The First Battle of Bull Run
Ended in a Northern
defeat just outside
Ended their hope of
a quick victory
Where Lt. General
Thomas Jackson was
given the nickname
Northern defeat at Bull Run
• Lincoln extending enlistments
from 3 months to 3 years
• Northern Army digging in
The Trent Affair
Confederate President Davis appointed
John Slidell and James Mason as
diplomatic agents in October, 1861,
with power to enter into conventions
for treaties with England and France.
After arriving in Havana, Cuba, they
boarded a British steamship, the Trent.
Mason was headed for England and
Slidell for France.
Southern Ambassadors sent
to Europe by Jefferson Davis
John Slidell James Mason
On 8 November, Captain Wilkes and
the sloop San Jacinto intercepted the
Trent and removed Slidell and Mason
by force, an action in direct violation
of international law.
As a result of the removal of the
ambassadors, there were cries for war,
and the British fleet was mobilized.
Bull Run had temporarily stopped
military activity in the east, but
in the upper Tennessee and
Mississippi River Valleys.
Things were about to take place
that would foretell the defeat of
Union River Gunboats
• First U.S. ironclads
• Mobile artillery
Foote’s river squadron
Ulysses S. Grant
Grant captured the fort
from the land side.
• Appointed an
Secretary of the Navy
• Awarded contract to
build first Union
Ericsson incorporated 40 new patents
in the design of the Monitor.
Steam-propelled, armored warship
of very low freeboard, having one
or more turrets and used for coastal
The first of such warships was used
against the Confederate ironclad
warship Virginia at Hampton Roads,
VA, in 1862.
• Only a foot of freeboard
• Two 11-inch Dahlgren guns
• Armor plated
• Overhang to protect screw and rudder
• Steam powered 14-ton turret
A domelike, sometimes heavily
armored structure, usually
revolving horizontally, within
which guns are mounted, as
a fortification, ship, or aircraft
25 Feb 1862
LT John L.
The Union plan was to land at Fort
Monroe and threaten Richmond.
• Led the attack
he was struck
by a Minié ball.
LT Catesby Jones
The USS Minnesota had run aground
and was too far into the shoal waters
to accurately be fired upon.
The Monitor took up position near the
Minnesota to protect her from the
The Monitor was more
but her guns could not penetrate the
LT Samuel Greene took command of
the Monitor when LT Worden was
The battle between the two vessels
was indecisive. Within a year, the
Virginia was blown up to prevent
capture, and the Monitor sank in a
storm off the Carolina Capes.
The wreck of the USS Monitor was
discovered in 1973, and various parts
have been recovered, including its
engine and turret.
McClellan was now able to move
McClellan’s Army of the Potomac
prepared to meet General Robert
Commander of the
Robert E. Lee
Seven Days’ Battles
• Lee pushed McClellan back from
• McClellan’s army was forced to
withdraw to defend Washington.
• Lee hoped to gain Maryland as a
Confederate State and move into
Lee wanted to
military aid from