Civil War part two


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Civil War part two

  1. 1. CHAPTER 4 PART TWO THE CIVIL WAR 1861-1865
  2. 2. The First Battle of Bull Run July 1861 Ended in a Northern defeat just outside Washington, D.C. Ended their hope of a quick victory Where Lt. General Thomas Jackson was given the nickname “Stonewall”
  3. 3. Battle of Bull Run Washington, D.C.
  4. 4. Northern defeat at Bull Run resulted in: • Lincoln extending enlistments from 3 months to 3 years • Northern Army digging in around capital
  5. 5. The Trent Affair Confederate President Davis appointed John Slidell and James Mason as diplomatic agents in October, 1861, with power to enter into conventions for treaties with England and France. After arriving in Havana, Cuba, they boarded a British steamship, the Trent. Mason was headed for England and Slidell for France.
  6. 6. Southern Ambassadors sent to Europe by Jefferson Davis John Slidell James Mason
  7. 7. On 8 November, Captain Wilkes and the sloop San Jacinto intercepted the Trent and removed Slidell and Mason by force, an action in direct violation of international law. Captain Charles Wilkes San Jacinto
  8. 8. As a result of the removal of the ambassadors, there were cries for war, and the British fleet was mobilized.
  9. 9. Bull Run had temporarily stopped military activity in the east, but not in the upper Tennessee and Mississippi River Valleys. Things were about to take place that would foretell the defeat of the Confederacy.
  10. 10. Union River Gunboats • First U.S. ironclads • Mobile artillery
  11. 11. Foote’s river squadron demolished Fort Henry. General Ulysses S. Grant Commodore Andrew Foote
  12. 12. Fort Donelson Grant captured the fort from the land side.
  13. 13. Battle of Shiloh Pittsburg Landing
  14. 14. Union gunboats pounded Confederate positions and protected Grant’s flank until reinforcements arrived.
  15. 15. New Orleans The South’s largest and most important port city
  16. 16. Flag Officer David Farragut • Assembled his fleet of: 1 frigate 4 sloops 1 paddle-wheeler 12 gunboats 20 schooners • His big chance
  17. 17. Farragut’s fleet going single file through barrier at Ft. Jackson and Ft. St. Philip
  18. 18. Commander David Porter Commanded mortar boats protecting rear of fleet at the barrier
  19. 19. April 28, 1862 New Orleans surrendered
  20. 20. New Orleans’ Loss Impacted the South • The Confederacy was not recognized by the British and French. • The Confederacy had little chance to
  21. 21. Union naval forces and armies now converged from the north and south on Vicksburg, Mississippi, the major remaining Confederate fortress on the river.
  22. 22. A major naval battle - the only real fleet action of the war – was fought in the Mississippi at Memphis, Tennessee. Memphis Vicksburg
  23. 23. The entire Confederate Navy was destroyed on the Mississippi River at Memphis, except for the CSS Arkansas.
  24. 24. The high bluffs at Vicksburg prevented serious naval bombardment of the city.
  25. 25. Farragut’s fleet patrolled, transported troops, protected Union Army’s flanks, and prevented Confederate relief of the city of Vicksburg.
  26. 26. Confederates raised the steam frigate Merrimack and converted her into the first Confederate ironclad.
  27. 27. • Directed the plan to raise the Merrimack • Believed the vessel would drive Union blockaders from the mouth of the Chesapeake Stephen Mallory Confederate Secretary of the Navy
  28. 28. CSS Virginia (ex-Merrimack) • Speed of 4 knots • Drew too much water • Danger to wooden vessels
  29. 29. • Deck overlaid with iron plates • 9-inch Dahlgren guns • 6-inch rifles • 7-inch pivot guns • Iron ram
  30. 30. • First superintendent of the U.S. Naval Academy • Resigned his U.S. Navy commission • Received Confederate commission • Commanded the CSS Virginia Commander Franklin Buchanan
  31. 31. March 1862 CSS Virginia was ready to fight.
  32. 32. • Appointed an Ironclad Board of Officers Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles
  33. 33. • Awarded contract to build first Union ironclad steamship John Ericsson
  34. 34. Ericsson incorporated 40 new patents in the design of the Monitor.
  35. 35. Steam-propelled, armored warship of very low freeboard, having one or more turrets and used for coastal defense The first of such warships was used against the Confederate ironclad warship Virginia at Hampton Roads, VA, in 1862. Monitor
  36. 36. • Only a foot of freeboard • Two 11-inch Dahlgren guns • Armor plated • Overhang to protect screw and rudder • Steam powered 14-ton turret
  37. 37. A domelike, sometimes heavily armored structure, usually revolving horizontally, within which guns are mounted, as on a fortification, ship, or aircraft Turret
  38. 38. Commanding Officer USS Monitor Commissioned 25 Feb 1862 LT John L.
  39. 39. The Union plan was to land at Fort Monroe and threaten Richmond. Norfolk Ft. Monroe Hampton Roads Richmond VA
  40. 40. • Led the attack on Richmond General George McClellan
  41. 41. Union Blockade Ships USS Cumberland USS Congress
  42. 42. Jones relieved Commander Buchanan when he was struck by a Minié ball. .58 caliber LT Catesby Jones
  43. 43. The USS Minnesota had run aground and was too far into the shoal waters to accurately be fired upon.
  44. 44. The Monitor took up position near the Minnesota to protect her from the Virginia.
  45. 45. The Monitor was more maneuverable, but her guns could not penetrate the
  46. 46. LT Samuel Greene took command of the Monitor when LT Worden was injured.
  47. 47. The battle between the two vessels was indecisive. Within a year, the Virginia was blown up to prevent capture, and the Monitor sank in a storm off the Carolina Capes.
  48. 48. The wreck of the USS Monitor was discovered in 1973, and various parts have been recovered, including its engine and turret.
  49. 49. McClellan was now able to move on Norfolk Ft. Monroe Hampton Roads Richmond VA
  50. 50. McClellan’s Army of the Potomac prepared to meet General Robert E.
  51. 51. Commander of the Confederate Army of Virginia General Robert E. Lee
  52. 52. Seven Days’ Battles • Lee pushed McClellan back from Richmond. • McClellan’s army was forced to withdraw to defend Washington. • Lee hoped to gain Maryland as a Confederate State and move into Pennsylvania.
  53. 53. Seven Days’ Battles Lee wanted to gain diplomatic recognition and military aid from the European countries.
  54. 54. END OF PART TWO