Civil War part four

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Civil War part four

  1. 1. CHAPTER 4 PART FOUR THE CIVIL WAR 1861-1865
  2. 2. Gettysburg Chattanooga Atlanta Vicksburg Mobile Bay
  3. 3. Lincoln named Grant supreme commander of all Union forces. President Lincoln General Grant
  4. 4. • Grant commanded the Army of the Potomac. • Sherman commanded the western army and marched on Atlanta. General Grant General Sherman
  5. 5. • The Atlanta campaign pushed ahead Farragut’s plans for a naval assault on Mobile. • Sherman figured that an attack on Mobile would move Atlanta troops. Admiral Farragut General Sherman
  6. 6. Farragut was given additional monitors and an amphibious troop contingent to besiege and capture the forts guarding the entrance to Mobile Bay. Admiral Farragut
  7. 7. The act or process of surrounding and attacking a fortified place in such a way as to isolate it from help and supplies, for the purpose of lessening the resistance of the defenders and thereby making capture possible Besiege
  8. 8. • Strategic port for the South • Largest cotton- shipping port • Stronger defenses than other ports
  9. 9. Mobile Bay Defenses Octorora Metacomet Brooklyn Hartford
  10. 10. • The Tennessee had design flaws. • Buchanan’s fleet consisted of 4 ships and only 16 guns. Admiral Buchanan CSS Tennessee
  11. 11. • Farragut’s fleet had 18 ships and 159 guns. • The Union monitors had heavier armor and larger guns.
  12. 12. USS Tecumseh Struck a Confederate mine and sank with her crew of 100
  13. 13. USS Brooklyn Stopped in the middle of the channel nearly causing a Union disaster
  14. 14. USS Hartford • Farragut surveyed the scene from the rigging, and taking a calculated risk, shouted the famous words, “Damn the torpedoes!” • And, “Four bells, Captain Drayton, go ahead! Jouett, full speed!”
  15. 15. A chance of failure, the probability of which is estimated before some action is undertaken Calculated Risk
  16. 16. Confederate Mines Defective mines (torpedoes) allowed the Union fleet to proceed without another
  17. 17. Buchanan was desperate to keep the Union ships bottled up in front of Fort Morgan, so the fort’s guns could be brought to bear. CSS Tennessee USS Hartford
  18. 18. CSS Selma • Selma was captured. • Gaines was sunk. • Morgan escaped to the city. •Tennessee retired under the guns of Fort Morgan.
  19. 19. Buchanan charged forth. He wanted to sink the Hartford. Admiral Farragut Admiral Buchanan
  20. 20. The Tennessee’s gun ports jammed. Her gun deck was filled with suffocating heat and smoke. With Admiral Buchanan wounded, he authorized the captain of the Tennessee to surrender. CSS Tennessee
  21. 21. • The loss of Mobile Bay was the end of the Confederate Navy.
  22. 22. Sherman’s March to the Sea September 1864 April 1865 December 1864
  23. 23. • Atlanta fell to Sherman’s forces in three sharp battles. • His 60,000 shock troops made a path of destruction 60 miles wide to Savannah. This became known as
  24. 24. Troops especially selected, trained, and equipped for engaging in assault Shock Troops
  25. 25. Following the fall of Savannah, his army surged northward into the Carolinas. Charleston fell on 18 February 1865. Finally, Lee was trapped in the Petersburg- Richmond area.General William Tecumseh Sherman
  26. 26. Wilmington, NC, was the only port still open to Confederate blockade runners. Wilmington Cape Fear NC
  27. 27. Fort Fisher was the key to Confederate defenses at Cape Fear. Fort Fisher, NC
  28. 28. • Terry led the Army landing force. • Porter led the naval forces. Admiral Porter Fort Fisher General Terry
  29. 29. Fort Fisher The Confederate forces surrendered after the northern parapets were
  30. 30. A defensive wall or elevation, as of earth or stone, in a fortification Parapet
  31. 31. Amphibious Attack on Fort Fisher The Fort Fisher expedition was the only large-scale joint amphibious attack against a strongly fortified position during the war.
  32. 32. Union Navy at Fort Fisher • The battle at Fort Fisher was the Navy’s last significant action in the Civil War. • The Union Navy had accomplished
  33. 33. The President realized that after the victory at Fort Fisher, the Navy had nothing left for their ships to do. President Lincoln Navy Secretary Welles
  34. 34. Final Battle (Lee vs. Grant) Richmon d Petersburg Virginia
  35. 35. • Grant could now outflank Lee’s forces. • His forces relentlessly attacked Lee’s forces, and the Union suffered tremendous losses. General Grant
  36. 36. • Lee made his final attack on 25 March 1865. • With heavy losses, he was forced to abandon Petersburg. General Lee
  37. 37. • Lee surrendered to Grant in the parlor of Wilmer McLean’s home on 9 April 1865. Wilmer McLean’s Home
  38. 38. • Gave Lee’s men food and allowed them to keep their horses • Paroled Confederate officers and men on their word and sent them home General Grant
  39. 39. • Raised the Union flag on 14 April over Fort Sumter Major General Robert Anderson
  40. 40. • Davis was captured on 10 May 1865. • The Confederacy ceased to exist; the Union was preserved. Jefferson Davis
  41. 41. War Statistics • 540,000 Americans died. • About $5 billion was spent on the war.
  42. 42. War Precipitates Changes • Oil was discovered. Titusville, PA
  43. 43. War Precipitates Changes Canning was developed.
  44. 44. War Precipitates Changes • Innovative weapons of war were H.L. HUNLEY Torpedo Mine
  45. 45. War Precipitates Changes • Medical care and other innovations USS Red Rover
  46. 46. Superintendent of Nurses for Union Army • Recruited men and women to perform nursing duties Dorothea Dix
  47. 47. • Founder of the American Red Cross • Recruited men and women to perform nursing duties Clara Barton
  48. 48. War Precipitates Changes Cameras were used to record the battles.
  49. 49. War Precipitates Changes Railroads and telegraph became indispensable communication links.
  50. 50. • The Navy grew to over 600 ships. • Ironclads and monitors were developed. • Nearly 60,000 officers and men were serving.
  51. 51. • Lee was the superior tactician in the field. • Lincoln and Grant’s resources and
  52. 52. The Confederacy’s attempts to sustain itself by interior lines of communication failed in the face of the superior naval power around it. General Robert E. Lee
  53. 53. A means of sending private or hidden messages, orders, etc., within an organization For example, a Civil War general or admiral sending orders to battlefield commanders or ship’s captains Interior Lines of Communication
  54. 54. • Movement by sea was faster than by land. • Geopolitical and strategic lessons about land versus sea power have been studied since the Civil War.
  55. 55. • END OF PART FOUR

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