed not-for-profit or be state-owned.
  • Tourism in Africa Great potential, but not fully developed. TICAD three priorities: 1) Boosting economic growth; 2) Ensuring &amp;quot;human security,&amp;quot; (Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), the consolidation of peace and good governance; and 3) Addressing environmental issues and climate change. Among 15 focus areas: Trade, Investment and Tourism
  • UCDP defines an armed conflict as &amp;quot;a contested incompatibility that concerns government and/or territory where the use of armed force between two parties, of which at least one is the government of a state, results in at least 25 battle-related deaths in one calendar year&amp;quot;. (the transnational government and the following elections) Rwanda: 1994 Over 800,000 were killed in the genocide 2003 Presidential and Legislative elections were held and the new Constitution was issued. Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC): 1996 Mobutu Sese Seko&apos;s regime collapsed. A decade long civil war followed depriving over 4 million lives. 1999: The Lusaka Peace Agreement 2006: The first democratic elections for the presidency and the National Assembly over four decades.   Uganda: 1986 the National Resistance Movement (NRM), led by Yoweri Museveni seized the power in, and the was held in 1996. Museveni was elected as the President (first direct presidential election) February 2008 A between the Government and Lord&apos;s Resistance Army (LRA), a rebel group in the north. A final peace agreement has not yet been signed.   Despite on-going efforts to end the violent conflicts in the Region, both Uganda and DRC are categorized as countries with &amp;quot;active armed conflict&amp;quot; in 2007 according to the analysis by the Uppsala Conflict Data Program (UCDP) of Uppsala University.
  • The HDI provides a composite measure of three dimensions of human development: living a long and healthy life (measured by life expectancy), being educated (measured by adult literacy and gross enrolment in education) and having a decent standard of living (measured by purchasing power parity, PPP, income).
  • 180 people, guides, trackers, anti-poaching teams in 5 protection sectors. Sustainable tourism: Sustainability principles refer to the environmental, economic, and socio-cultural aspects of tourism development, and a suitable balance must be established between these three dimensions to guarantee its long-term sustainability. (UNWTO 2004) Ecotourism Responsible tourism Community-based tourism Pro-poor tourism              ・・・・・・・
  • 2008 about 17,000 people visited the VNP Compared to 417 tourists in 1999 after the reopening of the park
  • Mgahinga Gorilla National Park: 1964 Inside park activities became illegal 1992 MOU; 272 Households resulting in 4000 people were restricted from use of park resources Compensation was not sufficient
  • The Distribution of annual gorilla tourism benefit (20.6 million USD) National: 11.2 million USD International: 8.7 million USD Local: 0.7 million USD The ecotourism defined as: &amp;quot;responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and improves the well-being of local people.&amp;quot; (The International Ecotourism Society 1990) has evolved in Rwanda since 1979. Focus on mountain gorilla as a unique flagship species has also allowed the development of the much booming tourism industry both at the local and global scale. Since 1979, tourism rose to become the third foreign exchange earner in Rwanda subsequent to tea and coffee (Weber, 1987, OTF, 2003). From the tourism revenue in return, the government of Rwanda has significantly contributed to fund conservation of national parks. Communities have also benefited either directly from tourism by selling their local artisan products and establishment of small scale tourism based businesses or indirectly through ORTPN’s revenue sharing scheme and employment.
  • Population 300,000
  • The ecotourism defined as: &amp;quot;responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and improves the well-being of local people.&amp;quot; (The International Ecotourism Society 1990) has evolved in Rwanda since 1979. Focus on mountain gorilla as a unique flagship species has also allowed the development of the much booming tourism industry both at the local and global scale. Since 1979, tourism rose to become the third foreign exchange earner in Rwanda subsequent to tea and coffee (Weber, 1987, OTF, 2003). From the tourism revenue in return, the government of Rwanda has significantly contributed to fund conservation of national parks. Communities have also benefited either directly from tourism by selling their local artisan products and establishment of small scale tourism based businesses or indirectly through ORTPN’s revenue sharing scheme and employment.
  • The ecotourism defined as: &amp;quot;responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and improves the well-being of local people.&amp;quot; (The International Ecotourism Society 1990) has evolved in Rwanda since 1979. Focus on mountain gorilla as a unique flagship species has also allowed the development of the much booming tourism industry both at the local and global scale. Since 1979, tourism rose to become the third foreign exchange earner in Rwanda subsequent to tea and coffee (Weber, 1987, OTF, 2003). From the tourism revenue in return, the government of Rwanda has significantly contributed to fund conservation of national parks. Communities have also benefited either directly from tourism by selling their local artisan products and establishment of small scale tourism based businesses or indirectly through ORTPN’s revenue sharing scheme and employment.
  • The ecotourism defined as: &amp;quot;responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and improves the well-being of local people.&amp;quot; (The International Ecotourism Society 1990) has evolved in Rwanda since 1979. Focus on mountain gorilla as a unique flagship species has also allowed the development of the much booming tourism industry both at the local and global scale. Since 1979, tourism rose to become the third foreign exchange earner in Rwanda subsequent to tea and coffee (Weber, 1987, OTF, 2003). From the tourism revenue in return, the government of Rwanda has significantly contributed to fund conservation of national parks. Communities have also benefited either directly from tourism by selling their local artisan products and establishment of small scale tourism based businesses or indirectly through ORTPN’s revenue sharing scheme and employment.
  • Transcript of "The Ultimate Question of How to Cut the Pie? Revenue Sharing of Gorilla Tourism in Rwanda"

    1. 1. The Ultimate Question of How to Cut the Pie? Revenue Sharing of Gorilla Tourism in Rwanda Miko Watanabe PhD Candidate, University of Tokyo UNDP staff member [email_address] June 30, 2010 CAPRi Workshop, Siem Reap Annette Lanjouw, Director of the Great Apes Program, Arcus Foundation Eugène Rutagarama, Director, International Gorilla Conservation Program
    2. 2. Theme: <ul><li>Why mountain gorillas survived the conflict? </li></ul><ul><li>The role of mountain gorilla tourism and conservation in post-conflict recovery and peace-building </li></ul>
    3. 3. Why Tourism: <ul><li>3.2 % of GDP </li></ul><ul><li>Number of travelers increasing (Ecotourism to 7%) </li></ul><ul><li>5% of CO 2 emissions </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism could be effective vehicle for poverty alleviation if managed properly. </li></ul><ul><li>1. Human capital </li></ul><ul><li>2. Social capital </li></ul><ul><li>3. Natural capital </li></ul><ul><li>4. Financial capital </li></ul><ul><li>5. Material capital </li></ul>
    4. 4. Virunga-Bwindi in the Central Albertine Rift :
    5. 5. Recurrent Conflict in the Region : Rwanda: 1994 Over 800,000 lives were lost in the genocide 2003 Presidential and Legislative elections were held, and the new Constitution was issued. Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC): 1996 Mobutu Sese Seko's regime collapsed. A decade long civil war followed, depriving over 4 million lives. 1999 The Lusaka Peace Agreement 2006 The first democratic elections   Uganda: 1986 The National Resistance Movement seized the power. 1996 First direct presidential election 2008 Truce by Government and Lord's Resistance Army (LRA), a rebel group in the north. A final peace agreement has not yet been signed.   Uganda and DRC: in &quot;active armed conflict” having “at least 25 battle-related deaths in one calendar year” by the Uppsala Conflict Data Program (UCDP) of Uppsala University. (2007)
    6. 6. Geographic Focal Areas: PNV, PNVi, MGNP and BINP
    7. 7. Mountain gorillas ( Gorilla beringei beringei ) : <ul><li>Considered threatened to extinction (IUCN) </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately 700 in 2 forests </li></ul><ul><li>Virunga forest: 380 (in 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Bwindi Impenetrable forest: 320 (in 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Rarest of the gorilla subspecies! </li></ul><ul><li>Humans share 97.7% of DNA with Mountain gorilla </li></ul>
    8. 8. Mountain gorilla population dynamics: <ul><li>Mountain gorilla population increased even during the conflict period. </li></ul><ul><li>From 1971 to 2000, 324 to 359, (or 395) 1.0-1.3% growth rate </li></ul>(Source: Kalpers 2003)
    9. 9. Factors contributing to Virunga gorillas’ survival: <ul><li>Cultural reasons (do not eat gorillas); </li></ul><ul><li>Casualties, accidental rather than deliberate; </li></ul><ul><li>The size of the Virunga massif relatively small for access & control (i.e. 7% of Kahuzi- Biega); </li></ul><ul><li>Gorillas: an important economic resource (through tourism). (e.g. Arusha Peace Agreement). </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term conservation strategies (e.g. Extensive education programmes pre-war, the commitment of park staff, NGOs continued to support the park authorities during the war time.) </li></ul>(Source: Kalpers 2003)
    10. 10. Post-conflict recovery and peacebuilding: <ul><li>Generating wealth: tourism and conservation </li></ul><ul><li>Building institutional capacity and generating peace: Capacity building of PAs, Transboundary Collabartion. </li></ul>Human Development Index (HDI) for Rwanda: 0.460, 167 th out of 182 countries. (2007) GDP growth: 1995-1999 15.6% 2000-2004 6.6% 2005-2008 8.4% GDP per capita: US$ 142 in 1994 to US$ 313 in 2008 Stable growth and improved security. Vision 2020 (2000)
    11. 11. Socio-economic dimension: <ul><li>1979 Gorilla-based Ecotourism started in Rwanda (Tourism as a tool for conservation) </li></ul><ul><li>Informing processes among, research, conservation and tourism sectors, and Government’s vision </li></ul><ul><li>3rd largest foreign revenue in 1980s, now the largest foreign exchange earner followed by coffee and tea. </li></ul><ul><li>Employment (Park employs 180 people, 800 community members benefit also e.g. by RS, the issue of social cohesion..) </li></ul><ul><li>Mountain gorilla: unique flagship for a national image and national pride (Naming ceremony “ Kwita Izina ”, Gorilla branding, etc.) </li></ul>Mountain gorilla tourism in Rwanda
    12. 12. Booming Eco-tourism in Rwanda: (Source: Nielsen et al based on ORTPN data 2010) National park visits, 1974-2008
    13. 13. Increase in tourism revenue in Rwanda: (Source: Nielsen et al based on IMF and WDI, 2010)
    14. 14. Gorillas to pay their own way? : <ul><li>End 1980s, ORTPN became self-financed for three parks. The revenue dropped during conflict years, but recovered and made surplus in recent years. </li></ul><ul><li>In the Congo Basin, only 30% recurrent costs in PA network is covered by the Government and donor investment. </li></ul><ul><li>Wildlife to “pay its own way”? A rare success in a global context. (The permit is USD 500 since 2007). </li></ul><ul><li>Competition over gorilla revenue among, the local community, national park authority, the national government and international actors. </li></ul>
    15. 15. Economic value of the Virungas:
    16. 16. Socio-economic dimension: <ul><li>Revenue-sharing in Rwanda </li></ul><ul><li>Since 2005, 5% of the tourism revenue (park fees) are injected into communities by ORTPN (now RDB) </li></ul><ul><li>10 schools (Apr 3,640 pupils), 32 water tanks (At least 40,000), 10 community associations for income generating activities, Sabyinyo Community Lodge. </li></ul><ul><li>Around US$428,248 for community fund, since 2005  US$ 1.45/person to date and US$ 0.36/person </li></ul><ul><li>People’s attitudes towards the park? Perception?(From the Ministry of Local Government to RDB) </li></ul>
    17. 17. Socio-economic dimension: <ul><li>Community livelihoods initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>Labor intensive quick impact projects by NGOs (Buffalo walls from 1993, cleaning up of forests, joint-community buffer zones, 10,000 people receive water in Uganda, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits lost and compensation: Mgahinga Gorilla National Park </li></ul><ul><li>1964 Inside park activities became illegal </li></ul><ul><li>1992 MOU; 272 Households resulting in 4000 people were restricted from use of park resources </li></ul><ul><li>The compensation was considered not sufficient </li></ul><ul><li>The issue of equity: the Btwa community, usually worse off, and they feel they benefit less from the Park. </li></ul><ul><li>No study carried out to assess the impact of these schemes on the livelihoods of people living near VNP. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Governance dimension: <ul><li>Arusha Peace Agreement (”take due consideration of the protection of endangered animal species, especially the mountain gorilla” . ) </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional building supported by NGOs </li></ul><ul><li>In the emergency period, some relief organizations were engaged in activities bringing serious damages to the environment by delivering ‘provisions of relief’. Coordination was of critical importance. </li></ul>
    19. 19. Governance dimension: <ul><li>Transboundary collaboration (TB) by PAs and field-based park staff (Facilitated by IGCP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional meetings and Wardens coordination meetings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joint patrols, Gorilla census </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross visits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2004 Memorandum of Understanding amongst protected area authorities of DRC, Rwanda and Uganda; </li></ul><ul><li>2005 two Ministerial Declarations </li></ul><ul><li>Transboundary Strategic Plan and Memorandum of Understanding on “Collaborative Monitoring of and Sharing Revenues from Transfrontier Tourism Gorilla Groups”. </li></ul><ul><li>Track Two diplomacy (non-official mediation between civil society actors) promoting dialogue for Track One diplomacy (official negotiations between political and military elites, in other words, top-down efforts) for regional collaboration (e.g. energy issues..). </li></ul>Transboundary collaboration
    20. 20. Security dimension: <ul><li>Military escort up to 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>Para-military training and conservation training </li></ul><ul><li>Security is a prerequisite for tourism development. </li></ul><ul><li>(eg. The killings of international tourists in Uganda.) </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of security brought to the community by the military presence and returning of international tourists. Significant impact. </li></ul><ul><li>Important military base for regional security. </li></ul>Military support to the National Park
    21. 21. Lessons and Way Forward: <ul><li>The status of natural resource base during the conflict will be the foundation for post conflict recovery. NR management during the conflict, critical. </li></ul><ul><li>In emergency situations, Coordination between the organizations for 1. humanitarian and emergency relief, 2. long-term development, and 3. natural resource management is of critical importance. </li></ul><ul><li>Peace keeping missions, fact-finding missions by UN/donors should have NR experts involved from the outset. (PCNRM project.) </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional capacity of park authorities is essential. Even during the height of insecurity, continuous internal/external support is vital. (Technical, moral and financial support) </li></ul>
    22. 22. Lessons and Way Forward: <ul><li>During the conflict, in the absence of legitimate government, NR NGOs could be effective partners for external donors. </li></ul><ul><li>Quick impact projects, which involve labor-intensive activities, are effective in providing economic opportunities for the local communities. </li></ul><ul><li>In resuming conservation and tourism activities, the support from the military was indispensable. Tourism and security go hand in hand. </li></ul><ul><li>Transboundary co-operation worked well from bottom-up rather than top-down. The top-down approach could create a vacuum at the local level. </li></ul><ul><li>Holistic approach necessary for tourism development. Branding is critical. </li></ul>
    23. 23. THANK YOU! Photo by International Gorilla Conservation Programme

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