CHAPTER 4
THE CIVIL WAR
1861-1865
THE UNITED STATES IN 1840
Overseas trade
and immigration
were the focus of
maritime interests
in the 1840s.
Clipper Whaler
Packet
The issue of
slavery was
not of prime
importance to
the average
American of the
early 1800s.
The majority of Southerners were small
farmers who could not afford slaves
and
most Northerners were small farmers or
trad...
Slave trade had been illegal since 1820.
Southern
economy
depended
on slavery
to be
profitable
while
Northern
economy
was based on
commerce
and industry.
A Moral and
Commercial
Issue
Slavery
By 1850 only about a third of the national
population lived in the South. Southern
politicians had become alarmed at the l...
The South pressed for admission of
the
new states as slave states so that their
political power base would remain
Free Sta...
It stipulated that a balance between
slave
and free states had to be maintained as
Closed to slavery by
Missouri Compromis...
The Missouri Compromise of 1820
lasted until the Kansas-Nebraska Act
of 1854, which eliminated it and
made it possible for...
SLAVERY DEBATES
Slavery became a major political
Stephen Douglas Abraham Lincoln
The threat to stop the spread of slavery
intensified in 1859 when John Brown raided
the Federal arsenal at Harper’s Ferry,...
Extremists on
both sides
became willing
to go to war to
ensure that their
views prevailed.
Against this
backdrop of
tensio...
1860
Presidential
Candidates
Abraham
Lincoln
Stephen
Douglas
John
Bell
John
Breckinridge
Election of 1860
Lincoln won the
election with just
40 percent of the
popular vote, and
no Southern
electoral votes.
December 1860
South Carolina Secedes
KY VA
NC
SC
GAAL
FL
TN
In January 1861, the Star of the West
attempted to enter the harbor of
Charleston to resupply Union troops
at Fort Sumter....
Jefferson Davis
President of
Confederate
States of
America
Confederacy in
January 1861
TX LA
MS
AL
GA
SC
FL
Southern officers had to choose
between loyalty to their country
and ties to their homes.
Robert E. Matthew F. Maury
Most career enlisted sailors sided
with
the Union.
Southern militias
quickly took over
most forts in the
South.
The Civil War started
Fort Sumter
On 11 April 1861,
General
Beauregard
demanded that
Fort Sumter
Major Anderson
USA, garrison
commander,
refused.
April 12, 1861, first shots
Fort Sumter
On 15 April, President Lincoln called
for 75,000 volunteers for 3 months
to suppress the rebellion.
TX LA
MS
AL
GA
SC
FL
AR
TN NC
VA
W VA
Fort Sumter’s fall
contributed to
additional states
joining each side
of the conflic...
North
22 Million
2.5 Million
South
9 Million
1 Million
Population
In Uniform
North Advantages
Heavy Industry
Rail System
$331 Million in Exports
South Disadvantages
No Foundries or Metal Works
Transp...
Naval Differences
North
Yes
Adequate
Small
South
None
Few
None
Shipyards
Seaman
Navy
The Confederacy had no navy at all
when the war began.
It tried to build naval ships and
armored
gunboats called ironclads...
Covered or cased with iron plates,
as a ship for naval warfare; armor-
plated
A wooden warship of the middle
or late 19th ...
The South was dependent
on importation of food.
Because of the Union blockade, the
Confederacy was near starvation by
war’s end.
South’s Emotions and
Wishful Thinking
• Major war not expected
• North would quickly tire of casualties
and losses
• Unsta...
THE BORDER STATES
MO KY DE
MD
The Border States
Maryland Delaware
Kentucky Missouri
While remaining in the Union, these
four states were at least partia...
King Cotton
The South had no idea about the
economic demands of a modern
war.
The South believed that once the
Northern blockade cut off “King Cotton”
from British and French markets, it
would force t...
Strengths of the South
• Officer corps • Vast territory
• Loyalty to cause
Comparison of North and South in 1860
Category North South
Population
Wealth Produced
Farm Acreage
Value of Crops
Railroad...
Jefferson Davis
• Authorized
privateering
• Declared
embargo
on
cotton
• Began a naval
blockade of all
Southern ports
from Virginia
Capes to Texas
Abraham
A ship or person that
passes
through a blockade
Blockade Runner
Blockaded ports by the
Davis’ Miscalculations
• British and French observed
blockade.
• Europeans had huge inventories of
cotton.
• Began with 3 ships in
home waters to patrol
3,550 miles
• By December 1861,
had 264 vessels and
adequate blockade
of all...
Major Cotton Ports
Entrance to
Mississippi River
Naval Blockade
• Many types of
vessels were used
for the blockade.
• The crews had
little or no training.
Paddle Steamer
W...
Blockade Expansion by End of 1862
• Blockade depended upon coal and other supplies.
• Union established bases in Confedera...
Florida’s poor inland transportation,
coupled with the Union blockade,
deprived the South of essential salt
for preservati...
Union supply bases
in the South were
significant factors
in the victory.
Fort Pickens
• Responsible for
improved naval
ordnance
• Developed larger
smooth-bore guns
Commander
John Dahlgren
END OF PART
ONE
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Civil War part one

  1. 1. CHAPTER 4 THE CIVIL WAR 1861-1865
  2. 2. THE UNITED STATES IN 1840
  3. 3. Overseas trade and immigration were the focus of maritime interests in the 1840s. Clipper Whaler Packet
  4. 4. The issue of slavery was not of prime importance to the average American of the early 1800s.
  5. 5. The majority of Southerners were small farmers who could not afford slaves and most Northerners were small farmers or tradesmen who had never come into contact with any slaves.
  6. 6. Slave trade had been illegal since 1820.
  7. 7. Southern economy depended on slavery to be profitable while Northern economy was based on commerce and industry.
  8. 8. A Moral and Commercial Issue Slavery
  9. 9. By 1850 only about a third of the national population lived in the South. Southern politicians had become alarmed at the loss of political power in the House of Representatives. Total Population 1850
  10. 10. The South pressed for admission of the new states as slave states so that their political power base would remain Free States and Territories Slave States Territories Open to Slavery
  11. 11. It stipulated that a balance between slave and free states had to be maintained as Closed to slavery by Missouri Compromise Open to slavery by Missouri Compromise Free states and territories Slave States Missouri Compromise of 1820
  12. 12. The Missouri Compromise of 1820 lasted until the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854, which eliminated it and made it possible for slavery to be introduced into any new territory based on the decision of the residents. Free state or territory Slavery state or territory Open to slavery by principle of popular sovereignty. Compromise of 1850 Open to slavery by principle of popular sovereignty. Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854
  13. 13. SLAVERY DEBATES Slavery became a major political Stephen Douglas Abraham Lincoln
  14. 14. The threat to stop the spread of slavery intensified in 1859 when John Brown raided the Federal arsenal at Harper’s Ferry, Virginia (now West Virginia) and called for a general insurrection of Southern slaves. West Virginia Harper’s Ferry Virginia Maryland Potomac Shenandoah
  15. 15. Extremists on both sides became willing to go to war to ensure that their views prevailed. Against this backdrop of tension the presidential election of 1860 took place. ARGUING ABOUT SLAVERY
  16. 16. 1860 Presidential Candidates Abraham Lincoln Stephen Douglas John Bell John Breckinridge
  17. 17. Election of 1860 Lincoln won the election with just 40 percent of the popular vote, and no Southern electoral votes.
  18. 18. December 1860 South Carolina Secedes KY VA NC SC GAAL FL TN
  19. 19. In January 1861, the Star of the West attempted to enter the harbor of Charleston to resupply Union troops at Fort Sumter. She was fired on, and she retreated out of range. Star of the West Fort Sumter, SC
  20. 20. Jefferson Davis President of Confederate States of America
  21. 21. Confederacy in January 1861 TX LA MS AL GA SC FL
  22. 22. Southern officers had to choose between loyalty to their country and ties to their homes.
  23. 23. Robert E. Matthew F. Maury
  24. 24. Most career enlisted sailors sided with the Union.
  25. 25. Southern militias quickly took over most forts in the South.
  26. 26. The Civil War started Fort Sumter
  27. 27. On 11 April 1861, General Beauregard demanded that Fort Sumter Major Anderson USA, garrison commander, refused.
  28. 28. April 12, 1861, first shots Fort Sumter
  29. 29. On 15 April, President Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteers for 3 months to suppress the rebellion.
  30. 30. TX LA MS AL GA SC FL AR TN NC VA W VA Fort Sumter’s fall contributed to additional states joining each side of the conflict.
  31. 31. North 22 Million 2.5 Million South 9 Million 1 Million Population In Uniform
  32. 32. North Advantages Heavy Industry Rail System $331 Million in Exports South Disadvantages No Foundries or Metal Works Transportation System Only $31 Million in Exports
  33. 33. Naval Differences North Yes Adequate Small South None Few None Shipyards Seaman Navy
  34. 34. The Confederacy had no navy at all when the war began. It tried to build naval ships and armored gunboats called ironclads for harbor defense, and fought valiantly, but it
  35. 35. Covered or cased with iron plates, as a ship for naval warfare; armor- plated A wooden warship of the middle or late 19th century having iron or steel armor plating Ironclad
  36. 36. The South was dependent on importation of food.
  37. 37. Because of the Union blockade, the Confederacy was near starvation by war’s end.
  38. 38. South’s Emotions and Wishful Thinking • Major war not expected • North would quickly tire of casualties and losses • Unstable politics in the North • Border states’ sympathies
  39. 39. THE BORDER STATES MO KY DE MD
  40. 40. The Border States Maryland Delaware Kentucky Missouri While remaining in the Union, these four states were at least partially sympathetic to the Confederate cause. They supported both sides with
  41. 41. King Cotton The South had no idea about the economic demands of a modern war.
  42. 42. The South believed that once the Northern blockade cut off “King Cotton” from British and French markets, it would force these countries to help the Southern cause for economic reasons.
  43. 43. Strengths of the South • Officer corps • Vast territory • Loyalty to cause
  44. 44. Comparison of North and South in 1860 Category North South Population Wealth Produced Farm Acreage Value of Crops Railroad Mileage Factories Iron Production Bank Deposits 71% 75% 65% 70% 72% 85% 96% 81% 29% 25% 35% 30% 28% 15% 4% 19%
  45. 45. Jefferson Davis • Authorized privateering • Declared embargo on cotton
  46. 46. • Began a naval blockade of all Southern ports from Virginia Capes to Texas Abraham
  47. 47. A ship or person that passes through a blockade Blockade Runner
  48. 48. Blockaded ports by the
  49. 49. Davis’ Miscalculations • British and French observed blockade. • Europeans had huge inventories of cotton.
  50. 50. • Began with 3 ships in home waters to patrol 3,550 miles • By December 1861, had 264 vessels and adequate blockade of all major cotton ports Gideon Welles Secretary of the Navy
  51. 51. Major Cotton Ports Entrance to Mississippi River
  52. 52. Naval Blockade • Many types of vessels were used for the blockade. • The crews had little or no training. Paddle Steamer Whaling Ship Tugs
  53. 53. Blockade Expansion by End of 1862 • Blockade depended upon coal and other supplies. • Union established bases in Confederate territory.
  54. 54. Florida’s poor inland transportation, coupled with the Union blockade, deprived the South of essential salt for preservation of food.
  55. 55. Union supply bases in the South were significant factors in the victory. Fort Pickens
  56. 56. • Responsible for improved naval ordnance • Developed larger smooth-bore guns Commander John Dahlgren
  57. 57. END OF PART ONE
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