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Genetics Chapter 1 And 2 Class
Genetics Chapter 1 And 2 Class
Genetics Chapter 1 And 2 Class
Genetics Chapter 1 And 2 Class
Genetics Chapter 1 And 2 Class
Genetics Chapter 1 And 2 Class
Genetics Chapter 1 And 2 Class
Genetics Chapter 1 And 2 Class
Genetics Chapter 1 And 2 Class
Genetics Chapter 1 And 2 Class
Genetics Chapter 1 And 2 Class
Genetics Chapter 1 And 2 Class
Genetics Chapter 1 And 2 Class
Genetics Chapter 1 And 2 Class
Genetics Chapter 1 And 2 Class
Genetics Chapter 1 And 2 Class
Genetics Chapter 1 And 2 Class
Genetics Chapter 1 And 2 Class
Genetics Chapter 1 And 2 Class
Genetics Chapter 1 And 2 Class
Genetics Chapter 1 And 2 Class
Genetics Chapter 1 And 2 Class
Genetics Chapter 1 And 2 Class
Genetics Chapter 1 And 2 Class
Genetics Chapter 1 And 2 Class
Genetics Chapter 1 And 2 Class
Genetics Chapter 1 And 2 Class
Genetics Chapter 1 And 2 Class
Genetics Chapter 1 And 2 Class
Genetics Chapter 1 And 2 Class
Genetics Chapter 1 And 2 Class
Genetics Chapter 1 And 2 Class
Genetics Chapter 1 And 2 Class
Genetics Chapter 1 And 2 Class
Genetics Chapter 1 And 2 Class
Genetics Chapter 1 And 2 Class
Genetics Chapter 1 And 2 Class
Genetics Chapter 1 And 2 Class
Genetics Chapter 1 And 2 Class
Genetics Chapter 1 And 2 Class
Genetics Chapter 1 And 2 Class
Genetics Chapter 1 And 2 Class
Genetics Chapter 1 And 2 Class
Genetics Chapter 1 And 2 Class
Genetics Chapter 1 And 2 Class
Genetics Chapter 1 And 2 Class
Genetics Chapter 1 And 2 Class
Genetics Chapter 1 And 2 Class
Genetics Chapter 1 And 2 Class
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Genetics Chapter 1 And 2 Class

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  • 1. Principles of Genetics Book: Snustad and Simmons, 4th ed. (new edition) Professor: John C. Larkin
  • 2. Contact Information: John C. Larkin Office: 316 Life Sciences Office Hours: Wed. 10:00am-12:00am Phone: 578-8552 Email: [email_address]
  • 3. Teaching Assistants: See syllabus for your TA and location of your Discussion Section
  • 4. Discussion Sections (“Labs”) Discussion of homework problems Quizzes Turn in homework Discussion sections will meet this week!
  • 5. Grading: Two lecture exams 200 points Final exam ( Comprehensive!) 100 points Homework (best 5 of 6) 50 points Quizzes (best 5 of 6) 50 points 400 points
  • 6. Make-up Exam: The third exam is an in class make-up exam for students who missed an exam due to an excused absence. There will be no other make-up exams. The make-up may not substitute for the final. Students may also take the make-up exam to replace a lecture exam score but in this case the make-up exam must count toward the final grade.
  • 7. Homework
    • Problems 2.4, 2.5, 2.9, 2.10, 2.11, 2.12, 2.13, 2.15.
    • Due: Wednesday, Jan 23 (Sec 5,6,7 &10)
    • or Friday, January 25 (Sec 8,9,11,12)
    • (Along with additional problems).
  • 8.  
  • 9. Incarceration rate by gender (from http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/prisons.htm ) : Men are ten times as likely as women to be in prison. But, incarceration rate is increasing faster among women than among men (from 2003 to 2004, 2.9% increase for women, 2.0% increase for men).
  • 10. Genetics: The Science of Inheritance Genotype (Inherited traits) Environment Phenotype (Actual characteristics of organism)
  • 11. Genetic Variation in Chickens Gold-laced Wyandotte Black Wyandotte
  • 12. White-crested Polands
  • 13. Genetically-engineered resistance to the European Corn Borer Fig. 1.14
  • 14. Structure of Eukaryotic Cells Fig. 2.2
  • 15.
    • DNA is found in:
    • Nucleus
    • Mitochondria and chloroplasts
    • Mito. and chloro. derived from
    • prokaryotic symbionts
  • 16. Fig. 1.4 DNA Structure (Simplified)
    • Hydrogen-bonded base-pairs (G-C, A-T)
    • Covalently-bonded sequence of base-pairs
    • (deoxyribose-phosphodiester backbone)
  • 17. Functions of DNA: Replication (preserves genetic information) Gene expression (information in genes expressed as protein for cell functions)
  • 18. (Fig. 1.6) DNA replication depends on base-pairing and preserves the sequence of bases
  • 19. Gene Expression: The process by which genes affect the phenotype. Converts sequence of nucleotides to sequence of amino acids in a protein, via transcription and translation.
  • 20. Human beta-globin gene expression FIG. 1.7
  • 21.
    • Protein Structure and Function
    • . The amino acid sequence of a protein determines its structure and function.
    • Much of an organism’s phenotype results from protein function.
    • Example: Hemoglobin carries O 2 and CO 2 in the blood
  • 22.
    • Consequences of mutation
    • Changes in the DNA sequence of a
    • gene (mutations) change the sequence
    • of the encoded protein.
    • Therefore, mutations can alter protein
    • structure and function.
    • Example: Hemoglobin sickle-cell
    • mutation.
  • 23. Mutations in genes change proteins and phenotypes Normal gene Normal protein Normal phenotype Mutant gene Mutant protein Mutant phenotype
  • 24. Mitosis and Meiosis
    • The Cell Cycle
    • Mitosis: Purpose is to preserve chromosome number.
    • Meiosis: Purpose is to create haploid gametes, and to create new genotype combinations.
  • 25. Replication of a chromosome during mitosis (in a diploid) Diploid cell Replicated chromosomes Chr. # preserved
  • 26. Meiosis Four haploid gametes Meiosis Diploid cell
  • 27. Human Life Cycle Mitosis makes my toes Meiosis makes my gametes (From Campbell)
  • 28. The Cell Cycle (Fig. 2.4) G1 S G2 Mitosis & cytokinesis
  • 29. Structure of a replicated chromosome
  • 30. Counting chromosomes and chromatids
    • n = haploid number of chromosomes
      • Example: the humans have 23 different chromosomes (n=23).
      • Diploid cells have 2n chromosome #. Human diploid cells, have 46 chromosomes (2n=46).
    • c = number of chromatids in unreplicated (G1) haploid state.
  • 31. Replication of a chromosome in a diploid (n=1) during mitosis (see Fig.2.10) G1 S G2 After cytokinesis Both daughter cells still diploid! 2n 2c 2n 4c 2n 2c
  • 32. Stages of mitosis (Fig. 2.6)
  • 33. Stages of mitosis
  • 34. Note! At metaphase in mitosis, all chromosomes line up individually on the metaphase plate, and the chromatids separate and move to opposite poles as independent chromosomes.
  • 35. Meiosis Fig. 2.11
  • 36. Meiosis overview: Meiosis I
    • Prophase of Meiosis I is longer than mitotic prophase.
    • In Metaphase I, the two copies of each replicated chromosome pair at the metaphase plate (a tetrad ), unlike mitosis.
    • In Anaphase I, each chromosome moves to pole without chromatid separation.
    • At the end of Meiosis I, the chromosome # has been reduced, but each chromosome still has two chromatids.
  • 37. Meiosis overview: Meiosis II
    • The chromosomes are not replicated in the interphase between Meiosis I & Meiosis II.
    • The chromatids finally separate in Anaphase II.
    • The final result is four haploid gametes, each with half the number of chromosomes present in the diploid cells.
  • 38. Chromosomes in Meiosis (in a diploid, see Fig. 2.10) 2n, 2c 2n, 4c 1n, 2c 1n, 2c Meiosis I: Reduction division Tetrad Two copies of same chromosome
  • 39. Meiosis, continued 1n, 2c 1n, 2c Meiosis II Four haploid gametes, all 1n, 1c.
  • 40. Fig. 2.14. Crossing over Occurs during prophase I Chiasma (pl. chiasmata) indicate where chromosomes have exchanged genetic material.
  • 41. Crossing over (Recombination) Synapsis (pairing) Prophase I Metaphase I
  • 42. Genes in Meiosis Meiosis I: Reduction division Two copies of chromosome, with  -globin alleles H h Let H= normal  -globin Let h=sickle cell  -globin
  • 43. Meiosis, continued Meiosis II Four haploid gametes, 2 H and 2 h H H h h
  • 44. Fig 3.1 Let D = tall Let d = dwarf P F1 F2 D_ = DD or Dd DD dd Dd 787 Tall (D_ ) 277 Dwarf (dd)
  • 45. Mendel’s Initial Observations from Monohybrid Cross
    • The dwarf trait is hidden in the F1, but reappears unchanged in the F2. This contradicts “blending inheritance”.
    • In the F2, tall and dwarf plants appear in a ratio of about 3 tall : 1 dwarf.
  • 46. Mendel’s Conclusions
    • Each trait is controlled by an inherited factor, now called a “gene”.
    • Two copies of each gene are present in the organism. These copies are called “alleles”.
    • The alleles are usually transmitted unchanged through crosses.
  • 47. Fig. 3.2. Symbolic representation of Mendel’s cross Punnett Square
  • 48. Mendel’s Principles
    • Principle of Dominance: In a heterozygote, one allele may conceal another.
    • Principle of Segregation: In a heterozygote, the alleles segregate from each other during gamete formation.
  • 49. Molecular basis of Mendel’s cross
    • Gibberellin (GA) is a plant growth hormone, synthesized by specific enzymes.
    • Dwarf plants (dd homozygotes) have a mutation a gene that codes for a GA biosynthesis enzyme.
    • Tall plants have at least one functional copy of the enzyme.

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