Chapter Introduction Section 1 The Rise of African Civilizations Section 2 Africa’s Government and Religion Section 3 African Society and Culture Reading Review Chapter Assessment Medieval Africa Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.
Get Ready to Read (cont.) Reading Strategy Summarizing Information Create diagrams like the one on page 444 of your textbook describing the accomplishments of each medieval African civilization. The Rise of African Civilizations
During the 1400s, two kings, Mutota and his son, Matope, made Zimbabwe into a large empire .
The Rise of African Civilizations (pages 451 –453 )
Great Zimbabwe was the capital.
How were different religions introduced to Africa? The Queen of Saba visited Israel and brought its religion back. King Ezana brought Christianity to the people of Axum, and Arab Muslims brought Islam to East Africa. The Rise of African Civilizations
What items were traded in the kingdoms of West Africa? Salt and cloth from North Africa/Sahara were traded for gold and ivory from West Africa. The Rise of African Civilizations
Analyze What city-states grew as trading ports in East Africa, and why were they successful? Mogadishu, Mombasa, Zanzibar, and Kilwa grew as trading ports and became part of the Indian Ocean trading network. The Rise of African Civilizations
Compare and Contrast Which African kingdoms developed away from the coast? How did their economies compare to other African kingdoms? Ghana, Songhai, Benin, Kongo, Kush, and Great Zimbabwe developed away from the coast. Their economies were based on control of land trade routes, food surpluses, and goods from the interior of Africa. The Rise of African Civilizations
Explain how the Sahara was both a barrier to and a highway for trade. The Rise of African Civilizations
Get Ready to Read Section Overview This section explores the rise of centralized governments in African kingdoms and the variety of religions that influenced peoples throughout the continent. Africa’s Government and Religion
Get Ready to Read (cont.) Focusing on the Main Ideas
Traditional African religions shared certain beliefs and provided a guide for living together .
The growth of West African empires led to the growth of centralized governments ruled by kings .
Islam played an important role in medieval Africa, but long-held African beliefs and customs still remained strong .
In 1492, Muhammad Ture seized control of Songhai .
Although Sunni Ali began dividing Songhai into provinces for government, he died before he could finish .
(pages 461 –462)
He was a faithful Muslim, and his religious ideas affected the Songhai government .
Africa’s Government and Religion
How was the line of succession different in Ghana from other states? In Ghana, the king was succeeded by his sister’s son, his nephew. In other places, the king’s son generally succeeded his father. Africa’s Government and Religion
African religious practices vary from place to place, but their beliefs served similar purposes —to help people stay in touch with their history and provide rules for living .
Many Africans believed the spirits of dead relatives stayed with them when they died and that the spirits could talk to the supreme god.
Africa’s Government and Religion
Why was honoring their ancestors an important part of African traditional religions? Traditional African religions believed that a person’s spirit remained in the community after they died. They believed these spirits could help solve problems for the living and speak on their behalf to the gods. Africa’s Government and Religion
In East Africa, the culture blended African and Muslim traditions .
Northern and eastern African people adopted Islamic laws and ideas, even though some opposed those ideas .
Islam also encouraged learning.
(pages 464 –467)
Muslim schools taught Arabic.
Islam also influenced art and architecture.
Africa’s Government and Religion
Why did Mansa Musa travel with a large caravan and riches to Makkah? Mansa Musa wanted everyone to know he was royalty, and he impressed the finest architects, teachers, and writers. These people returned to Mali with him to spread Islam. Africa’s Government and Religion
How did the kings of Ghana hold tightly to their power? insisted local rulers send their sons to royal court, traveled through kingdom, controlled trade Africa’s Government and Religion
They built mosques, set up Muslim libraries, and invited Muslim scholars to Mali. How did Mansa Musa attempt to strengthen Islam in Mali? Africa’s Government and Religion
Analyze How did having the central authority rest with a single person benefit the king, individuals, and the kingdom? How is this model of a government reflected in modern government? A king granted favors to his subjects, who paid taxes and were loyal to him. Answers may vary. Africa’s Government and Religion
Expository Writing Imagine you were a witness to Mansa Musa’s pilgrimage to Makkah. Write a newspaper article describing the pilgrimage. Answers may vary. Africa’s Government and Religion
Review the causes for the spread of Islam in Africa. Africa’s Government and Religion
African Society and Culture Get Ready to Read Section Overview This section explores the effects of the Bantu migrations and the start of the African slave trade, which carried Africans and their varied cultures around the world.
Get Ready to Read (cont.) Focusing on the Main Ideas African Society and Culture
The Bantu migrations helped shape many cultures in Africa south of the Sahara .
The African slave trade changed greatly when Muslims and Europeans began taking captives from the continent.
Enslaved Africans developed rich cultures that influenced many other cultures, including our own.
Get Ready to Read (cont.) Building Your Vocabulary
Matrilineal ( MA ·truh·LIH·nee·uhl)
African Society and Culture Reading Strategy Compare and Contrast Create a Venn diagram like the one on page 468 of your textbook showing the similarities and differences between the enslavement of Africans in Africa and the enslavement of Africans in Europe.
Men had more rights than women did, and they controlled what women did .
There were exceptions.
(pages 469 – 470)
Dahia al-Kahina was a queen who led the fight against a Muslim invasion.
African Society and Culture
Nzinga was a queen who battled Portuguese slave traders for nearly 40 years.
Women’s roles were mainly as wives and mothers .
How did the Bantu affect African culture? The Bantu spread out and traveled slowly. They took their culture with them when they traveled, and others learned their ideas, such as ironworking and pottery making. They also spread their language, Swahili. African Society and Culture
In the late 1400s, Europeans established sugar plantations in the Americas and brought enslaved Africans to work the fields.
African Society and Culture (pages 472 – 473)
Why did the Portuguese use enslaved Africans? Portuguese planters could not afford to pay people for the hard labor of harvesting sugar cane. However, they could afford to house and feed enslaved people. Many of those enslaved also knew how to farm and make tools. African Society and Culture
How is music in the United States influenced by African music? In the United States, jazz, blues, rap, and rock and roll are popular genres. Gospel music is also important in Christian religious services. African Society and Culture
What was the African Diaspora? The African Diaspora was the spreading of African peoples and cultures around the world. African Society and Culture
What is the earliest known form of African art? Describe some of the subjects portrayed in the art. The earliest form of art was cave paintings showing people hunting, doing chores, and dancing. African Society and Culture
Compare How were African art and religion related? Most artwork had some religious meaning or use or tried to capture some part of the spiritual world. African Society and Culture
Identify What was Queen Dahia al-Kahina’s greatest accomplishment? She led the fight against the Muslim invasion of her country. African Society and Culture
Infer Why do you think some Africans liked tales in which small animals outsmarted larger animals? Possible answer: because they saw parallels to their own lives and hoped to outwit those who held them in bondage. African Society and Culture
Persuasive Writing Portuguese plantation owners relied on slave labor to help them grow sugarcane. Suppose you had a family member who was enslaved on a plantation. Write a letter to the plantation owner explaining why this practice is unacceptable. Answers may include how hard this was on the family and how unjust it was to the enslaved person. African Society and Culture
List some of the things Africans shared despite their great diversity. African Society and Culture
__ 1. Wooden boats known as __ were powered by triangular sails. __ 2. An area of high, flat land is a __. __ 3. Each district in Ghana usually included a chief’s __. __ 4. African __ are storytellers. Review Vocabulary D A Define Match the vocabulary word that completes the sentence. F E Medieval Africa
__ 5. __ societies trace their descent through mothers. __ 6. __ culture and language exist in Africa today. Review Vocabulary
C Define Match the vocabulary word that completes the sentence. B Medieval Africa
Section 1 The Rise of African Civilizations What were the advantages of living in Africa’s rain forests? Rain forests blocked invaders and provided resources. Medieval Africa Review Main Ideas
Why were East African kingdoms and states important? They were part of the trade network that spanned the Indian Ocean. Medieval Africa Section 1 The Rise of African Civilizations Review Main Ideas
Section 2 Africa’s Government and Religion How were West African empires governed? They were governed by a king who had a strong army. Medieval Africa Review Main Ideas
Describe the religious beliefs of medieval Africans. Some people believed in traditional African religions and their gods. Others were followers of Christianity or Islam. Medieval Africa Section 2 Africa’s Government and Religion Review Main Ideas
Section 3 African Society and Culture What was the result of the Bantu migrations? They spread their skills, beliefs, and ideas across Africa. Medieval Africa Review Main Ideas
How did slavery in medieval Africa change? Instead of being enslaved to other tribes from whom they could gain freedom, Africans were enslaved to Europeans and sent across the ocean where there was no escape and their culture could be lost. Medieval Africa Section 3 African Society and Culture Review Main Ideas
Predict What do you think would have happened in Ghana if the people had been allowed to trade with gold nuggets instead of gold dust? The value of gold might have decreased. Medieval Africa
Explain What caused the decline of Ghana and Songhai? Ghana: discovery of new gold mines, over-farming, and constant fighting Songhai: advanced weapons of Moroccans Medieval Africa
Analyze Why do you think the Bantu language changed as people moved into different parts of Africa? The vastness of the land and different geography led the Bantu to divide into different groups that changed over time. Medieval Africa
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Map s Geography and Climate Zones in Africa Trade Routes of North Africa Trade in East Africa African Religions Today Bantu Migrations The Slave Trade c. 1450 –1800 Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides. Charts Comparing Africa to the U.S. African Trading Empires A.D. 100 – 1600
Africa contains one of the world’s largest areas of sand. This area covers about 2 million square miles of sand and contains the Kalahari Desert. Scientists flock to the Kalahari Desert because it contains plants that are important to research. The Rise of African Civilizations
Olaudah Equiano was born in what is now Nigeria. He was kidnapped when he was about 11 years old and sold into slavery. He was owned for a time by an officer in the Royal Navy, who took him to sea but also sent him to school in London where he learned to read and write. Equiano eventually bought his freedom. He worked for several years on ships, and was part of an expedition to the North Pole in 1773. He later moved to London, where he became involved in the abolition movement. In 1789, he published his autobiography, The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa the African . Africa’s Government and Religion
Millions of enslaved people were shipped out of Africa over the centuries, and many were kept in Africa. Slavery still exists in parts of Africa today despite the United Nation’s ongoing attempts to abolish it. Africa’s Society and Culture
Making Comparisons Learn It! Reading Social Studies One way authors help you to understand information is by organizing material so that you can see how people, places, things, or events compare (are alike) or contrast (are different). Read the passage on the following slide.
— from page 463 Reading Social Studies Some groups, like the Nanti in East Africa, thought people could talk directly with their god. Others, like the Igbo, thought their creator could only be spoken to through less powerful gods and goddesses who worked for him. Even though Africans practiced their religion differently in different places, their beliefs served similar purposes. They provided rules for living and helped people stay in touch with their history. First, look at what is being compared or contrasted. In this case, it is the religions of two groups of people from Africa, highlighted in pink.
— from page 463 Reading Social Studies Some groups, like the Nanti in East Africa, thought people could talk directly with their god. Others, like the Igbo, thought their creator could only be spoken to through less powerful gods and goddesses who worked for him. Even though Africans practiced their religion differently in different places, their beliefs served similar purposes. They provided rules for living and helped people stay in touch with their history. The contrasts (differences) are highlighted in blue. The comparisons (similarities) are highlighted in green.
— from page 463 Reading Social Studies Some groups, like the Nanti in East Africa, thought people could talk directly with their god. Others, like the Igbo, thought their creator could only be spoken to through less powerful gods and goddesses who worked for him. Even though Africans practiced their religion differently in different places, their beliefs served similar purposes. They provided rules for living and helped people stay in touch with their history.
Create a Venn Diagram Practice It! A Venn diagram can help you to compare and contrast information. Differences are listed in the outside parts of each circle. Similarities are listed in the portion of the two circles that overlap. Read the paragraphs on page 443 of you textbook. Then create a Venn diagram to compare and contrast the roles of European and African women as stated in the paragraphs. Reading Social Studies
Focus on Everyday Life Salt mining began in the Sahara in the Middle Ages. Ancient miners worked underground and in sand dunes to extract solid blocks of salt. The salt trade became a successful business for the African people. In ancient times, salt was so desirable that it was traded ounce for ounce for gold. There are many salt deposits in western Africa because part of the desert was once a shallow sea made up of salt water. When the sea dried up, salt was left behind. People need a small amount of salt to stay healthy. It is lost when people and animals sweat, so people need some in their food. In ancient times, before refrigerators or canned foods were invented, salt was used to keep foods from going bad. It also was used to add flavor to food. Africa’s Salt Mines
Connecting to the Past As salty water dries, it leaves behind the salt in salt deposits. 1. How do salt deposits form? 2. Why do you think salt was so valuable that it was traded ounce for ounce for gold? It was needed to keep people healthy and to preserve and flavor food.
Focus on Everyday Life Kente is the name of a colorful woven cloth. Its name comes from a word that means “basket.” The first weavers were mostly men. They used fibers to make cloth that looked like the patterns in baskets. Strips were sewn together to make colorful patterns. Kente was worn by tribal chiefs and is still popular today. This African folktale about kente cloth has been handed down for generations: One day two friends walked through a rain forest and saw a spider creating designs in its web. They took the spider web to show their friends and family. They were greatly upset when the web fell apart in their hands. They returned the next day to watch and learn as the spider did a weaving dance and spun another web. The friends took their newfound skills to their looms and made colorful cloth they called kente . Kente Cloth
Connecting to the Past because it requires elaborate weaving like spider webs 1. Why does the legend suggest that Africans learned to weave kente cloth from a spider? 2. Why do you think the first kente cloth weavers were mostly men? Possible answers: Men wanted to do this important job or it was part of their culture to have men weave.
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