CHAPTER 4
THE CIVIL WAR
1861-1865
THE UNITED STATES IN 1840
Clipper

Packet

Whaler
Overseas trade
and immigration
were the focus of
maritime interests
in the 1840s.
The issue of
slavery was
not of prime
importance to
the average
American of the
early 1800s.
The majority of Southerners were small
farmers who could not afford slaves
and
most Northerners were small farmers or
trad...
Slave trade had been illegal since 1820.
Southern
economy
depended
on slavery
to be
profitable
while
Northern
economy
was based on
commerce
and industry.
Slavery

A Moral and
Commercial
Issue
Total Population 1850

By 1850 only about a third of the national
population lived in the South. Southern
politicians had ...
Free States and Territories
Slave States
Territories Open to Slavery

The South pressed for admission of
the
new states as...
Closed to slavery by
Missouri Compromise
Open to slavery by
Missouri Compromise
Free states and
territories
Slave States

...
Free state or territory
Slavery state or territory
Open to slavery by principle
of popular sovereignty.
Compromise of 1850...
SLAVERY DEBATES

Stephen Douglas

Abraham Lincoln

Slavery became a major political
West
Virginia
a
en
Sh

Harper’s Ferry

nd
h
oa

Virginia

ac
to m
Po

Maryland

The threat to stop the spread of slavery
i...
ARGUING ABOUT
SLAVERY

Extremists on
both sides
became willing
to go to war to
ensure that their
views prevailed.
Against ...
Abraham
Lincoln

Stephen
Douglas

1860
Presidential
Candidates

John
Bell

John
Breckinridge
Election of 1860

Lincoln won the
election with just
40 percent of the
popular vote, and
no Southern
electoral votes.
VA

KY
TN

NC
SC

AL

GA

FL

December 1860
South Carolina Secedes
Fort Sumter, SC

Star of the West

In January 1861, the Star of the West
attempted to enter the harbor of
Charleston to re...
Jefferson Davis
President of
Confederate
States of
America
Confederacy in
January 1861

TX

MS
LA

AL

GA

SC

FL
Southern officers had to choose
between loyalty to their country
and ties to their homes.
Robert E.

Matthew F. Maury
Most career enlisted sailors sided
with
the Union.
Southern militias
quickly took over
most forts in the
South.
Fort Sumter

The Civil War started
On 11 April 1861,
General
Beauregard
demanded that
Fort Sumter

Major Anderson
USA, garrison
commander,
refused.
Fort Sumter

April 12, 1861, first shots
On 15 April, President Lincoln called
for 75,000 volunteers for 3 months
to suppress the rebellion.
Fort Sumter’s fall
contributed to
additional states
joining each side
of the conflict.

TX

W VA
VA
TN
NC
AR
SC
AL
GA
MS
L...
Population
In Uniform

North
22 Million
2.5 Million

South
9 Million
1 Million
North Advantages
Heavy Industry
Rail System
$331 Million in Exports

South Disadvantages
No Foundries or Metal Works
Trans...
Naval Differences

Shipyards
Seaman
Navy

North
Yes
Adequate
Small

South
None
Few
None
The Confederacy had no navy at all
when the war began.
It tried to build naval ships and
armored
gunboats called ironclads...
Ironclad
Covered or cased with iron plates,
as a ship for naval warfare; armorplated
A wooden warship of the middle
or lat...
The South was dependent
on importation of food.
Because of the Union blockade, the
Confederacy was near starvation by
war’s end.
South’s Emotions and
Wishful Thinking

• Major war not expected
• North would quickly tire of casualties
and losses
• Unst...
THE BORDER STATES
MD
MO

KY

DE
The Border States
Maryland Delaware
Kentucky Missouri
While remaining in the Union, these
four states were at least partia...
King Cotton
The South had no idea about the
economic demands of a modern
war.
The South believed that once the
Northern blockade cut off “King Cotton”
from British and French markets, it
would force t...
Strengths of the South

• Officer corps
• Vast territory
• Loyalty to cause
Comparison of North and South in 1860
Category
Population
Wealth Produced
Farm Acreage
Value of Crops
Railroad Mileage
Fac...
Jefferson Davis
• Authorized
privateering
• Declared
embargo
on
cotton
• Began a naval
blockade of all
Southern ports
from Virginia
Capes to Texas

Abraham
Blockade Runner
A ship or person that
passes
through a blockade
Blockaded ports by the
Davis’ Miscalculations

• British and French observed
blockade.
• Europeans had huge inventories of
cotton.
• Began with 3 ships in
home waters to patrol
3,550 miles

Gideon Welles
Secretary of the Navy

• By December 1861,
had 26...
Entrance to
Mississippi River

Major Cotton Ports
Paddle Steamer

Naval Blockade
• Many types of
vessels were used
for the blockade.

Whaling Ship

Tugs

• The crews had
li...
Blockade Expansion by End of 1862
• Blockade depended upon coal and other supplies.
• Union established bases in Confedera...
Florida’s poor inland transportation,
coupled with the Union blockade,
deprived the South of essential salt
for preservati...
Fort Pickens

Union supply bases
in the South were
significant factors
in the victory.
• Responsible for
improved naval
ordnance
• Developed larger
smooth-bore guns
Commander
John Dahlgren
END OF PART
ONE
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Civil war part one

  1. 1. CHAPTER 4 THE CIVIL WAR 1861-1865
  2. 2. THE UNITED STATES IN 1840
  3. 3. Clipper Packet Whaler Overseas trade and immigration were the focus of maritime interests in the 1840s.
  4. 4. The issue of slavery was not of prime importance to the average American of the early 1800s.
  5. 5. The majority of Southerners were small farmers who could not afford slaves and most Northerners were small farmers or tradesmen who had never come into contact with any slaves.
  6. 6. Slave trade had been illegal since 1820.
  7. 7. Southern economy depended on slavery to be profitable while Northern economy was based on commerce and industry.
  8. 8. Slavery A Moral and Commercial Issue
  9. 9. Total Population 1850 By 1850 only about a third of the national population lived in the South. Southern politicians had become alarmed at the loss of political power in the House of Representatives.
  10. 10. Free States and Territories Slave States Territories Open to Slavery The South pressed for admission of the new states as slave states so that their political power base would remain
  11. 11. Closed to slavery by Missouri Compromise Open to slavery by Missouri Compromise Free states and territories Slave States Missouri Compromise of 1820 It stipulated that a balance between slave and free states had to be maintained as
  12. 12. Free state or territory Slavery state or territory Open to slavery by principle of popular sovereignty. Compromise of 1850 Open to slavery by principle of popular sovereignty. Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 The Missouri Compromise of 1820 lasted until the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854, which eliminated it and made it possible for slavery to be introduced into any new territory based on the decision of the residents.
  13. 13. SLAVERY DEBATES Stephen Douglas Abraham Lincoln Slavery became a major political
  14. 14. West Virginia a en Sh Harper’s Ferry nd h oa Virginia ac to m Po Maryland The threat to stop the spread of slavery intensified in 1859 when John Brown raided the Federal arsenal at Harper’s Ferry, Virginia (now West Virginia) and called for a general insurrection of Southern slaves.
  15. 15. ARGUING ABOUT SLAVERY Extremists on both sides became willing to go to war to ensure that their views prevailed. Against this backdrop of tension the presidential election of 1860 took place.
  16. 16. Abraham Lincoln Stephen Douglas 1860 Presidential Candidates John Bell John Breckinridge
  17. 17. Election of 1860 Lincoln won the election with just 40 percent of the popular vote, and no Southern electoral votes.
  18. 18. VA KY TN NC SC AL GA FL December 1860 South Carolina Secedes
  19. 19. Fort Sumter, SC Star of the West In January 1861, the Star of the West attempted to enter the harbor of Charleston to resupply Union troops at Fort Sumter. She was fired on, and she retreated out of range.
  20. 20. Jefferson Davis President of Confederate States of America
  21. 21. Confederacy in January 1861 TX MS LA AL GA SC FL
  22. 22. Southern officers had to choose between loyalty to their country and ties to their homes.
  23. 23. Robert E. Matthew F. Maury
  24. 24. Most career enlisted sailors sided with the Union.
  25. 25. Southern militias quickly took over most forts in the South.
  26. 26. Fort Sumter The Civil War started
  27. 27. On 11 April 1861, General Beauregard demanded that Fort Sumter Major Anderson USA, garrison commander, refused.
  28. 28. Fort Sumter April 12, 1861, first shots
  29. 29. On 15 April, President Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteers for 3 months to suppress the rebellion.
  30. 30. Fort Sumter’s fall contributed to additional states joining each side of the conflict. TX W VA VA TN NC AR SC AL GA MS LA FL
  31. 31. Population In Uniform North 22 Million 2.5 Million South 9 Million 1 Million
  32. 32. North Advantages Heavy Industry Rail System $331 Million in Exports South Disadvantages No Foundries or Metal Works Transportation System Only $31 Million in Exports
  33. 33. Naval Differences Shipyards Seaman Navy North Yes Adequate Small South None Few None
  34. 34. The Confederacy had no navy at all when the war began. It tried to build naval ships and armored gunboats called ironclads for harbor defense, and fought valiantly, but it
  35. 35. Ironclad Covered or cased with iron plates, as a ship for naval warfare; armorplated A wooden warship of the middle or late 19th century having iron or steel armor plating
  36. 36. The South was dependent on importation of food.
  37. 37. Because of the Union blockade, the Confederacy was near starvation by war’s end.
  38. 38. South’s Emotions and Wishful Thinking • Major war not expected • North would quickly tire of casualties and losses • Unstable politics in the North • Border states’ sympathies
  39. 39. THE BORDER STATES MD MO KY DE
  40. 40. The Border States Maryland Delaware Kentucky Missouri While remaining in the Union, these four states were at least partially sympathetic to the Confederate cause. They supported both sides with
  41. 41. King Cotton The South had no idea about the economic demands of a modern war.
  42. 42. The South believed that once the Northern blockade cut off “King Cotton” from British and French markets, it would force these countries to help the Southern cause for economic reasons.
  43. 43. Strengths of the South • Officer corps • Vast territory • Loyalty to cause
  44. 44. Comparison of North and South in 1860 Category Population Wealth Produced Farm Acreage Value of Crops Railroad Mileage Factories Iron Production Bank Deposits North South 71% 75% 65% 70% 72% 85% 96% 81% 29% 25% 35% 30% 28% 15% 4% 19%
  45. 45. Jefferson Davis • Authorized privateering • Declared embargo on cotton
  46. 46. • Began a naval blockade of all Southern ports from Virginia Capes to Texas Abraham
  47. 47. Blockade Runner A ship or person that passes through a blockade
  48. 48. Blockaded ports by the
  49. 49. Davis’ Miscalculations • British and French observed blockade. • Europeans had huge inventories of cotton.
  50. 50. • Began with 3 ships in home waters to patrol 3,550 miles Gideon Welles Secretary of the Navy • By December 1861, had 264 vessels and adequate blockade of all major cotton ports
  51. 51. Entrance to Mississippi River Major Cotton Ports
  52. 52. Paddle Steamer Naval Blockade • Many types of vessels were used for the blockade. Whaling Ship Tugs • The crews had little or no training.
  53. 53. Blockade Expansion by End of 1862 • Blockade depended upon coal and other supplies. • Union established bases in Confederate territory.
  54. 54. Florida’s poor inland transportation, coupled with the Union blockade, deprived the South of essential salt for preservation of food.
  55. 55. Fort Pickens Union supply bases in the South were significant factors in the victory.
  56. 56. • Responsible for improved naval ordnance • Developed larger smooth-bore guns Commander John Dahlgren
  57. 57. END OF PART ONE
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