Journey Of Reconciliation In the 1940s The Congress Of Racial Equality developed a type of freedom ride in response to The Supreme Courts ruling outlawing discrimination in interstate travel. But didn’t make it past the upper south before having to end it because of violence
1961 The Supreme Court decision in Boynton v. Virginia was to end segregation not only on the buses but also in bus terminal facilities sparked The Freedom Ride. A ride of two grey hound buses departing from Washington D.C and set on arriving in New Orleans.
The Testing Seven black and six white riders were on the first freedom ride that left Washington D.C These participants sat intermingled on the bus with blacks in the front and whites in the back. (different from previous times) The riders were prepared for the violence that would be coming and they understood that the deeper south they road the more hostile the people word become.
Injuries These riders were later attacked, beaten and bombed for just riding the bus. Some riders received wounds requiring 50+ stitches
Anniston, Alabama The riders only received mild hostility on the first few days of the trip But outside of Anniston one of the two greyhound buses was firebombed. 13 of the riders were hospitalized and the bus was completely destroyed
Birmingham, Alabama The trip was postponed by greyhound and its drivers. The violence scared the drivers and grey hound was wary of losing another bus but after higher power intervention the trip was resumed. Shortly after, when the buses reached Birmingham the freedom riders were attacked by a large mob of white men only two blocks from the sheriffs office. The governors response was unapologetic stating that if you look for trouble chances are you are going to find it.
U.S Justice Department intervention Because of the lack of intervention by the local police, the federal department had to step in. As a result most of the freedom riders were evacuated from Birmingham to New Orleans.
Montgomery, Alabama When The U.S Justice Department intervened and removed the riders, CORE decided to replace the riders with volunteers. The new riders rode from Birmingham to Montgomery without any issue. But upon arrival they brutally attacked by 1000 angry white southerns. The local police were indifferent about the attack and only some tried to retain the mob. This led to a nation outcry for support of the riders which put pressure on President Kennedy to end the violence.
Traveling Through Even after the brutal attack in Montgomery, they pushed on. Escorted by national guardsman they pushed forward but not without brutality. They arrived in Mississippi and many were jailed for using the white facilities. They were halted in this deep south state
Solution By the end of this 1961 summer the movement had spread to train stations and airports across the south. Many supporters joined and continued the freedom rides Because of this movement the Interstate Commerce Commission issued rules prohibiting segregated transportation facilities.
Biblography Secondary Cozzens, Liza. "Civil Rights Movement 1955-1965: Freedom Rides." Www.watson.org. 19 Aug. 1999. Web. 03 May 2010. <http://www.watson.org/~lisa/blackhistory/civilrights-55-65/freeride.html>. "SNCC-Events: Freedom Rides." Ibiblio.org - Travel and the Outdoors. Web. 03 May 2010. <http://www.ibiblio.org/sncc/rides.html>.