Jat Chapter 11


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Jat Chapter 11

  1. 2. Chapter Introduction Section 1 The Rise of Islam Section 2 Islamic Empires Section 3 Muslim Ways of Life Reading Review Chapter Assessment Islamic Civilization Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.
  2. 3. Chapter Objectives <ul><li>Explain how the religion of Islam began and grew. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss how Muslims spread their faith throughout the Middle East and the Mediterranean. </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize the achievements of the Muslim empires. </li></ul>Islamic Civilization
  3. 4. Islamic Civilization
  4. 6. Get Ready to Read Section Overview This section discusses the life of the prophet Muhammad and the rise of the religion he founded, Islam, in the Arabian desert. The Rise of Islam
  5. 7. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Focusing on the Main Ideas The Rise of Islam <ul><li>The deserts, coastline, and oases of Arabia helped shape the Arab way of life. </li></ul><ul><li>The prophet Muhammad brought the message of Islam to the people of Arabia. </li></ul><ul><li>The Quran provided guidelines for Muslims’ lives and the governments of Muslim states. </li></ul>
  6. 8. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Locating Places <ul><li>Makkah (MAK·kuh) </li></ul><ul><li>Kaaba (KAH·buh) </li></ul><ul><li>Madinah (mah·DEE·nah) </li></ul>The Rise of Islam <ul><li>Bedouin (BEH · d uh·wuhn) </li></ul><ul><li>Muhammad (moh·HAH·muhd) </li></ul>Meeting People
  7. 9. Get Ready to Read (cont.) The Rise of Islam Building Your Vocabulary <ul><li>oasis (oh·AY·suhs) </li></ul><ul><li>sheikh (SHAYK) </li></ul><ul><li>caravan (KAR·uh· VAN ) </li></ul><ul><li>Quran (koh·RAHN) </li></ul>Reading Strategy Organizing Information Use a diagram like the one on page 372 of your textbook to identify the Five Pillars of faith.
  8. 10. Daily Life in Early Arabia <ul><li>Much of the Arabian peninsula is desert, although there are mountains in the southwest. </li></ul><ul><li>Early Arabs formed into family clans and tribes that were headed by a sheikh. </li></ul>(pages 373 – 374) <ul><li>Oases are green areas fed by an underground water source. </li></ul><ul><li>The Bedouins were desert herders who traveled from oasis to oasis to water their animals. </li></ul>The Rise of Islam
  9. 11. Daily Life in Early Arabia (cont.) <ul><li>Many Arabs lived in villages near oases. </li></ul><ul><li>Caravans are groups of traveling merchants and animals. </li></ul><ul><li>Merchants who transported goods across the deserts formed caravans to protect themselves from Bedouin attacks. </li></ul><ul><li>Trade grew, and merchants founded towns along trade routes. </li></ul>The Rise of Islam (pages 373 – 374)
  10. 12. Daily Life in Early Arabia (cont.) <ul><li>Makkah was the largest and wealthiest trade center and is an important religious site visited by pilgrims. </li></ul><ul><li>In the middle of Makkah is the Kaaba, a low square building surrounded by statues of gods and goddesses. </li></ul><ul><li>Inside is a large stone Arabs believe came from heaven. </li></ul>The Rise of Islam <ul><li>Arabs consider Allah the creator. </li></ul>(pages 373 – 374)
  11. 13. How did Makkah evolve as the largest trade city? Makkah was a crossroads for merchant traders, and it was an important holy site for Arab pilgrims. The Rise of Islam
  12. 14. Muhammad: Islam’s Prophet <ul><li>Muhammad was accepted as a prophet to the people of Arabia . </li></ul>(pages 374 – 375) <ul><li>Muhammad was dissatisfied with the ways of his town leaders and went into the hills to meditate. </li></ul><ul><li>There he was visited by an angel who told him to preach Islam. </li></ul><ul><li>Muhammad returned to Makkah and told people to worship one God, Allah. </li></ul>The Rise of Islam
  13. 15. Muhammad: Islam’s Prophet (cont.) <ul><li>Muhammad also preached that all people are equal and that the rich should share their wealth with the poor . </li></ul><ul><li>Many poor people began accepting Muhammad’s message and became Muslims, or followers of Islam. </li></ul><ul><li>Wealthy people did not like Muhammad’s message, and they made life difficult for Muhammad and his followers. </li></ul>The Rise of Islam (pages 374 – 375)
  14. 16. Muhammad: Islam’s Prophet (cont.) <ul><li>Muhammad and his followers left Makkah for Yathrib . </li></ul><ul><li>This journey is known as the Hijrah. </li></ul>The Rise of Islam (pages 374 – 375)
  15. 17. Muhammad: Islam’s Prophet (cont.) <ul><li>Yathrib welcomed the Muslims and renamed their city Madinah . </li></ul><ul><li>Muhammad used the laws he believed he had received from God to rule the people of Madinah, creating an Islamic state, or a government that uses its political power to uphold Islam. </li></ul>The Rise of Islam <ul><li>Muhammad built an army to defend his new government . </li></ul>(pages 374 – 375)
  16. 18. Muhammad: Islam’s Prophet (cont.) <ul><li>The army conquered Makkah, and Muhammad returned to the holy city . </li></ul>The Rise of Islam <ul><li>Muhammad died two years after his return. </li></ul>(pages 374 – 375)
  17. 19. Why did wealthy merchants and religious leaders dislike Muhammad? Muhammad’s message appealed to poor people. If poor people became dissatisfied with their leaders, they might rebel. This threatened the power of the wealthy people. The Rise of Islam
  18. 20. Islam’s Teachings <ul><li>Islam, Judaism, and Christianity have some beliefs in common. </li></ul>(pages 377 – 378) <ul><li>The Quran is the holy book of Islam. </li></ul>The Rise of Islam <ul><li>Many moral teachings in the Quran are similar to those in the Bible. </li></ul><ul><li>Many rules in the Quran apply to Muslims’ daily life. </li></ul>
  19. 21. Islam’s Teachings (cont.) <ul><li>The Five Pillars of Islam, or acts of worship, are to be followed by all Muslims. </li></ul><ul><li>The Five Pillars are belief, prayer, charity, fasting, and pilgrimage. </li></ul>The Rise of Islam <ul><li>The Sunna is the name given to customs based on Muhammad’s words and deeds. </li></ul><ul><li>Islam’s law code is taken from the Quran and the Sunna. </li></ul>(pages 377 – 378)
  20. 22. What moral teachings do the Bible and the Quran share? The Quran and the Bible both demand honesty, fairness, kindness to neighbors, honoring of parents, and giving to the poor. They both also prohibit murder, lying, and stealing. The Rise of Islam
  21. 23. What are oases, and why were they important to Arabs? Oases are green areas in the desert fed by underground water, that supplied water for Arab herders. The Rise of Islam
  22. 24. The Quran prohibits murder, lying, gambling, stealing, eating pork, and drinking liquor. Name some activities the Quran prohibits. The Rise of Islam
  23. 25. Conclude Why do you think Muhammad’s teachings were popular with poorer people? Because Muhammad taught that goods should be shared, the poorer people realized the possibility of benefiting through charity. The Rise of Islam
  24. 26. Analyze How did Muhammad link religion and government? Muhammad applied god’s laws to all areas of life and used these laws to settle disputes among the people. The Rise of Islam
  25. 27. Expository Writing Suppose you are living in Makkah at the time Muhammad began preaching. Write a short newspaper article that describes Muhammad’s teachings and the reactions of people in the city to those teachings. Answers will vary but should include his teachings and people’s reactions. The Rise of Islam
  26. 28. Compare Islam’s origins to the beginnings of another religion you have studied. The Rise of Islam
  27. 30. Islamic Empires Get Ready to Read Section Overview This section highlights the spread of Islamic empires into areas of Asia, Africa, and Europe.
  28. 31. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Focusing on the Main Ideas Islamic Empires <ul><li>While Muslims split into two groups, the Arab Empire reached new heights . </li></ul><ul><li>Arabs spread Islam through preaching, conquest, and trade . </li></ul><ul><li>Turks and Moguls built Muslim empires in Asia, Africa, and Europe . </li></ul>
  29. 32. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Locating Places <ul><li>Damascus (duh·MAS·kuhs) </li></ul>Islamic Empires <ul><li>Indonesia ( IHN ·duh·NEE·zhuh) </li></ul><ul><li>Timbuktu ( TIHM · BUHK ·TOO) </li></ul><ul><li>Baghdad (BAG·dad) </li></ul><ul><li>Delhi (DEH·lee) </li></ul>
  30. 33. Get Ready to Read (cont.) <ul><li>Umayyad (oo·MY·uhd) </li></ul>Islamic Empires <ul><li>Sufi (SOO·fee) </li></ul><ul><li>Abbasid (uh·BA·suhd) </li></ul><ul><li>Suleiman I (SOO·lay· MAHN ) </li></ul><ul><li>Mogul (MOH·guhl) </li></ul>Meeting People <ul><li>Akbar (AK·buhr) </li></ul>
  31. 34. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Building Your Vocabulary <ul><li>caliph (KAY·luhf) </li></ul><ul><li>Shiite (SHEE·eyet) </li></ul><ul><li>Sunni (SU·nee) </li></ul><ul><li>sultan (SUHL·tuhn) </li></ul>Islamic Empires
  32. 35. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Reading Strategy Cause and Effect Create a diagram like the one on page 379 of your textbook, to show why the Arabs were successful conquerors. Islamic Empires
  33. 36. The Spread of Islam <ul><li>The first four caliphs to rule from Madinah all had a personal connection with Muhammad . </li></ul><ul><li>The Umayyad caliphs made their capital the city of Damascus . </li></ul><ul><li>Muhammad’s successor was called a caliph, or successor to the Messenger of God . </li></ul>(pages 380 – 381) <ul><li>Islam spread during their rule. </li></ul>Islamic Empires
  34. 37. The Spread of Islam (cont.) <ul><li>It was successful for several reasons . </li></ul><ul><li>Arabs were good horsemen who were good with a sword and inspired by their religion . </li></ul><ul><li>The Islamic state soon became a great empire . </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims believed people who died fighting for Islam would go to paradise. </li></ul>Islamic Empires (pages 380 – 381)
  35. 38. The Spread of Islam (cont.) <ul><li>Many conquered people adopted the Muslim customs . </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims let conquered people practice their own religion, but they made non-Muslims pay a special tax . </li></ul><ul><li>The Sufis were a group of Muslims who spread Islam through teaching. </li></ul>Islamic Empires <ul><li>Muslim merchants spread Islam throughout southeast Asia. </li></ul>(pages 380 – 381)
  36. 39. The Spread of Islam (cont.) <ul><li>Timbuktu, a west African city, became the center of Muslim learning . </li></ul><ul><li>Indonesia is a southeast Asian country that has the largest Muslim population in the world . </li></ul>Islamic Empires (pages 380 – 381)
  37. 40. How did Muslims treat Christians and Jews that lived within their society? Muslims believed Jews and Christians to be People of the Book, meaning they believed in one God and had holy writings. The Muslims did not persecute the Jews and Christians, but they did not treat them as equals. Islamic Empires
  38. 41. Struggles Within Islam <ul><li>After Muhammad’s death, the Muslims split into two groups: the Sunnis and the Shiites. </li></ul>(pages 382 – 383) <ul><li>The Shiites believed that Muhammad’s son-in-law, Ali, should succeed Muhammad and that all future caliphs should be descendents of Ali. </li></ul><ul><li>Sunnis believe that the Umayyad caliphs were rightful leaders. </li></ul>Islamic Empires
  39. 42. Struggles Within Islam (cont.) <ul><li>Over time, these two groups developed their own customs. </li></ul><ul><li>The Umayyad dynasty lost power and was replaced with a new dynasty called the Abbasids. </li></ul><ul><li>The Abbasids built a new capital, Baghdad. </li></ul>Islamic Empires <ul><li>Baghdad prospered as a center of trade because of its central location. </li></ul>(pages 382 – 383)
  40. 43. Struggles Within Islam (cont.) <ul><li>The Abbasids lost control as Muslims in other parts of the world wanted their own caliphs. </li></ul><ul><li>The Seljuk Turks were nomads and warriors. </li></ul><ul><li>They gradually took control of the Abbasid dynasty. </li></ul>Islamic Empires <ul><li>The Seljuk ruler was called a Sultan. </li></ul><ul><li>The Arab Empire ended when the Mongols invaded Baghdad and burned it to the ground. </li></ul>(pages 382 – 383)
  41. 44. How did the Seljuk Turks take power? The Abbasids hired the Seljuk Turks as soldiers. The Seljuks soon saw that the Abbasids were weak, so the Seljuks took power. Islamic Empires
  42. 45. Later Muslim Empires <ul><li>The Ottoman Turks were a group of Turks in northwest Asia Minor who began to build their own empire . </li></ul>(pages 384 – 386) <ul><li>They conquered the Byzantine Empire and changed the name of Constantinople to Istanbul . </li></ul><ul><li>The Ottoman army moved into Europe, Syria, Palestine, Egypt, Mesopotamia, and parts of Arabia and North Africa . </li></ul>Islamic Empires
  43. 46. Later Muslim Empires (cont.) <ul><li>The leader of the Ottomans was called a sultan. </li></ul><ul><li>The most famous sultan was Suleiman I . </li></ul><ul><li>After the rule of Suleiman I, the Ottoman empire gradually fell apart, collapsing completely at the end of World War I. </li></ul>Islamic Empires <ul><li>The Ottoman empire was made up of different people who practiced different religions. </li></ul>(pages 384 – 386)
  44. 47. Later Muslim Empires (cont.) <ul><li>Non-Muslims could practice their own religions, but they had to pay a special tax. </li></ul><ul><li>Christian families in Eastern Europe had to send their sons to Istanbul to become Muslims and train as soldiers. </li></ul>Islamic Empires <ul><li>The Moguls created a Muslim empire in India and made their capital city Delhi. </li></ul>(pages 384 – 386)
  45. 48. Later Muslim Empires (cont.) <ul><li>The Mogul empire declined after Akbar’s rule. </li></ul><ul><li>European merchants used their military power to take control of Mogul territory. </li></ul>Islamic Empires <ul><li>Eventually, Great Britain took over most of India. </li></ul><ul><li>Akbar was the greatest Mogul ruler. </li></ul>(pages 384 – 386)
  46. 49. How did Akbar treat the Hindus? Akbar believed all people should be treated fairly. Akbar allowed Hindus and Muslims to serve in government, and he allowed Hindus to practice their own religion. Islamic Empires
  47. 50. How did the Muslims treat conquered peoples? They allowed them to practice their own religion, but they had to pay a tax. Islamic Empires
  48. 51. The Arab Empire spread to India, North Africa, and Spain. How far did the Arab Empire spread under the Umayyads? Islamic Empires
  49. 52. Contrast Describe the differences between the Shiite and Sunni Muslims. Shiites: caliph should be descended from Ali, they rejected the Umayyads Sunnis: accepted the Umayyad rule, adopted different customs and religious practices Islamic Empires
  50. 53. Summarize Besides conquests by Arab armies, how was Islam spread? Sufis taught Islam, and Arab traders spread Islam. Islamic Empires
  51. 54. Evaluate Why was Akbar considered a great ruler? Under Akbar, India was peaceful and orderly. Trade increased and new architecture came to India. Islamic Empires
  52. 55. Persuasive Writing Which Muslim empire —the Umayyads, the Ottomans, or the Moguls—treated its non-Muslim subjects the most fairly? The least fairly? Write a paragraph to defend your answer. Answers will vary. Islamic Empires
  53. 56. Why do you think the Muslim empires were successful? Islamic Empires
  54. 58. Muslim Ways of Life Get Ready to Read Section Overview In this section, you will learn about the cultural and scientific achievements of Muslim civilization, as well as about the daily life of the peoples of the Muslim empires.
  55. 59. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Focusing on the Main Ideas Muslim Ways of Life <ul><li>While Muslim traders enjoyed great success and cities grew, most Muslims lived in villages in the country . </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims made valuable contributions in math, science, and the arts. </li></ul>
  56. 60. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Locating Places <ul><li>Granada (gruh·NAH·duh) </li></ul>Meeting People <ul><li>Mamun (Mah·MOON) </li></ul><ul><li>al-Razi (ahl·RAH·zee) </li></ul><ul><li>Ibn Sina (ih·buhn SEE·nuh) </li></ul>Muslim Ways of Life <ul><li>Agra (Ah·gruh) </li></ul><ul><li>Omar Khayyam ( OH · MAHR KY ·YAHM) </li></ul><ul><li>Ibn Khaldun ( IH ·buhn KAL ·DOON) </li></ul>
  57. 61. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Building Your Vocabulary <ul><li>mosque (mahsk) </li></ul><ul><li>bazaar (buh·ZAHR) </li></ul><ul><li>minaret (MIH·nuh·REHT) </li></ul><ul><li>crier (CRY·uhr) </li></ul>Muslim Ways of Life Reading Strategy Organizing Information Create a pyramid like the one on page 387 of your textbook to show the social classes in the early Muslim world.
  58. 62. Trade and Everyday Life <ul><li>Until the 1400s, Muslim traders were the most successful merchants in the Middle East and North Africa for several reasons: the expansion of the Arabic language, the provision of coins by Muslim rulers, and banking practices . </li></ul><ul><li>Mosques are Muslim houses of worship. </li></ul>(pages 388 – 390) Muslim Ways of Life
  59. 63. Trade and Everyday Life (cont.) Muslim Ways of Life <ul><li>Bazaars, or marketplaces, were important to cities. </li></ul><ul><li>Most Muslims lived in small villages and farmed . </li></ul>(pages 388 – 390)
  60. 64. Trade and Everyday Life (cont.) <ul><li>Wealthy landowners began taking over farms, and the farmers worked for the landowner . </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim social classes were based on power and wealth. </li></ul>Muslim Ways of Life <ul><li>Government leaders, landowners, and traders were in the higher class. </li></ul><ul><li>Below them were artisans, farmers, and workers . </li></ul>(pages 388 – 390)
  61. 65. Trade and Everyday Life (cont.) <ul><li>Slaves made up the lower class. </li></ul><ul><li>Men ran government, society, and business. </li></ul>Muslim Ways of Life <ul><li>Women helped run families. </li></ul><ul><li>They could inherit wealth and own property, and in many places they had to cover their faces and wear long robes in public. </li></ul><ul><li>This clothing custom is called hijab . </li></ul>(pages 388 – 390)
  62. 66. Why do women follow the custom of hijab ? The teachings of Muhammad state that women’s clothing should not attract attention. Some women also think covering their faces and bodies allows them to be judged for themselves and not for their bodies. Muslim Ways of Life
  63. 67. Muslim Achievements <ul><li>Mamun was an Abbasid caliph who founded the House of Wisdom in Baghdad. </li></ul>(pages 390 – 394) <ul><li>Muslim scholars preserved much of the learning of the ancient world, such as the works of Aristotle and other Greek thinkers. </li></ul><ul><li>Arabic language helped different people trade goods and share knowledge. </li></ul>Muslim Ways of Life
  64. 68. Muslim Achievements (cont.) <ul><li>They also experimented with metals. </li></ul><ul><li>al-Razi, a Muslim chemist, developed a system for categorizing substances as animal, mineral, or vegetable. </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims invented algebra and perfected the astrolabe, a tool used to study the stars. </li></ul>Muslim Ways of Life <ul><li>Ibn Sina, a Persian doctor, showed how diseases spread from person to person. </li></ul>(pages 390 – 394)
  65. 69. Muslim Achievements (cont.) <ul><li>Omar Khayyam was a Persian poet who wrote the Rubaiyat, a poem considered one of the finest ever written, and The Arabian Nights is one of the most well known works of Muslim literature. </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims created great works of literature. </li></ul>Muslim Ways of Life <ul><li>Ibn Khaldun, a great Muslim historian, was one of the first people to study the effect of geography and climate on people. </li></ul>(pages 390 – 394)
  66. 70. Muslim Achievements (cont.) <ul><li>Muslim architecture includes great mosques, many with domes and minarets — towers from which a crier, or announcer, calls believers to pray. </li></ul>Muslim Ways of Life <ul><li>Islamic rulers lived in lush brick palaces, with courtyards, pools, porches, and fountains. </li></ul><ul><li>Most palaces were surrounded by walls. </li></ul><ul><li>The Alhambra is a famous Muslim palace located in Granada, Spain. </li></ul>(pages 390 – 394)
  67. 71. Muslim Achievements (cont.) <ul><li>The Taj Mahal in Agra, India, was created as a tomb for the wife of Shah Jahan, a Mogul ruler. </li></ul>Muslim Ways of Life <ul><li>Muslims do not show images of Muhammad in their art. </li></ul>(pages 390 – 394)
  68. 72. What discovery did Muslim scientists make using the astrolabe? They used the astrolabe to measure the size and distance around the earth. Based on their findings, they realized the earth is round. Muslim Ways of Life
  69. 73. Muslim Ways of Life Describe the three Muslim social groups. Top: government leaders, landowners, traders; Middle: artisans, farmers, workers; Bottom: enslaved people
  70. 74. Muslim Ways of Life What contributions did Muslims make in the field of medicine? They discovered that blood circulates and how diseases spread.
  71. 75. Summarize Describe several factors that made Muslim trade strong. Arabic became the language of trade; the use of coins and detailed records led to banking. Muslim Ways of Life
  72. 76. Analyze How did the Arabic language and Muslim leaders help preserve and advance the world’s knowledge? The use of Arabic in Muslim empires helped people share learning. Scholars rewrote Greek, Persian, and Indian texts in Arabic. Muslim Ways of Life
  73. 77. Evaluate Which Muslim contribution do you think had the greatest effect on later civilizations? Answers will vary. Muslim Ways of Life
  74. 78. Descriptive Writing Imagine you are living in a Muslim city. Write to a friend describing a bazaar. Describe what a bazaar is and some of the items you might find there. Letters should describe what a marketplace looks like and the kinds of goods that are for sale there. Muslim Ways of Life
  75. 79. Summarize Muslim contributions in the area of science, art, or literature. Muslim Ways of Life
  76. 81. Section 1: The Rise of Islam Focusing on the Main Ideas Islamic Civilization <ul><li>The deserts, coastline, and oases of Arabia helped shape the Arab way of life. </li></ul><ul><li>The prophet Muhammad brought the message of Islam to the people of Arabia. </li></ul><ul><li>The Quran provided guidelines for Muslims’ lives and the governments of Muslim states. </li></ul>
  77. 82. Section 2: Islamic Empires <ul><li>Arabs spread Islam through preaching, conquest, and trade. </li></ul><ul><li>While Muslims split into two groups, the Arab Empire reached new heights. </li></ul><ul><li>Turks and Moguls built Muslim empires in Asia, Africa, and Europe. </li></ul>Islamic Civilization Focusing on the Main Ideas
  78. 83. <ul><li>While Muslim traders enjoyed great success and cities grew, most Muslims lived in villages in the country. </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims made valuable contributions in math, science, and the arts. </li></ul>Section 3: Muslim Ways of Life Islamic Civilization Focusing on the Main Ideas
  79. 85. __ 1. A crier called Muslims to prayer from the __ of a mosque. __ 2. After Muhammad died, his followers chose a __ to lead them. __ 3. The most famous __ was Suleiman. __ 4. In each Muslim city, a __ sold goods to local and out-of-town merchants. Review Vocabulary <ul><li>A. caravan </li></ul><ul><li>B. caliph </li></ul><ul><li>C. sultan </li></ul><ul><li>D. mosque </li></ul><ul><li>Quran </li></ul><ul><li>minaret </li></ul><ul><li>sheikh </li></ul><ul><li>Bazaar </li></ul><ul><li>Sunnis </li></ul><ul><li>Shiites </li></ul>B C Define Match the vocabulary word that completes each sentence. F H Islamic Civilization
  80. 86. __ 5. Arab merchants traveling in a __ used camels to carry goods across the desert. __ 6. The Muslim holy book is called the __. __ 7. Each tribe of early Arabs was led by a __. __ 8. Each __ was a house of worship and a school. <ul><li>A. caravan </li></ul><ul><li>B. caliph </li></ul><ul><li>C. sultan </li></ul><ul><li>D. mosque </li></ul><ul><li>Quran </li></ul><ul><li>minaret </li></ul><ul><li>sheikh </li></ul><ul><li>Bazaar </li></ul><ul><li>Sunnis </li></ul><ul><li>Shiites </li></ul>E G Define Match the vocabulary word that completes each sentence. A D Islamic Civilization Review Vocabulary
  81. 87. __ 9. The __ believed that Muhammad’s son-in-law should succeed him. __ 10. According to the __, the Umayyad dynasty were rightful caliphs. <ul><li>A. caravan </li></ul><ul><li>B. caliph </li></ul><ul><li>C. sultan </li></ul><ul><li>D. mosque </li></ul><ul><li>Quran </li></ul><ul><li>minaret </li></ul><ul><li>sheikh </li></ul><ul><li>Bazaar </li></ul><ul><li>Sunnis </li></ul><ul><li>Shiites </li></ul>I Define Match the vocabulary word that completes each sentence. J Islamic Civilization Review Vocabulary
  82. 88. Section 1 The Rise of Islam How did geography affect the early Arabs’ way of life? Early Arabs organized into tribes to survive in the desert and traveled from oasis to oasis. Islamic Civilization Review Main Ideas
  83. 89. What guidelines did the Quran provide for the governments of Muslim states? Its ideas were used in government. Islamic Civilization Section 1 The Rise of Islam Review Main Ideas
  84. 90. Section 2 Islamic Empires How did the Arabs spread Islam? through preaching, conquest, and trade Islamic Civilization Review Main Ideas
  85. 91. Islamic Civilization Why did the Muslims split into two groups? They disagreed over who should be caliph. Section 2 Islamic Empires Review Main Ideas
  86. 92. Section 3 Muslim Ways of Life What scientific advances were made by early Muslims? They perfected the astrolabe, measured the earth, realized the earth was round, experimented with metals, founded chemistry, discovered that blood circulates and how diseases spread. Islamic Civilization Review Main Ideas
  87. 93. What is significant about Ibn Khaldun’s recording of history? He studied the effects of geography and climate on people. Islamic Civilization Section 3 Muslim Ways of Life Review Main Ideas
  88. 94. Compare How are Islam, Judaism, and Christianity similar? The are monotheistic, have laws, and believe in an afterlife. Islamic Civilization
  89. 95. Evaluate Do you think a government that allows people to practice any religion they choose will be stronger than one that does not? Explain. Answers will vary. Islamic Civilization
  90. 97. Explore online information about the topics introduced in this chapter. Click on the Connect button to launch your browser and go to the Journey Across Time Web site. Click on Chapter 11-Chapter Overviews to preview information about this chapter. When you finish exploring, exit the browser program to return to this presentation. If you experience difficulty connecting to the Web site, manually launch your Web browser and go to http://www.jat.glencoe.com
  91. 98. Map s The Middle East c. A.D. 600 The Spread of Islam A.D. 632 – 750 Abbasid Empire A.D. 800 The Expansion of the Ottoman Empire Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides. Charts The Five Pillars of Islam The Rightly Guided Caliphs
  92. 100. Click the map to view an interactive version.
  93. 102. Click the map to view an interactive version.
  94. 105. Camels are important to desert dwellers. They are sturdy animals that can go as long as seven days without water. Camels also have other adaptations that help them survive in the desert, such as two sets of eyelashes. A long pair protects their eyes from the harsh glare of the sun. The other, shorter pair keeps the sand out of their eyes. The Rise of Islam
  95. 106. Baghdad today is the capital of Iraq and one of the largest cities in the Middle East. The people of Baghdad have suffered two recent wars — the Gulf War of 1991 and the 2003 Iraq war. Islamic Empires
  96. 107. Muslims follow Islamic dietary laws. They are required to eat only pure meat, or halal . Pork, monkey, dog, cat, and any type of carnivore are prohibited in the Muslim diet. Other animals must be slaughtered according to Islamic laws to be considered pure. Muslim Ways of Life
  97. 108. Main Ideas and Details Learn It! Reading Social Studies Main ideas are the most important ideas in a paragraph, section, or chapter. Supporting details are facts or examples that explain the main idea. Read the paragraph on the next slide from Section 3 and notice how the author explains the main idea.
  98. 109. — from page 388 Reading Social Studies Several things explain the success of Muslin trade. When Muslim empires expanded, they spread the Arabic language. As a result, Arabic became the language of trade. Muslim rulers also made trade easier by providing merchants with coins. Supporting Detail Main Idea Supporting Detail Supporting Detail Supporting Detail
  99. 110. Using a Graphic Organizer Practice It! Read the paragraph from Chapter 11 on page 371 of your textbook. <ul><li>Create a graphic organizer like the one on page 370 of your textbook. </li></ul>Reading Social Studies
  100. 111. Islamic Civilization Introduction
  101. 112. The Rise of Islam
  102. 113. Islamic Empires
  103. 114. Muslim Ways of Life
  104. 115. Royal Caliphs
  105. 116. The Mystery of Smallpox
  106. 117. Focus on Everyday Life Carpets were woven in the Middle East long before the coming of Islam. They became popular in the Islamic world because Muslims used them in their daily worship. Carpets were often made of sheep’s wool or goat hair. Shepherds might knot them by hand, or the carpets might be made on portable looms. Flowers and geometric shapes were popular designs. The carpets used for the Muslim’s daily prayers are called prayer rugs. No matter where Muslims live, they pray five times daily. They kneel down on their prayer rug and pray facing toward Makkah. Prayer rugs are small and can be folded and carried from place to place. Fine carpets of silk and wool are often hung on the walls of mosques and public buildings. They are considered fine art. Muslim Carpets and Weavings
  107. 118. Connecting to the Past sheep and goats 1. What animals were needed to make carpets? 2. What is the main reason Muslim carpets have continually been in demand? Muslims use them in their daily worship.
  108. 119. c. A.D. 570–632 Muhammad
  109. 120. Omar Khayyam 1048–1131 and Ibn Khaldun 1332–1406 Ibn Khaldun Omar Khayyam
  110. 121. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 11–1 Chapter 11
  111. 122. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 11–2 Chapter 11
  112. 123. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 11–3 Chapter 11 No. Acceptable answers include “the list is too short” or “all items begin with the letter A .”
  113. 124. Click the Forward button to go to the next slide. Click the Previous button to return to the previous slide. Click the Menu button to return to the Chapter Menu. Click the Return button in a feature to return to the main presentation. Click the Exit button or press the Escape key [Esc] to end the chapter slide show. Click the Help button to access this screen. Links to Presentation Plus! features such as the Reference Atlas, Daily Focus Transparencies, and others are located on the left side of the relevant slides. To use this Presentation Plus! product:
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