Jat Chapter 13
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Jat Chapter 13

on

  • 7,889 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
7,889
Slideshare-icon Views on SlideShare
7,884
Embed Views
5

Actions

Likes
4
Downloads
183
Comments
0

1 Embed 5

http://www.slideshare.net 5

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Jat Chapter 13 Jat Chapter 13 Presentation Transcript

    •  
    • Chapter Introduction Section 1 The Rise of African Civilizations Section 2 Africa’s Government and Religion Section 3 African Society and Culture Reading Review Chapter Assessment Medieval Africa Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.
    • Chapter Objectives
      • Explain how geography and trade shaped the growth of African civilizations in Africa south of the Sahara.
      • Describe the governments and religions that influenced life in medieval Africa.
      • Discuss how the Bantu migrations shaped African cultures and how the African slave trade disrupted those cultures.
      Medieval Africa
    • Medieval Africa
    •  
    • Get Ready to Read Section Overview This section explores how geography and trade influenced the development of kingdoms in western and eastern Africa. The Rise of African Civilizations
    • Get Ready to Read (cont.) Focusing on the Main Ideas The Rise of African Civilizations
      • Africa has a vast and varied landscape.
      • West African empires grew rich from trade.
      • East African kingdoms and states became centers for trade and new ideas.
    • Get Ready to Read (cont.) Locating Places
      • Ghana (GAH· nuh )
      • Mali (MAH·lee)
      • Timbuktu ( TIHM · BUHK ·TOO)
      • Songhai (SAWNG· HY )
      The Rise of African Civilizations
      • Axum (AHK· SOOM )
    • Get Ready to Read (cont.)
      • Sundiata Keita (sun·dee·AH·tuh KY·tuh)
      • Mansa Musa (MAHN·sah moo·SAH)
      Meeting People The Rise of African Civilizations
      • Sunni Ali (sun·EE ah·LEE)
      Building Your Vocabulary
      • plateau (pla·TOH)
      • griot (GREE· OH )
      • dhow (DOW)
    • Get Ready to Read (cont.) Reading Strategy Summarizing Information Create diagrams like the one on page 444 of your textbook describing the accomplishments of each medieval African civilization. The Rise of African Civilizations
    • Africa’s Geography
      • Africa is the second-largest continent in the world.
      • The Sahara and Kalahari Desert are in Africa.
      (pages 445 –446 )
      • The African continent contains rain forests; savannas, which are tropical grasslands; and deserts.
      The Rise of African Civilizations
      • The Sahara is the largest desert in the world.
    • Africa’s Geography (cont.)
      • A plateau is an area of high, flat land.
      • Almost all of Africa, except the coastal plains, rests on a plateau.
      The Rise of African Civilizations
      • The Grand Rift Valley was formed when parts of the plateau’s surface dropped.
      (pages 445 –446 )
      • Some of the earliest human fossils have been found in the Grand Rift Valley.
    • Africa’s Geography (cont.) The Rise of African Civilizations (pages 445 –446 )
      • The Nile River in East Africa is Africa’s longest river.
      • In West Africa, the Niger River gave rise to several civilizations and helped unite the region.
    • How did the deserts affect travel in Africa? The deserts were difficult to cross. People avoided the desert by traveling along the coastlines. The Rise of African Civilizations
    • West African Empires
      • The Berbers were the first known people to settle in North Africa .
      • After crossing the Sahara to trade with others, they told stories of the gold in western Africa.
      • Berbers used horses and donkeys to cross the desert until the Romans brought camels from central Asia.
      The Rise of African Civilizations (pages 447 –449 )
    • West African Empires (cont.)
      • Camels could travel for days without water and stored fat in their humps for food .
      • Trade prospered after the introduction of the camel, and rulers of cities began to build empires.
      The Rise of African Civilizations (pages 447 –449 )
    • West African Empires (cont.)
      • Ghana, the first large empire to rise from trading wealth, was located where trade routes came together .
      • Ghana’s rulers required traders to pay a tax to Ghana to pass through.
      The Rise of African Civilizations (pages 447 –449 )
      • Traders paid the taxes because Ghana made iron weapons and had a huge army.
    • West African Empires (cont.)
      • Also, the traders wanted the trade items, especially salt and gold, at almost any price .
      • Ghana fell in the 1200s because of constant fighting between Ghana rulers and North African Muslims, the discovery of gold outside of Ghana’s control, and exhausted soil that was too poor for farming.
      The Rise of African Civilizations (pages 447 –449 )
      • Ghana was replaced by the kingdom of Mali.
    • West African Empires (cont.)
      • Legend tells of a warrior-king named Sundiata Keita who seized Ghana and then won control of Timbuktu, a trading city .
      • Mansa Musa was the last strong ruler of Mali.
      The Rise of African Civilizations (pages 447 –449 )
      • He died in 1337.
      • The kings who followed him were unable to stop the Berbers from overrunning the kingdom.
    • West African Empires (cont.)
      • Sunni Ali, the leader of Songhai, drove the Berbers out of Timbuktu .
      • His army pushed west and took over the Berber salt mines.
      The Rise of African Civilizations (pages 447 –449 )
      • His empire became the largest in West Africa and lasted almost 100 years after his death in 1492.
      • In 1591, Arab soldiers from Morocco attacked the Songhai and ended their empire.
    • Why was salt important to West Africans? Salt is needed to keep a body healthy, and the West Africans used it to salt their food and preserve it. The Rise of African Civilizations
    • Kingdoms of the Rain Forest
      • People in the rain forest built their own empires, such as Kongo and Benin.
      • King Ewuare founded the empire of Benin around 1440.
      • The rain forests provided farmers with a climate and soil suitable for farming.
      The Rise of African Civilizations
      • The farmers could grow plenty of food in the rain forests.
      (pages 450 –451 )
    • Kingdoms of the Rain Forest (cont.)
      • Food surpluses supported rulers and an artisan class.
      • These empires traded surplus food to neighboring people in the savannas for copper, salt, and leather goods.
      The Rise of African Civilizations (pages 450 –451 )
    • What products did artisans of the rain forest empires make? Artisans made sculptures of carved metal, wood, and ivory. Weavers made cloth that looked like velvet. The Rise of African Civilizations
    • East Africa
      • The country of Ethiopia today traces its origins to Queen Makeda, who became queen of an empire called Saba or Sheba in 1005 B.C.
      • Glory of Kings , Ethiopia’s oldest written history, recounts how Makeda visited with King Solomon of Israel.
      The Rise of African Civilizations (pages 451 –453 )
      • When she returned to Saba, she introduced ancient Israel’s religion to her empire.
    • East Africa (cont.)
      • Although Saba declined, the country of Ethiopia remained strong .
      • Axum was a powerful city-state in Ethiopia.
      The Rise of African Civilizations (pages 451 –453 )
      • It was located on the Red Sea and became a powerful trading center.
      • Axum fought with neighboring Kush to control trade routes.
    • East Africa (cont.)
      • Around A.D. 300, King Ezana of Axum defeated Kush .
      The Rise of African Civilizations (pages 451 –453 )
      • King Ezana converted to Christianity and made it the official religion in A.D. 334.
      • Arabs invented triangular sails called dhows that helped them sail to Africa.
      • Arab Muslim traders sailed to Africa to trade with East African city-states.
    • East Africa (cont.)
      • Cities arose on the East African coast to support Arab-African trade .
      The Rise of African Civilizations (pages 451 –453 )
      • Zimbabwe was a great trading city.
    • East Africa (cont.)
      • During the 1400s, two kings, Mutota and his son, Matope, made Zimbabwe into a large empire .
      The Rise of African Civilizations (pages 451 –453 )
      • Great Zimbabwe was the capital.
    • How were different religions introduced to Africa? The Queen of Saba visited Israel and brought its religion back. King Ezana brought Christianity to the people of Axum, and Arab Muslims brought Islam to East Africa. The Rise of African Civilizations
    • What items were traded in the kingdoms of West Africa? Salt and cloth from North Africa/Sahara were traded for gold and ivory from West Africa. The Rise of African Civilizations
    • Analyze What city-states grew as trading ports in East Africa, and why were they successful? Mogadishu, Mombasa, Zanzibar, and Kilwa grew as trading ports and became part of the Indian Ocean trading network. The Rise of African Civilizations
    • Compare and Contrast Which African kingdoms developed away from the coast? How did their economies compare to other African kingdoms? Ghana, Songhai, Benin, Kongo, Kush, and Great Zimbabwe developed away from the coast. Their economies were based on control of land trade routes, food surpluses, and goods from the interior of Africa. The Rise of African Civilizations
    • Explain how the Sahara was both a barrier to and a highway for trade. The Rise of African Civilizations
    •  
    • Get Ready to Read Section Overview This section explores the rise of centralized governments in African kingdoms and the variety of religions that influenced peoples throughout the continent. Africa’s Government and Religion
    • Get Ready to Read (cont.) Focusing on the Main Ideas
      • Traditional African religions shared certain beliefs and provided a guide for living together .
      • The growth of West African empires led to the growth of centralized governments ruled by kings .
      • Islam played an important role in medieval Africa, but long-held African beliefs and customs still remained strong .
      Africa’s Government and Religion
    • Get Ready to Read (cont.) Locating Places
      • Makkah (MAH·kuh)
      • Olaudah Equiano
      • (oh·LOW·duh EHK ·wee·AHN·oh)
      • Ibn Battuta ( IH ·buhn bat·TOO·tah)
      Meeting People
      • Askia Muhammad (ahs·KEE·uh moh·HAH·muhd)
      Africa’s Government and Religion
    • Get Ready to Read (cont.) Building Your Vocabulary
      • clan (KLAN)
      • sultan (SUHL·tuhn)
      • Swahili (swah·HEE·lee)
      Reading Strategy Organizing Information Use a diagram like the one on page 460 of your textbook to show the components of Swahili culture and language. Africa’s Government and Religion
    • Government and Society
      • They settled arguments, managed trade and protected the empire .
      • Merchants paid taxes to the king and received favors from him .
      • Early African kings were powerful .
      (pages 461 –462)
      • Local rulers had some power and were loyal to the king .
      • This system allowed empires to prosper and grow.
      Africa’s Government and Religion
    • Government and Society (cont.)
      • The empire was divided into provinces, ruled by lesser kings or conquered leaders .
      • Ghana’s government included a council of ministers, who advised the king .
      (pages 461 –462)
      • Below them, local leaders ruled over a district that included the leader’s clan — a group of people descended from the same ancestor .
      Africa’s Government and Religion
    • Government and Society (cont.)
      • Mali’s royal officials had more responsibility than Ghana’s officials did .
      • The throne of Ghana was passed on to the son of the king’s sister .
      (pages 461 –462)
      • Mali’s empire was also divided into provinces, and generals governed the provinces .
      • The generals protected the people from invaders and usually came from the province they ruled .
      Africa’s Government and Religion
    • Government and Society (cont.)
      • In 1492, Muhammad Ture seized control of Songhai .
      • Although Sunni Ali began dividing Songhai into provinces for government, he died before he could finish .
      (pages 461 –462)
      • He was a faithful Muslim, and his religious ideas affected the Songhai government .
      Africa’s Government and Religion
    • How was the line of succession different in Ghana from other states? In Ghana, the king was succeeded by his sister’s son, his nephew. In other places, the king’s son generally succeeded his father. Africa’s Government and Religion
    • Traditional African Religions
      • Many African groups believed in one supreme god.
      (page 463)
      • African religious practices vary from place to place, but their beliefs served similar purposes —to help people stay in touch with their history and provide rules for living .
      • Many Africans believed the spirits of dead relatives stayed with them when they died and that the spirits could talk to the supreme god.
      Africa’s Government and Religion
    • Why was honoring their ancestors an important part of African traditional religions? Traditional African religions believed that a person’s spirit remained in the community after they died. They believed these spirits could help solve problems for the living and speak on their behalf to the gods. Africa’s Government and Religion
    • Islam in Africa
      • Islam was popular in West African cities where Africans traded with Muslim Arabs, but not all West Africans accepted Islam .
      • Some Muslims complained that the West African leaders Sunni Ali and Sundiata Keita did not try to promote Islam .
      • Mansa Musa had worked to spread Islam, though he allowed different religions.
      (pages 464 –467) Africa’s Government and Religion
    • Islam in Africa (cont.)
      • He made a pilgrimage to Makkah, or Mecca, with a caravan of thousands of people .
      • Sunni Ali practiced the traditional religion of the Songhai but called himself a Muslim .
      • His son refused to declare himself a Muslim.
      (pages 464 –467) Africa’s Government and Religion
    • Islam in Africa (cont.)
      • Muhammad Ture declared himself king and drove Ali’s family from Songhai .
      • He then took the name Askai Muhammad .
      • Under him, Songhai became the largest empire in West Africa.
      (pages 464 –467)
      • Timbuktu —its capital—was a center of Islamic learning and culture .
      Africa’s Government and Religion
    • Islam in Africa (cont.)
      • In East Africa, the culture blended African and Muslim traditions .
      • Northern and eastern African people adopted Islamic laws and ideas, even though some opposed those ideas .
      • Islam also encouraged learning.
      (pages 464 –467)
      • Muslim schools taught Arabic.
      • Islam also influenced art and architecture.
      Africa’s Government and Religion
    • Why did Mansa Musa travel with a large caravan and riches to Makkah? Mansa Musa wanted everyone to know he was royalty, and he impressed the finest architects, teachers, and writers. These people returned to Mali with him to spread Islam. Africa’s Government and Religion
    • How did the kings of Ghana hold tightly to their power? insisted local rulers send their sons to royal court, traveled through kingdom, controlled trade Africa’s Government and Religion
    • They built mosques, set up Muslim libraries, and invited Muslim scholars to Mali. How did Mansa Musa attempt to strengthen Islam in Mali? Africa’s Government and Religion
    • Analyze How did having the central authority rest with a single person benefit the king, individuals, and the kingdom? How is this model of a government reflected in modern government? A king granted favors to his subjects, who paid taxes and were loyal to him. Answers may vary. Africa’s Government and Religion
    • Expository Writing Imagine you were a witness to Mansa Musa’s pilgrimage to Makkah. Write a newspaper article describing the pilgrimage. Answers may vary. Africa’s Government and Religion
    • Review the causes for the spread of Islam in Africa. Africa’s Government and Religion
    •  
    • African Society and Culture Get Ready to Read Section Overview This section explores the effects of the Bantu migrations and the start of the African slave trade, which carried Africans and their varied cultures around the world.
    • Get Ready to Read (cont.) Focusing on the Main Ideas African Society and Culture
      • The Bantu migrations helped shape many cultures in Africa south of the Sahara .
      • The African slave trade changed greatly when Muslims and Europeans began taking captives from the continent.
      • Enslaved Africans developed rich cultures that influenced many other cultures, including our own.
    • Get Ready to Read (cont.) Locating Places
      • Benue River (BAYN·way)
      African Society and Culture Meeting People
      • Dahia al-Kahina (dah·HEE·ah ahl·kah·HEE·nah)
      • Nzinga (ehn·ZIHN·gah)
    • Get Ready to Read (cont.) Building Your Vocabulary
      • extended family
      • Matrilineal ( MA ·truh·LIH·nee·uhl)
      • oral history
      African Society and Culture Reading Strategy Compare and Contrast Create a Venn diagram like the one on page 468 of your textbook showing the similarities and differences between the enslavement of Africans in Africa and the enslavement of Africans in Europe.
    • Life in Medieval Africa
      • The Bantu people traveled through southern Africa, and had settled most of Africa by A.D. 400 .
      • They spread their language, Swahili, and their culture as they traveled.
      (pages 469 – 470)
      • Africans often lived with extended families, or families made up of several generations.
      African Society and Culture
    • Life in Medieval Africa (cont.)
      • Many African villages were matrilineal, meaning the people traced their ancestors through their mothers rather than their fathers .
      • Children were valued in African culture.
      (pages 469 – 470)
      • They were considered the link between the past and the future.
      African Society and Culture
      • Some people believed ancestors could be reborn in children.
    • Life in Medieval Africa (cont.)
      • Families and villages taught children the history of their people and the skills they would need as adults .
      • Stories were passed down through word- of-mouth, and lessons were given through short sayings called proverbs.
      (pages 469 – 470) African Society and Culture
    • Life in Medieval Africa (cont.)
      • Men had more rights than women did, and they controlled what women did .
      • There were exceptions.
      (pages 469 – 470)
      • Dahia al-Kahina was a queen who led the fight against a Muslim invasion.
      African Society and Culture
      • Nzinga was a queen who battled Portuguese slave traders for nearly 40 years.
      • Women’s roles were mainly as wives and mothers .
    • How did the Bantu affect African culture? The Bantu spread out and traveled slowly. They took their culture with them when they traveled, and others learned their ideas, such as ironworking and pottery making. They also spread their language, Swahili. African Society and Culture
    • Slavery
      • Africans enslaved criminals and enemies captured in war.
      (pages 472 – 473)
      • The slave trade grew as trade with Muslim merchants increased.
      • Slavery existed in Africa before the arrival of Europeans.
      • Muslims were not allowed to enslave other Muslims, but they could enslave people of other faiths.
      African Society and Culture
    • Slavery (cont.)
      • These enslaved people were used to farm crops of cotton, grapes, and sugar cane.
      • The Portuguese brought enslaved Africans to Europe in 1441.
      African Society and Culture (pages 472 – 473)
    • Slavery (cont.)
      • In the late 1400s, Europeans established sugar plantations in the Americas and brought enslaved Africans to work the fields.
      African Society and Culture (pages 472 – 473)
    • Why did the Portuguese use enslaved Africans? Portuguese planters could not afford to pay people for the hard labor of harvesting sugar cane. However, they could afford to house and feed enslaved people. Many of those enslaved also knew how to farm and make tools. African Society and Culture
    • African Culture (pages 474 – 476)
      • Artistic expression was an important part of African culture.
      African Society and Culture
      • Enslaved Africans took their culture with them when they were traded.
      • The African Diaspora is the spreading of African people and culture around the world.
      • Early African cave paintings showed daily life, told stories, and had some religious meaning or use.
    • African Culture (cont.)
      • Wooden masks celebrated religious beliefs, and wooden, ivory, or bronze works showed the faces of important leaders, everyday people, and European explorers and traders.
      African Society and Culture
      • Music was an important aspect of almost every part of African life.
      • Many African songs used musical instruments to keep a beat during the singing.
      (pages 474 – 476)
    • African Culture (cont.)
      • Africans used dance in important events because they felt that dance allowed the spirits to express themselves.
      African Society and Culture
      • Enslaved Africans used music to remind them of their homeland.
      • Their songs of hardship and religious faith grew into gospel songs.
      • Jazz, blues, ragtime, rock and roll, and rap are genres also based in African musical traditions.
      (pages 474 – 476)
    • African Culture (cont.)
      • Storytelling is a strong African tradition.
      African Society and Culture (pages 474 – 476)
    • How is music in the United States influenced by African music? In the United States, jazz, blues, rap, and rock and roll are popular genres. Gospel music is also important in Christian religious services. African Society and Culture
    • What was the African Diaspora? The African Diaspora was the spreading of African peoples and cultures around the world. African Society and Culture
    • What is the earliest known form of African art? Describe some of the subjects portrayed in the art. The earliest form of art was cave paintings showing people hunting, doing chores, and dancing. African Society and Culture
    • Compare How were African art and religion related? Most artwork had some religious meaning or use or tried to capture some part of the spiritual world. African Society and Culture
    • Identify What was Queen Dahia al-Kahina’s greatest accomplishment? She led the fight against the Muslim invasion of her country. African Society and Culture
    • Infer Why do you think some Africans liked tales in which small animals outsmarted larger animals? Possible answer: because they saw parallels to their own lives and hoped to outwit those who held them in bondage. African Society and Culture
    • Persuasive Writing Portuguese plantation owners relied on slave labor to help them grow sugarcane. Suppose you had a family member who was enslaved on a plantation. Write a letter to the plantation owner explaining why this practice is unacceptable. Answers may include how hard this was on the family and how unjust it was to the enslaved person. African Society and Culture
    • List some of the things Africans shared despite their great diversity. African Society and Culture
    •  
    • Section 1: The Rise of African Civilizations Focusing on the Main Ideas Medieval Africa
      • Africa has a vast and varied landscape.
      • West African empires grew rich from trade.
      • Africa’s rain forests blocked invaders and provided resources.
      • East African kingdoms and states became centers for trade and new ideas.
    • Section 2: Africa’s Government and Religion Focusing on the Main Ideas
      • The growth of West African empires led to the growth of centralized governments ruled by kings.
      • Traditional African religions shared certain beliefs and provided a guide for living together.
      Medieval Africa
    • Section 2: Africa’s Government and Religion Focusing on the Main Ideas
      • Islam played an important role in medieval Africa, but long-held African beliefs and customs still remained strong.
      Medieval Africa
    • Focusing on the Main Ideas
      • The Bantu migrations helped shape many cultures in Africa south of the Sahara.
      • The African slave trade changed greatly when Muslims and Europeans began taking captives from the continent.
      Section 3: African Society and Culture Medieval Africa
    • Focusing on the Main Ideas
      • Enslaved Africans developed rich cultures that influenced many other cultures, including our own.
      Section 3: African Society and Culture Medieval Africa
    •  
    • __ 1. Wooden boats known as __ were powered by triangular sails. __ 2. An area of high, flat land is a __. __ 3. Each district in Ghana usually included a chief’s __. __ 4. African __ are storytellers. Review Vocabulary D A Define Match the vocabulary word that completes the sentence. F E Medieval Africa
      • A. clan
      • B. Matrilineal
      • C. Swahili
      • D. plateau
      • griots
      • dhows
    • __ 5. __ societies trace their descent through mothers. __ 6. __ culture and language exist in Africa today. Review Vocabulary
      • A. clan
      • B. Matrilineal
      • C. Swahili
      • D. plateau
      • griots
      • dhows
      C Define Match the vocabulary word that completes the sentence. B Medieval Africa
    • Section 1 The Rise of African Civilizations What were the advantages of living in Africa’s rain forests? Rain forests blocked invaders and provided resources. Medieval Africa Review Main Ideas
    • Why were East African kingdoms and states important? They were part of the trade network that spanned the Indian Ocean. Medieval Africa Section 1 The Rise of African Civilizations Review Main Ideas
    • Section 2 Africa’s Government and Religion How were West African empires governed? They were governed by a king who had a strong army. Medieval Africa Review Main Ideas
    • Describe the religious beliefs of medieval Africans. Some people believed in traditional African religions and their gods. Others were followers of Christianity or Islam. Medieval Africa Section 2 Africa’s Government and Religion Review Main Ideas
    • Section 3 African Society and Culture What was the result of the Bantu migrations? They spread their skills, beliefs, and ideas across Africa. Medieval Africa Review Main Ideas
    • How did slavery in medieval Africa change? Instead of being enslaved to other tribes from whom they could gain freedom, Africans were enslaved to Europeans and sent across the ocean where there was no escape and their culture could be lost. Medieval Africa Section 3 African Society and Culture Review Main Ideas
    • Predict What do you think would have happened in Ghana if the people had been allowed to trade with gold nuggets instead of gold dust? The value of gold might have decreased. Medieval Africa
    • Explain What caused the decline of Ghana and Songhai? Ghana: discovery of new gold mines, over-farming, and constant fighting Songhai: advanced weapons of Moroccans Medieval Africa
    • Analyze Why do you think the Bantu language changed as people moved into different parts of Africa? The vastness of the land and different geography led the Bantu to divide into different groups that changed over time. Medieval Africa
    •  
    • Explore online information about the topics introduced in this chapter. Click on the Connect button to launch your browser and go to the Journey Across Time Web site. Click on Chapter 13-Chapter Overviews to preview information about this chapter. When you finish exploring, exit the browser program to return to this presentation. If you experience difficulty connecting to the Web site, manually launch your Web browser and go to http://www.jat.glencoe.com
    • Map s Geography and Climate Zones in Africa Trade Routes of North Africa Trade in East Africa African Religions Today Bantu Migrations The Slave Trade c. 1450 –1800 Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides. Charts Comparing Africa to the U.S. African Trading Empires A.D. 100 – 1600
    •  
    • Click the map to view an interactive version.
    •  
    •  
    •  
    • Click the map to view an interactive version.
    •  
    •  
    • Africa contains one of the world’s largest areas of sand. This area covers about 2 million square miles of sand and contains the Kalahari Desert. Scientists flock to the Kalahari Desert because it contains plants that are important to research. The Rise of African Civilizations
    • Olaudah Equiano was born in what is now Nigeria. He was kidnapped when he was about 11 years old and sold into slavery. He was owned for a time by an officer in the Royal Navy, who took him to sea but also sent him to school in London where he learned to read and write. Equiano eventually bought his freedom. He worked for several years on ships, and was part of an expedition to the North Pole in 1773. He later moved to London, where he became involved in the abolition movement. In 1789, he published his autobiography, The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa the African . Africa’s Government and Religion
    • Millions of enslaved people were shipped out of Africa over the centuries, and many were kept in Africa. Slavery still exists in parts of Africa today despite the United Nation’s ongoing attempts to abolish it. Africa’s Society and Culture
    • Making Comparisons Learn It! Reading Social Studies One way authors help you to understand information is by organizing material so that you can see how people, places, things, or events compare (are alike) or contrast (are different). Read the passage on the following slide.
    • — from page 463 Reading Social Studies Some groups, like the Nanti in East Africa, thought people could talk directly with their god. Others, like the Igbo, thought their creator could only be spoken to through less powerful gods and goddesses who worked for him. Even though Africans practiced their religion differently in different places, their beliefs served similar purposes. They provided rules for living and helped people stay in touch with their history. First, look at what is being compared or contrasted. In this case, it is the religions of two groups of people from Africa, highlighted in pink.
    • — from page 463 Reading Social Studies Some groups, like the Nanti in East Africa, thought people could talk directly with their god. Others, like the Igbo, thought their creator could only be spoken to through less powerful gods and goddesses who worked for him. Even though Africans practiced their religion differently in different places, their beliefs served similar purposes. They provided rules for living and helped people stay in touch with their history. The contrasts (differences) are highlighted in blue. The comparisons (similarities) are highlighted in green.
    • — from page 463 Reading Social Studies Some groups, like the Nanti in East Africa, thought people could talk directly with their god. Others, like the Igbo, thought their creator could only be spoken to through less powerful gods and goddesses who worked for him. Even though Africans practiced their religion differently in different places, their beliefs served similar purposes. They provided rules for living and helped people stay in touch with their history.
    • Create a Venn Diagram Practice It! A Venn diagram can help you to compare and contrast information. Differences are listed in the outside parts of each circle. Similarities are listed in the portion of the two circles that overlap. Read the paragraphs on page 443 of you textbook. Then create a Venn diagram to compare and contrast the roles of European and African women as stated in the paragraphs. Reading Social Studies
    • Medieval Africa Introduction
    • The Rise of African Civilizations
    • Africa’s Government and Religion
    • African Society and Culture
    • Primary Source Ghana Profits From Trade The Sultan of Mali Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.
    • Ghana Profits From Trade
    • The Sultan of Mali
    • Focus on Everyday Life Salt mining began in the Sahara in the Middle Ages. Ancient miners worked underground and in sand dunes to extract solid blocks of salt. The salt trade became a successful business for the African people. In ancient times, salt was so desirable that it was traded ounce for ounce for gold. There are many salt deposits in western Africa because part of the desert was once a shallow sea made up of salt water. When the sea dried up, salt was left behind. People need a small amount of salt to stay healthy. It is lost when people and animals sweat, so people need some in their food. In ancient times, before refrigerators or canned foods were invented, salt was used to keep foods from going bad. It also was used to add flavor to food. Africa’s Salt Mines
    • Connecting to the Past As salty water dries, it leaves behind the salt in salt deposits. 1. How do salt deposits form? 2. Why do you think salt was so valuable that it was traded ounce for ounce for gold? It was needed to keep people healthy and to preserve and flavor food.
    • Focus on Everyday Life Kente is the name of a colorful woven cloth. Its name comes from a word that means “basket.” The first weavers were mostly men. They used fibers to make cloth that looked like the patterns in baskets. Strips were sewn together to make colorful patterns. Kente was worn by tribal chiefs and is still popular today. This African folktale about kente cloth has been handed down for generations: One day two friends walked through a rain forest and saw a spider creating designs in its web. They took the spider web to show their friends and family. They were greatly upset when the web fell apart in their hands. They returned the next day to watch and learn as the spider did a weaving dance and spun another web. The friends took their newfound skills to their looms and made colorful cloth they called kente . Kente Cloth
    • Connecting to the Past because it requires elaborate weaving like spider webs 1. Why does the legend suggest that Africans learned to weave kente cloth from a spider? 2. Why do you think the first kente cloth weavers were mostly men? Possible answers: Men wanted to do this important job or it was part of their culture to have men weave.
    • Ruled 1312–1337 Mansa Musa
    • Queen Nzinga c. 1582–1663
    • Daily Focus Skills Transparency 13–1 Chapter 13
    • Daily Focus Skills Transparency 13 – 2 Chapter 13
    • Daily Focus Skills Transparency 13 – 3 Chapter 13
    • Click the Forward button to go to the next slide. Click the Previous button to return to the previous slide. Click the Menu button to return to the Chapter Menu. Click the Return button in a feature to return to the main presentation. Click the Exit button or press the Escape key [Esc] to end the chapter slide show. Click the Help button to access this screen. Links to Presentation Plus! features such as the Reference Atlas, Daily Focus Transparencies, and others are located on the left side of the relevant slides. To use this Presentation Plus! product:
    • End of Custom Shows
      • This slide is intentionally blank