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Chapter Introduction Section 1 The Rise of Islam Section 2 Islamic Empires Section 3 Muslim Ways of Life Reading Review Chapter Assessment Islamic Civilization Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.
The army conquered Makkah, and Muhammad returned to the holy city .
The Rise of Islam
Muhammad died two years after his return.
(pages 374 – 375)
Why did wealthy merchants and religious leaders dislike Muhammad? Muhammad’s message appealed to poor people. If poor people became dissatisfied with their leaders, they might rebel. This threatened the power of the wealthy people. The Rise of Islam
The Five Pillars of Islam, or acts of worship, are to be followed by all Muslims.
The Five Pillars are belief, prayer, charity, fasting, and pilgrimage.
The Rise of Islam
The Sunna is the name given to customs based on Muhammad’s words and deeds.
Islam’s law code is taken from the Quran and the Sunna.
(pages 377 – 378)
What moral teachings do the Bible and the Quran share? The Quran and the Bible both demand honesty, fairness, kindness to neighbors, honoring of parents, and giving to the poor. They both also prohibit murder, lying, and stealing. The Rise of Islam
What are oases, and why were they important to Arabs? Oases are green areas in the desert fed by underground water, that supplied water for Arab herders. The Rise of Islam
The Quran prohibits murder, lying, gambling, stealing, eating pork, and drinking liquor. Name some activities the Quran prohibits. The Rise of Islam
Conclude Why do you think Muhammad’s teachings were popular with poorer people? Because Muhammad taught that goods should be shared, the poorer people realized the possibility of benefiting through charity. The Rise of Islam
Analyze How did Muhammad link religion and government? Muhammad applied god’s laws to all areas of life and used these laws to settle disputes among the people. The Rise of Islam
Expository Writing Suppose you are living in Makkah at the time Muhammad began preaching. Write a short newspaper article that describes Muhammad’s teachings and the reactions of people in the city to those teachings. Answers will vary but should include his teachings and people’s reactions. The Rise of Islam
Compare Islam’s origins to the beginnings of another religion you have studied. The Rise of Islam
Timbuktu, a west African city, became the center of Muslim learning .
Indonesia is a southeast Asian country that has the largest Muslim population in the world .
Islamic Empires (pages 380 – 381)
How did Muslims treat Christians and Jews that lived within their society? Muslims believed Jews and Christians to be People of the Book, meaning they believed in one God and had holy writings. The Muslims did not persecute the Jews and Christians, but they did not treat them as equals. Islamic Empires
European merchants used their military power to take control of Mogul territory.
Eventually, Great Britain took over most of India.
Akbar was the greatest Mogul ruler.
(pages 384 – 386)
How did Akbar treat the Hindus? Akbar believed all people should be treated fairly. Akbar allowed Hindus and Muslims to serve in government, and he allowed Hindus to practice their own religion. Islamic Empires
How did the Muslims treat conquered peoples? They allowed them to practice their own religion, but they had to pay a tax. Islamic Empires
The Arab Empire spread to India, North Africa, and Spain. How far did the Arab Empire spread under the Umayyads? Islamic Empires
Contrast Describe the differences between the Shiite and Sunni Muslims. Shiites: caliph should be descended from Ali, they rejected the Umayyads Sunnis: accepted the Umayyad rule, adopted different customs and religious practices Islamic Empires
Summarize Besides conquests by Arab armies, how was Islam spread? Sufis taught Islam, and Arab traders spread Islam. Islamic Empires
Evaluate Why was Akbar considered a great ruler? Under Akbar, India was peaceful and orderly. Trade increased and new architecture came to India. Islamic Empires
Persuasive Writing Which Muslim empire —the Umayyads, the Ottomans, or the Moguls—treated its non-Muslim subjects the most fairly? The least fairly? Write a paragraph to defend your answer. Answers will vary. Islamic Empires
Why do you think the Muslim empires were successful? Islamic Empires
Muslim Ways of Life Get Ready to Read Section Overview In this section, you will learn about the cultural and scientific achievements of Muslim civilization, as well as about the daily life of the peoples of the Muslim empires.
Get Ready to Read (cont.) Focusing on the Main Ideas Muslim Ways of Life
While Muslim traders enjoyed great success and cities grew, most Muslims lived in villages in the country .
Muslims made valuable contributions in math, science, and the arts.
Until the 1400s, Muslim traders were the most successful merchants in the Middle East and North Africa for several reasons: the expansion of the Arabic language, the provision of coins by Muslim rulers, and banking practices .
Mosques are Muslim houses of worship.
(pages 388 – 390) Muslim Ways of Life
Trade and Everyday Life (cont.) Muslim Ways of Life
Bazaars, or marketplaces, were important to cities.
They could inherit wealth and own property, and in many places they had to cover their faces and wear long robes in public.
This clothing custom is called hijab .
(pages 388 – 390)
Why do women follow the custom of hijab ? The teachings of Muhammad state that women’s clothing should not attract attention. Some women also think covering their faces and bodies allows them to be judged for themselves and not for their bodies. Muslim Ways of Life
The Taj Mahal in Agra, India, was created as a tomb for the wife of Shah Jahan, a Mogul ruler.
Muslim Ways of Life
Muslims do not show images of Muhammad in their art.
(pages 390 – 394)
What discovery did Muslim scientists make using the astrolabe? They used the astrolabe to measure the size and distance around the earth. Based on their findings, they realized the earth is round. Muslim Ways of Life
Muslim Ways of Life Describe the three Muslim social groups. Top: government leaders, landowners, traders; Middle: artisans, farmers, workers; Bottom: enslaved people
Muslim Ways of Life What contributions did Muslims make in the field of medicine? They discovered that blood circulates and how diseases spread.
Summarize Describe several factors that made Muslim trade strong. Arabic became the language of trade; the use of coins and detailed records led to banking. Muslim Ways of Life
Analyze How did the Arabic language and Muslim leaders help preserve and advance the world’s knowledge? The use of Arabic in Muslim empires helped people share learning. Scholars rewrote Greek, Persian, and Indian texts in Arabic. Muslim Ways of Life
Evaluate Which Muslim contribution do you think had the greatest effect on later civilizations? Answers will vary. Muslim Ways of Life
Descriptive Writing Imagine you are living in a Muslim city. Write to a friend describing a bazaar. Describe what a bazaar is and some of the items you might find there. Letters should describe what a marketplace looks like and the kinds of goods that are for sale there. Muslim Ways of Life
Summarize Muslim contributions in the area of science, art, or literature. Muslim Ways of Life
__ 1. A crier called Muslims to prayer from the __ of a mosque. __ 2. After Muhammad died, his followers chose a __ to lead them. __ 3. The most famous __ was Suleiman. __ 4. In each Muslim city, a __ sold goods to local and out-of-town merchants. Review Vocabulary
B C Define Match the vocabulary word that completes each sentence. F H Islamic Civilization
__ 5. Arab merchants traveling in a __ used camels to carry goods across the desert. __ 6. The Muslim holy book is called the __. __ 7. Each tribe of early Arabs was led by a __. __ 8. Each __ was a house of worship and a school.
E G Define Match the vocabulary word that completes each sentence. A D Islamic Civilization Review Vocabulary
__ 9. The __ believed that Muhammad’s son-in-law should succeed him. __ 10. According to the __, the Umayyad dynasty were rightful caliphs.
I Define Match the vocabulary word that completes each sentence. J Islamic Civilization Review Vocabulary
Section 1 The Rise of Islam How did geography affect the early Arabs’ way of life? Early Arabs organized into tribes to survive in the desert and traveled from oasis to oasis. Islamic Civilization Review Main Ideas
What guidelines did the Quran provide for the governments of Muslim states? Its ideas were used in government. Islamic Civilization Section 1 The Rise of Islam Review Main Ideas
Section 2 Islamic Empires How did the Arabs spread Islam? through preaching, conquest, and trade Islamic Civilization Review Main Ideas
Islamic Civilization Why did the Muslims split into two groups? They disagreed over who should be caliph. Section 2 Islamic Empires Review Main Ideas
Section 3 Muslim Ways of Life What scientific advances were made by early Muslims? They perfected the astrolabe, measured the earth, realized the earth was round, experimented with metals, founded chemistry, discovered that blood circulates and how diseases spread. Islamic Civilization Review Main Ideas
What is significant about Ibn Khaldun’s recording of history? He studied the effects of geography and climate on people. Islamic Civilization Section 3 Muslim Ways of Life Review Main Ideas
Compare How are Islam, Judaism, and Christianity similar? The are monotheistic, have laws, and believe in an afterlife. Islamic Civilization
Evaluate Do you think a government that allows people to practice any religion they choose will be stronger than one that does not? Explain. Answers will vary. Islamic Civilization
Explore online information about the topics introduced in this chapter. Click on the Connect button to launch your browser and go to the Journey Across Time Web site. Click on Chapter 11-Chapter Overviews to preview information about this chapter. When you finish exploring, exit the browser program to return to this presentation. If you experience difficulty connecting to the Web site, manually launch your Web browser and go to http://www.jat.glencoe.com
Map s The Middle East c. A.D. 600 The Spread of Islam A.D. 632 – 750 Abbasid Empire A.D. 800 The Expansion of the Ottoman Empire Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides. Charts The Five Pillars of Islam The Rightly Guided Caliphs
Camels are important to desert dwellers. They are sturdy animals that can go as long as seven days without water. Camels also have other adaptations that help them survive in the desert, such as two sets of eyelashes. A long pair protects their eyes from the harsh glare of the sun. The other, shorter pair keeps the sand out of their eyes. The Rise of Islam
Baghdad today is the capital of Iraq and one of the largest cities in the Middle East. The people of Baghdad have suffered two recent wars — the Gulf War of 1991 and the 2003 Iraq war. Islamic Empires
Muslims follow Islamic dietary laws. They are required to eat only pure meat, or halal . Pork, monkey, dog, cat, and any type of carnivore are prohibited in the Muslim diet. Other animals must be slaughtered according to Islamic laws to be considered pure. Muslim Ways of Life
Main Ideas and Details Learn It! Reading Social Studies Main ideas are the most important ideas in a paragraph, section, or chapter. Supporting details are facts or examples that explain the main idea. Read the paragraph on the next slide from Section 3 and notice how the author explains the main idea.
— from page 388 Reading Social Studies Several things explain the success of Muslin trade. When Muslim empires expanded, they spread the Arabic language. As a result, Arabic became the language of trade. Muslim rulers also made trade easier by providing merchants with coins. Supporting Detail Main Idea Supporting Detail Supporting Detail Supporting Detail
Using a Graphic Organizer Practice It! Read the paragraph from Chapter 11 on page 371 of your textbook.
Create a graphic organizer like the one on page 370 of your textbook.
Focus on Everyday Life Carpets were woven in the Middle East long before the coming of Islam. They became popular in the Islamic world because Muslims used them in their daily worship. Carpets were often made of sheep’s wool or goat hair. Shepherds might knot them by hand, or the carpets might be made on portable looms. Flowers and geometric shapes were popular designs. The carpets used for the Muslim’s daily prayers are called prayer rugs. No matter where Muslims live, they pray five times daily. They kneel down on their prayer rug and pray facing toward Makkah. Prayer rugs are small and can be folded and carried from place to place. Fine carpets of silk and wool are often hung on the walls of mosques and public buildings. They are considered fine art. Muslim Carpets and Weavings
Connecting to the Past sheep and goats 1. What animals were needed to make carpets? 2. What is the main reason Muslim carpets have continually been in demand? Muslims use them in their daily worship.
Daily Focus Skills Transparency 11–3 Chapter 11 No. Acceptable answers include “the list is too short” or “all items begin with the letter A .”
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