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Conflict, Cooperation & Collective Action: land use, water rights and water scarcity in Manupali watershed, southern Philippines
 

Conflict, Cooperation & Collective Action: land use, water rights and water scarcity in Manupali watershed, southern Philippines

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Presented at the CAPRi International Workshop on Collective Action, Property Rights, and Conflict in Natural Resources Management. June 28th to July 1st, 2010, Siem Reap, Cambodia.

Presented at the CAPRi International Workshop on Collective Action, Property Rights, and Conflict in Natural Resources Management. June 28th to July 1st, 2010, Siem Reap, Cambodia.
http://www.capri.cgiar.org/wks_0610.asp

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    Conflict, Cooperation & Collective Action: land use, water rights and water scarcity in Manupali watershed, southern Philippines Conflict, Cooperation & Collective Action: land use, water rights and water scarcity in Manupali watershed, southern Philippines Presentation Transcript

    • Conflict, Cooperation & Collective Action: land use, water rights and water scarcity in Manupali watershed, southern Philippines
      Caroline Duque-Piñon, Delia Catacutan, Beria Leimona, Emma Abasolo, Meine van Noordwijk and Lydia Tiongco
      DENR
    • Outline
      Introduction
      The Manupali watershed: land use and water balance
      Water conflicts
      Cooperation and collective actions
      Conclusion
    • 1. Introduction
      WATER – ESSENTIAL FOR HUMAN SURVIVAL
      Water is indispensable to livelihoods and most forms of economic production
      However, access to water, its allocation and use, are critical concerns that can drive conflicts
    • Water conflicts at different geographical scales
      • International level: between countries that share rivers (e.g. upstream and downstream relation over the use of shared rivers)
      • National level: between different sectors (e.g. farmers, industries, tourism, environmentalists, etc.) on policies affecting water management
      • Local level: between users over access to water, or people affected by projects
      Political, socio-economic and cultural factors at each level often determine the complexity of water conflicts
    • Some local-based water conflicts in the Philippines
      Conflicting water use: fisheries, transport, drinking water and water sink
      Compensation issues for changing water allocations
      The Philippines
      Misallocation of irrigation water
      Angat Dam
      Saltwater intrusion
      Laguna Lake
      San Pablo City
      Batangas City
      Privatization of local water facility
      Tuburan, Cebu
      Cebu City
      Bayugan City
      Local violence on water at the local level are often direct conflicts, and can spill over into wider-scale conflicts
    • Objectives
      Describe the water conflicts and cooperative agreements adopted by different water users in the Manupali watershed, Bukidnon province in southern Philippines
      Method
      • Rapid Hydrological Appraisal (RHA) –scoping issues
      • Survey-interviews and focus group discussions
      • Stakeholders’ analysis
      • Literature review
      • Local ecological knowledge (LEK)
      • Policy-makers ecological knowledge (PEK)
      • Modellers ecological knowledge (MEK)
    • 2. The Manupali watershed: land use change & water availability
      Municipality of Lantapan
      • Land area: 35,465 has
      • 60% agriculture and 40% forest
      • maximum annual rainfall 2,522 mm (1987-2005)
      • elevation 320 to 2,954 masl
      • 70% has slopes greater than 18%
      • 51,406 people (2007)
      The Philippines
      Manupali River
      Manupali watershed
      Bukidnon Province
      Manupali River
    • Water users in Manupali
      Farmers
      Households
      LGU Water Works
      Swine and poultry
      Tugasan
      Maagnao
      Kulasihan
      Banana companies
      Alanib
      Manupali River
      NIA - IAs
      National Power Corporation
      • Overall trend: agricultural land expanded while forest lands decreased
    • Table 1- Perceptions on current hydrological situation in Manupali (LEK and PEK results)
    • Table 2- Average water balance of Alanib and Kulasihan sub-watersheds during a 12-year GenRiver simulation (MEK results)
    • RESULTS
      Kulasihan River during dry months
      CAUSES
      Banana plantation in Alanib village
      Water diversion for banana plantations
    • Fig 3- Simulated net water yield during a 12-year simulation period (1994-2005) versus volume of water rights granted (2007) in three sub-watersheds
      • Sedimentation – damage of reservoir
      Source: NPC, 2006
    • 3. Water Conflicts
      Conflict: Stealing/cutting of water pipes from rivers
      Involved: Farmers VS farmers in the upper communities
      Conflict: Destroying small impounding reservoirs
      Involved: Upper farmers VS middle farmers
      …Issue of ‘who came first’ and ‘benefit-sharing’ between upstream and downstream users
    • Conflict: Privatization of open-access water
      Involved: Land owner (poultry) vs community
      Issue of access to springs within private lands
    • -’Right’ belong to the user in the order in which they apply for
      • In times of water shortage, those with senior rights can use the full volume allocated to them, while those with junior rights must do with nothing or less
      Water Code
      Conflicts:
      • Water rights
      • Water allocation (upstream and downstream
      • Institutional weaknesses (e.g. red tape, illegal processing of water rights applications)
      • Surreptitious water diversion
      Involved: Banana companies VS NIA, banana companies VS community people
      DOLE-Skyland
      MKAVI
      NIA
    • Conflicts:
      • Water scarcity despite rotations
      • Social conflicts (illegal diversion of water, killings)
      Involved: Among rice irrigators
      Rice production area
      Conflicts:
      • Water scarcity
      • Poor maintenance of canals and dams
      Involved: AMSFC VS NIA
      AMSFC
      Converted to banana and corn
      NIA - IAs
    • Overlapping of water management regimes and uncoordinated watershed management efforts
      2. LGU – Local Government Code
      1. DENR – NIPAS Act
      3. NCIP – IPRA Law
      4. NWRB – Water Code
      Involved: Indigenous communities, NIA, LGU, DENR, banana companies
    • Tension between statutory and customary rights (e.g. failure to obtain pre-and-prior informed consent)
      Banana companies
      LGU Water Works
      Involved: Indigenous communities vs. banana companies, DENR, LGU-Lantapan and NIA
      DENR
    • 4. Cooperation and Collective Action
      Community conservation & livelihood projects
      2938
      IP communities
      Resource
      share
      HIVAC
      Green River Gold Ranch
      Income share
      Cawayan Village Gov’t
      Hilltop Coop
      1500
      meters above sea level
      Financial assistance
      1100
      DOLE
      LGU
      NPC
      MKAVI
      600
      Reforestation & livelihood projects
      Irrigation service fee
      Irrigation service fee
      320
      AMSFC
      ManRIS
      Water users
    • (1)Collective action through cooperative agreements can mitigate hostile confrontations between multiple resource users
      !!! These agreements are only short-term solutions and do not address the root cause of water scarcity
      Key messages
      (2)Evolution of cooperation and collective actions between water users because of mutual recognition of value and scarcity of water, and existence of social capital and legal basis for voluntary agreements
      !!! However, cooperation does not emerge easily with self-interest
    • (3) ‘Fair-sharing’ from voluntary agreements was challenging due to power imbalance
      • Mutual interest over water resource prompted cooperating stakeholders to secure individual rights by sharing it with others
      !!!These forms of cooperation can break down if cooperators cease to interact and adapt to changes
      (4) Question: Has collective action in this case addressed the core problem of water scarcity?
      • Sustainable land use that helps improve water yield and reduce stream flow variability is essential to improve water balance and reduce current water deficits
      !!!Exclusion of communities in the benefit-sharing of voluntary agreements, who bear the costs of maintaining water
    • 5. Conclusion
      (1) Shared understanding on the link between water balance and land use patterns is important in unpacking complex issues on water
      (2)Voluntary agreements are important short-term solutions to resolve immediate water rights conflicts
      (3) Land use policies and incentives for sustainable land use are inevitable for the long-term solution of water scarcity
      (4) Despite relative vagueness of policies, they provide legal bases for the emergence of voluntary agreements
      (5)Therefore, coordinated cooperation among all users is important to foster watershed-level collective action
    • Acknowledgement
      RHA team members Dennis Ferrera, Johnny Mancawan, CelsoPillerin and Carlos Sioquim for generating the data used in this study, and CecilleEgnar for coordinating the Bukidnon-TULSEA project.