Civil War part one
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Civil War part one Civil War part one Presentation Transcript

  • CHAPTER 4 THE CIVIL WAR 1861-1865
  • THE UNITED STATES IN 1840
  • Overseas trade and immigration were the focus of maritime interests in the 1840s. Clipper Whaler Packet
  • The issue of slavery was not of prime importance to the average American of the early 1800s.
  • The majority of Southerners were small farmers who could not afford slaves and most Northerners were small farmers or tradesmen who had never come into contact with any slaves.
  • Slave trade had been illegal since 1820.
  • Southern economy depended on slavery to be profitable while Northern economy was based on commerce and industry.
  • A Moral and Commercial Issue Slavery
  • By 1850 only about a third of the national population lived in the South. Southern politicians had become alarmed at the loss of political power in the House of Representatives. Total Population 1850
  • The South pressed for admission of the new states as slave states so that their political power base would remain Free States and Territories Slave States Territories Open to Slavery
  • It stipulated that a balance between slave and free states had to be maintained as Closed to slavery by Missouri Compromise Open to slavery by Missouri Compromise Free states and territories Slave States Missouri Compromise of 1820
  • The Missouri Compromise of 1820 lasted until the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854, which eliminated it and made it possible for slavery to be introduced into any new territory based on the decision of the residents. Free state or territory Slavery state or territory Open to slavery by principle of popular sovereignty. Compromise of 1850 Open to slavery by principle of popular sovereignty. Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854
  • SLAVERY DEBATES Slavery became a major political Stephen Douglas Abraham Lincoln
  • The threat to stop the spread of slavery intensified in 1859 when John Brown raided the Federal arsenal at Harper’s Ferry, Virginia (now West Virginia) and called for a general insurrection of Southern slaves. West Virginia Harper’s Ferry Virginia Maryland Potomac Shenandoah
  • Extremists on both sides became willing to go to war to ensure that their views prevailed. Against this backdrop of tension the presidential election of 1860 took place. ARGUING ABOUT SLAVERY
  • 1860 Presidential Candidates Abraham Lincoln Stephen Douglas John Bell John Breckinridge
  • Election of 1860 Lincoln won the election with just 40 percent of the popular vote, and no Southern electoral votes.
  • December 1860 South Carolina Secedes KY VA NC SC GAAL FL TN
  • In January 1861, the Star of the West attempted to enter the harbor of Charleston to resupply Union troops at Fort Sumter. She was fired on, and she retreated out of range. Star of the West Fort Sumter, SC
  • Jefferson Davis President of Confederate States of America
  • Confederacy in January 1861 TX LA MS AL GA SC FL
  • Southern officers had to choose between loyalty to their country and ties to their homes.
  • Robert E. Matthew F. Maury
  • Most career enlisted sailors sided with the Union.
  • Southern militias quickly took over most forts in the South.
  • The Civil War started Fort Sumter
  • On 11 April 1861, General Beauregard demanded that Fort Sumter Major Anderson USA, garrison commander, refused.
  • April 12, 1861, first shots Fort Sumter
  • On 15 April, President Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteers for 3 months to suppress the rebellion.
  • TX LA MS AL GA SC FL AR TN NC VA W VA Fort Sumter’s fall contributed to additional states joining each side of the conflict.
  • North 22 Million 2.5 Million South 9 Million 1 Million Population In Uniform
  • North Advantages Heavy Industry Rail System $331 Million in Exports South Disadvantages No Foundries or Metal Works Transportation System Only $31 Million in Exports
  • Naval Differences North Yes Adequate Small South None Few None Shipyards Seaman Navy
  • The Confederacy had no navy at all when the war began. It tried to build naval ships and armored gunboats called ironclads for harbor defense, and fought valiantly, but it
  • Covered or cased with iron plates, as a ship for naval warfare; armor- plated A wooden warship of the middle or late 19th century having iron or steel armor plating Ironclad
  • The South was dependent on importation of food.
  • Because of the Union blockade, the Confederacy was near starvation by war’s end.
  • South’s Emotions and Wishful Thinking • Major war not expected • North would quickly tire of casualties and losses • Unstable politics in the North • Border states’ sympathies
  • THE BORDER STATES MO KY DE MD
  • The Border States Maryland Delaware Kentucky Missouri While remaining in the Union, these four states were at least partially sympathetic to the Confederate cause. They supported both sides with
  • King Cotton The South had no idea about the economic demands of a modern war.
  • The South believed that once the Northern blockade cut off “King Cotton” from British and French markets, it would force these countries to help the Southern cause for economic reasons.
  • Strengths of the South • Officer corps • Vast territory • Loyalty to cause
  • Comparison of North and South in 1860 Category North South Population Wealth Produced Farm Acreage Value of Crops Railroad Mileage Factories Iron Production Bank Deposits 71% 75% 65% 70% 72% 85% 96% 81% 29% 25% 35% 30% 28% 15% 4% 19%
  • Jefferson Davis • Authorized privateering • Declared embargo on cotton
  • • Began a naval blockade of all Southern ports from Virginia Capes to Texas Abraham
  • A ship or person that passes through a blockade Blockade Runner
  • Blockaded ports by the
  • Davis’ Miscalculations • British and French observed blockade. • Europeans had huge inventories of cotton.
  • • Began with 3 ships in home waters to patrol 3,550 miles • By December 1861, had 264 vessels and adequate blockade of all major cotton ports Gideon Welles Secretary of the Navy
  • Major Cotton Ports Entrance to Mississippi River
  • Naval Blockade • Many types of vessels were used for the blockade. • The crews had little or no training. Paddle Steamer Whaling Ship Tugs
  • Blockade Expansion by End of 1862 • Blockade depended upon coal and other supplies. • Union established bases in Confederate territory.
  • Florida’s poor inland transportation, coupled with the Union blockade, deprived the South of essential salt for preservation of food.
  • Union supply bases in the South were significant factors in the victory. Fort Pickens
  • • Responsible for improved naval ordnance • Developed larger smooth-bore guns Commander John Dahlgren
  • END OF PART ONE