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  • 1.  
  • 2. Chapter Introduction Section 1 The First Christians Section 2 The Christian Church Section 3 The Spread of Christian Ideas Reading Review Chapter Assessment The Rise of Christianity Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.
  • 3. Chapter Objectives
    • Describe how Jesus’ life, teachings, and death led to the birth of a new religion — Christianity.
    • Explain how Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire.
    • Evaluate the connections between religion and government during Christianity’s early years.
    The Rise of Christianity
  • 4. The Rise of Christianity
  • 5.  
  • 6. Get Ready to Read Section Overview This section describes the history of Roman-Jewish interaction, as well as the birth of Christianity. The First Christians
  • 7. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Focusing on the Main Ideas The First Christians
    • Roman rule of Judaea led some Jews to oppose Rome peacefully, while others rebelled .
    • Jesus of Nazareth preached of God’s love and forgiveness. He was eventually crucified and then reported to have risen from the dead.
    • Jesus’ life and a belief in his resurrection led to a new religion called Christianity.
  • 8. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Locating Places
    • Jerusalem (juh·ROO·suh·luhm)
    • Judaea (ju·DEE·uh )
    • Nazareth (NA·zuh·ruhth)
    • Galilee (GA·luh· LEE )
    Meeting People
    • Jesus (JEE ·zuhs)
    • Peter
    • Paul
    The First Christians
  • 9. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Building Your Vocabulary
    • messiah (muh·SY·uh)
    • disciple (dih·SY·puhl)
    • parable (PAR·uh·buhl)
    • resurrection ( REH ·zuh·REHK·shuhn)
    • apostle (uh·PAH·suhl)
    • salvation (sal·VAY·shuhn)
    The First Christians
  • 10. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Reading Strategy Summarizing Information Complete a diagram like the one on page 342 of your textbook, showing the purposes of early Christian churches. The First Christians
  • 11. The Jews and the Romans
    • Jerusalem was the capital of the kingdom of Israel .
    • Emperor Augustus made Judah into a Roman province called Judaea in A.D. 6.
    (page 343)
    • During the 900s B.C., Israel was divided into two kingdoms: Israel and Judah.
    • The Zealots were Jews who rebelled against the Romans in A.D. 66 to take back their kingdom.
    The First Christians
  • 12. The Jews and the Romans (cont.)
    • The Zealots were defeated and the temple was destroyed .
    • In retaliation, the Romans forced the Jews to leave Jerusalem and banned them from ever returning.
    (page 343)
    • The Jews rebelled again in A.D. 132 and were defeated again.
    The First Christians
  • 13. What happened to the Jews after they were banished from Jerusalem? The Jews settled in many far-off places, such as Spain and central Asia. However, they still kept their religion alive. The First Christians
  • 14. The Life of Jesus
    • A messiah is a deliverer .
    (pages 344 – 347)
    • The Jews believed God would send a messiah to restore the kingdom.
    • Jesus, a Jew born in the city of Nazareth, traveled throughout Judaea preaching his ideas .
    The First Christians
  • 15. The Life of Jesus (cont.)
    • Jesus’ message was contained in a group of sayings called the Sermon on the Mount .
    • Jesus believed in love and forgiveness, not simply following religious laws .
    The First Christians (pages 344 – 347)
  • 16. The Life of Jesus (cont.)
    • Jesus used parables to give his message.
    • Parables are stories that use events from everyday life to express spiritual ideas .
    • Jesus’ followers believed he was the messiah the Jews had been waiting for.
    The First Christians (pages 344 – 347)
  • 17. The Life of Jesus (cont.)
    • Leaders in Jerusalem charged Jesus with treason and crucified him.
    • Jesus’ followers believe in Jesus’ resurrection, or rising from the dead.
    • They founded a new religion called Christianity.
    The First Christians (pages 344 – 347)
  • 18. Why did Roman rulers punish Jesus with death? They feared his preaching would create a strong reaction among people that would threaten law and order. The First Christians
  • 19. The First Christians
    • People who accepted Jesus and his teachings were called Christians.
    • The Apostles were early Christian leaders who had been chosen by Jesus to spread his message. They helped establish churches and spread Jesus’ word.
    • Peter and Paul were two of Jesus’ apostles.
    (pages 348 – 350) The First Christians
  • 20. The First Christians (cont.)
    • Christians believe Jesus is the Son of God who came to save people.
    • Christians believe people can gain salvation, or be saved from sin and allowed to enter heaven, by accepting Jesus.
    • Christians believe in the Trinity, or one God who exists as three persons: Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.
    The First Christians (pages 348 – 350)
  • 21. Why is Paul important to the history of Christianity? He traveled extensively, spreading Jesus’ message and founding churches throughout eastern Mediterranean. The First Christians
  • 22. What are parables, and why did Jesus use them? A parable is a story that uses events from everyday life to express spiritual ideas. The First Christians
  • 23. The First Christians What do Christians believe they will gain by accepting Jesus and his teachings? They believe they will gain salvation, be resurrected, and have everlasting life.
  • 24. Analyze Why were the Jews looking for a messiah? Did Jesus fulfill most Jews’ expectations for a messiah? Explain. Jews hoped the promised messiah would restore their freedom. Jesus did not fulfill most Jews’ expectations. They disagreed about his authenticity. The First Christians
  • 25. Explain Why was Jesus put to death? Roman rulers feared he might threaten law and order. The First Christians
  • 26. Expository Writing Write an essay comparing Christianity to one or more religions that you have already learned about. Answers will vary. The First Christians
  • 27. Discuss how Jesus’ teachings affected the Roman Empire in the first century. The First Christians
  • 28.  
  • 29. The Christian Church Get Ready to Read Section Overview This section describes how Christianity was organized and how it later became Rome’s official religion.
  • 30. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Focusing on the Main Ideas The Christian Church
    • Early Christians set up a church organization and explained their beliefs.
    • Christianity won many followers and eventually became the official religion of the Roman Empire.
  • 31. Get Ready to Read (cont.)
    • Constantine (KAHN·stuhn· TEEN )
    Meeting People
    • Helena (HEHL·uh·nuh)
    • Theodosius ( THEE ·uh·DOH·shuhs)
    • Rome
    Locating Places The Christian Church
  • 32. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Building Your Vocabulary
    • persecute (PURH·sih· KYOOT )
    • martyr (MAHR·tuhr)
    • hierarchy (HY·uhr· AHR ·kee)
    • laity (LAY·uh·tee)
    • clergy (KLUHR·jee)
    • doctrine (DAHK·truhn)
    • gospel (GAHS·puhl)
    • pope
    The Christian Church
  • 33. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Reading Strategy Organizing Information Complete a diagram like the one on page 351 of your textbook, showing reasons for the growth of Christianity. The Christian Church
  • 34. A Growing Faith
    • Christianity became popular for several reasons.
    • It appealed to the lower classes because it offered them hope.
    • Christianity spread throughout Rome.
    (pages 352 – 354)
    • The ideals of Christianity were similar to what the people already believed.
    The Christian Church
  • 35. A Growing Faith (cont.)
    • Roman officials began to feel threatened by Christians.
    • Also, Christianity gave people an opportunity to be part of a caring group of people.
    • The Romans began to persecute, or mistreat, the Christians in A.D. 64.
    • Martyrs are people willing to die rather than give up their beliefs.
    The Christian Church (pages 352 – 354)
  • 36. A Growing Faith (cont.)
    • The Edict of Milan in A.D. 313 gave religious freedom to all people and made Christianity legal.
    The Christian Church (pages 352 – 354)
  • 37. A Growing Faith (cont.)
    • Helena, Constantine’s mother, helped build churches in Rome and Jerusalem.
    • Theodosius, the emperor after Constantine, made Christianity the official religion of Rome in A.D. 392.
    The Christian Church (pages 352 – 354)
  • 38. How did women serve in the early Christian church? Christian women had new and important duties to perform. They ran churches, spread Jesus’ word, and helped care for those in need. The Christian Church
  • 39. The Early Church
    • Early Christians modeled their church after the Roman Empire’s government structure.
    (pages 355 – 356)
    • A hierarchy is an organization with different levels of authority.
    • The Christian community’s hierarchy included five levels: the laity, clergy, bishops, archbishops, and patriarchs.
    • Church members were the laity.
    The Christian Church
  • 40. The Early Church (cont.)
    • Church leaders were the clergy.
    • Later, clergy were called priests.
    • Several churches grouped together form a diocese, which was led by a bishop.
    • An archbishop was a bishop in charge of an entire region.
    • The five leading archbishops were known as patriarchs.
    The Christian Church (pages 355 – 356)
  • 41. The Early Church (cont.)
    • Doctrine is official church teaching.
    • Jesus’ followers, Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, left a written record of his teachings.
    • Each of the apostles’ works is called a gospel, and all four gospels together are part of the New Testament of the Christian Bible.
    The Christian Church (pages 355 – 356)
  • 42. The Early Church (cont.)
    • Gradually the pope claimed power over other bishops.
    • The Latin-speaking churches in the West that were led by the pope became the Roman Catholic Church.
    • The pope was the bishop of Rome.
    The Christian Church (pages 355 – 356)
  • 43. What were the duties of a bishop? Bishops explained Christian beliefs, took care of church business, and met with other bishops to discuss questions and make decisions about Christianity. The Christian Church
  • 44. What is a martyr? A martyr is a person willing to die rather than give up his or her beliefs. The Christian Church
  • 45. The Christian Church What writings are included in the New Testament of the Bible? the gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John, plus the writings of Paul and other early Christian leaders
  • 46. Analyze Following Jesus’ death, why was Christianity able to attract followers? Christianity offered hope and comfort. It appealed to the emotions and promised life after death. It gave people the chance to be part of a caring group. The Christian Church
  • 47. Analyze Why do you think the Christian church came to be ruled by a hierarchy? Possible answer: The Roman Empire showed a successful way to unite different peoples in many places. The Christian Church
  • 48. Conclude Do you think the Christian religion would have spread so quickly if it had developed in a time other than that of the Roman Empire? Answers will vary. The Christian Church
  • 49. Writing Questions Write five questions that a reporter who lived at the same time as Constantine might have asked him about Christianity. Answers will vary. The Christian Church
  • 50. Few people knew how to read during the time discussed in this section. Discuss why missionaries were, therefore, important for the spread of Christianity. The Christian Church
  • 51.  
  • 52. The Spread of Christian Ideas Get Ready to Read Section Overview This section describes the relationship between church and government in the Byzantine Empire, as well as the spread of Christianity.
  • 53. Focusing on the Main Ideas
    • Church and government worked closely together in the Byzantine Empire .
    • Christians founded new communities and spread their faith to various parts of Europe.
    Get Ready to Read (cont.) The Spread of Christian Ideas
  • 54. Locating Places
    • Byzantine Empire (BIH·zuhn· TEEN EHM· PYR )
    • Britain (BRIH·tuhn)
    • Charlemagne (SHAHR·luh· MAYN )
    Meeting People
    • Basil (BAY·zuhl)
    • Ireland (EYER·luhnd)
    • Benedict (BEH·nuh· DIHKT )
    Get Ready to Read (cont.) The Spread of Christian Ideas
  • 55.
    • Cyril (SUHR·uhl)
    Meeting People (cont.)
    • Patrick
    Building Your Vocabulary
    • icon (EYE· KAHN )
    • iconoclast (eye·KAH·nuh· KLAST )
    • excommunicate ( EHK ·skuh·MYOO·nuh· KAYT )
    Get Ready to Read (cont.) The Spread of Christian Ideas
  • 56. Building Your Vocabulary (cont.)
    • monastery (MAH·nuh· STEHR ·ee)
    • missionary (MIH·shuh· NEHR ·ee)
    Reading Strategy Organizing Information Create a diagram like the one on page 358 of your textbook to show the reach of Christian missionaries.
    • schism (SIH·zuhm)
    Get Ready to Read (cont.) The Spread of Christian Ideas
  • 57. The Byzantine Church
    • The Greek-speaking Christians in the East developed their own form of Christianity, the Eastern Orthodox Church .
    • The Byzantines believed their emperor represented Jesus Christ on Earth.
    (pages 359 – 361)
    • The emperor appointed the patriarch of Constantinople, the leader of the Eastern Orthodox Church.
    The Spread of Christian Ideas
  • 58. The Byzantine Church (cont.)
    • Different parts of the Eastern Orthodox Church argued over the use of icons, or images of Jesus, Mary, the saints, or other Christian holy people .
    • In A.D. 726, Emperor Leo III ordered all icons removed from churches.
    • People who carried out the order were known as iconoclasts, or image breakers.
    (pages 359 – 361) The Spread of Christian Ideas
  • 59. The Byzantine Church (cont.)
    • The Byzantines did not accept the pope’s claim that he was head of all Christian churches, including the Eastern Orthodox Church .
    • After stopping an invasion of Italy by the Franks, the pope named Charlemagne, a Frankish king, as Byzantine emperor.
    • The Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church eventually excommunicated each other.
    (pages 359 – 361) The Spread of Christian Ideas
  • 60. The Byzantine Church (cont.)
    • Excommunication is a declaration that a person or group no longer belongs to the church .
    • The split of the two churches was known as a schism.
    (pages 359 – 361) The Spread of Christian Ideas
  • 61. How did the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church differ in their relationship with government? The Eastern Orthodox Church respected the wishes of the emperor, the political leader. In the Roman Catholic Church, the pope was considered the political and spiritual leader. He often argued with kings over church and government matters. The Spread of Christian Ideas
  • 62. Christian Ideas Spread
    • Religious men called monks formed communities called monasteries.
    • Christianity helped people achieve order after the fall of Rome .
    (pages 361 – 364)
    • Religious women became nuns and formed religious communities of their own, called convents.
    • Paula was a widow who gave up her wealth to build churches, a hospital, and a convent in Palestine.
    The Spread of Christian Ideas
  • 63. Christian Ideas Spread (cont.)
    • Basil was a bishop who created a list of rules for monks and nuns called the Basilian Rule.
    • She also helped translate the Bible into Latin .
    • Benedict was an Italian monk who created the Benedictine Rule, the rules for Western monks.
    (pages 361 – 364) The Spread of Christian Ideas
  • 64. Christian Ideas Spread (cont.)
    • Cyril was a Byzantine missionary who created the Cyrillic alphabet, so Slavic people could read and understand the Bible.
    • Missionaries are people who teach their religion to those who are not followers .
    • Christianity spread north of the Byzantine Empire into Slavic countries and west into Britain and Ireland.
    (pages 361 – 364) The Spread of Christian Ideas
  • 65. Christian Ideas Spread (cont.)
    • The Celts, who lived in Britain before the invasion of the Anglos and Saxons, fled to Ireland.
    • Anglos and Saxons invaded Britain and united to form the Anglo-Saxons.
    • Patrick was a priest who brought Christianity to Ireland.
    (pages 361 – 364) The Spread of Christian Ideas
  • 66. How did Ethelbert, the ruler of Kent, help the spread of Christianity in England? Ethelbert allowed the missionaries to build a church in the capital city of Canterbury. The Spread of Christian Ideas
  • 67. The Spread of Christian Ideas What are icons, and why was their use controversial? Icons are images of Jesus, Mary, and the saints. Some Byzantines believed they were idols.
  • 68. The Spread of Christian Ideas What roles did monks and nuns play in Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox life? They ran hospitals and schools, aided the poor, preserved Greek and Roman writings, and acted as missionaries.
  • 69. Describe How did Cyril make the Christian message available to the Slavs? He invented a new alphabet so the Slavs could read the Bible in their own languages. The Spread of Christian Ideas
  • 70. Explain What role did the Frankish king Charlemagne play in the schism between the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches? The pope gave Charlemagne the title of emperor. The Byzantines refused to recognize an emperor other than their own. The Spread of Christian Ideas
  • 71. Analyze Why do you think the Basilian and Benedictine Rules were put in place for monks? Answers will vary. The Spread of Christian Ideas
  • 72. Expository Writing Write a newspaper article that describes the spread of Christianity to Ireland and Britain. Answers will vary. The Spread of Christian Ideas
  • 73. Discuss how one person can have an impact on millions of people. The Spread of Christian Ideas
  • 74.  
  • 75. Section 1: The First Christians Focusing on the Main Ideas The Rise of Christianity
    • Roman rule of Judaea led some Jews to oppose Rome peacefully, while others rebelled.
    • Jesus of Nazareth preached of God’s love and forgiveness. He was eventually crucified and then reported to have risen from the dead.
    • Jesus’ life and a belief in his resurrection led to a new religion called Christianity.
  • 76. Section 2: The Christian Church Focusing on the Main Ideas
    • Christianity won many followers and eventually became the official religion of the Roman Empire.
    • Early Christians set up a church organization and explained their beliefs.
    The Rise of Christianity
  • 77. Focusing on the Main Ideas
    • Church and government worked closely together in the Byzantine Empire.
    Section 3: The Spread of Christian Ideas
    • Christians founded new communities and spread their faith to various parts of Europe.
    The Rise of Christianity
  • 78.  
  • 79. __ 1. Jesus told symbolic stories called ___. __ 2. The bishop of Rome was called the ___. __ 3. The ___ in the Christian churches happened in A.D. 1054. __ 4. Christians who died for their faith were ___. Review Vocabulary
    • A. laity
    • B. missionaries
    • C. martyrs
    • D. iconoclasts
    • parables
    • schism
    • apostle
    • pope
    Define Match the vocabulary words with the definitions. E H F C The Rise of Christianity
  • 80. Section 1 The First Christians How did Jews react to the Roman rule of Judaea? Some Jews opposed Rome peacefully, while others rebelled. The Rise of Christianity Review Main Ideas
  • 81. On what is Christianity based? Jesus’ life and teachings and belief in his resurrection The Rise of Christianity Section 1 The First Christians Review Main Ideas
  • 82. Section 2 The Christian Church How did the Roman Empire eventually recognize Christianity? through Constantine’s conversion and passing of the Edict of Milan The Rise of Christianity Review Main Ideas
  • 83. What did early Christians do to organize their religion? They set up a hierarchy to rule the church. The Rise of Christianity Section 2 The Christian Church Review Main Ideas
  • 84. Section 3 The Spread of Christian Ideas What was the relationship between the church and the government in the Byzantine Empire? They worked closely together. The Rise of Christianity Review Main Ideas
  • 85. How and where did the Christian religion spread? It spread through missionaries to Eastern Europe, Britain, and Ireland. The Rise of Christianity Section 3 The Spread of Christian Ideas Review Main Ideas
  • 86. Analyze Why do you think Jesus’ followers remembered his teachings more when he used parables? Parables used events from everyday life that people knew about and experienced. The Rise of Christianity
  • 87. Contrast How did Jews and Christians differ in their belief about Jesus and his message? Christians believed Jesus was the messiah and had risen from the dead. Jews did not. The Rise of Christianity
  • 88. Predict How would the growth of Christianity have been affected if the emperor Constantine had not become a Christian? The Edict of Milan would not have been issued, so the persecution of Christians might have continued. Christianity might not have grown as rapidly. The Rise of Christianity
  • 89.  
  • 90. Explore online information about the topics introduced in this chapter. Click on the Connect button to launch your browser and go to the Journey Across Time Web site. Click on Chapter 10-Chapter Overviews to preview information about this chapter. When you finish exploring, exit the browser program to return to this presentation. If you experience difficulty connecting to the Web site, manually launch your Web browser and go to http://www.jat.glencoe.com
  • 91. Map s Spread of Christianity A.D. 325 Spread of Christianity A.D. 325 – 1100 Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides. Charts Early Church Hierarchy The Cyrillic Alphabet
  • 92. Click the map to view an interactive version.
  • 93. Click the map to view an interactive version.
  • 94.  
  • 95.  
  • 96. Palm Sunday is a Christian holy day in remembrance of Jesus’ entrance into Jerusalem the week before his death. At that time, many people spread palm branches on the ground before Jesus. Palm Sunday marks the beginning of the Christian Holy Week. The First Christians
  • 97. The pope, the head of the Roman Catholic Church, lives in the State of Vatican City. It is the smallest independent country in the world. The Christian Church
  • 98. According to myth, St. Patrick banished snakes from Ireland and used the three-leaf clover to teach the idea of the Trinity. St. Patrick died on March 17, the day that is now celebrated as St. Patrick’s Day. The Spread of Christian Ideas
  • 99. Looking for Sequence Clues Learn It! Reading Social Studies When we speak, read, or write, we automatically use clues to tell us what happened when. These clues are called sequence words, and they show us the order in which events occur. Read the passage on the following slide about the spread of Christianity. Notice the highlighted sequence words or phrases.
  • 100. Reading Social Studies — f rom page 361 After the fall of Rome, the people of Western Europe faced confusion and conflict. As a result , people were looking for order and unity. Christianity helped to meet this need. It spread rapidly into lands that had once been part of the Roman Empire. Now read the paragraph again and leave out the highlighted sequence words. Do you see how important they are in helping you understand what you are reading?
  • 101. Finding Clue Words Practice It! Read the passage from page 341 of your textbook and write down any word or phrase that helps you recognize the sequence of events. Reading Social Studies
  • 102. The Rise of Christianity Introduction
  • 103. The First Christians
  • 104. The Christian Church
  • 105. The Spread of Christian Ideas
  • 106. Sermon on the Mount
  • 107. Focus on Everyday Life Christians believed in resurrection, the idea that the body would one day reunite with the soul. For this reason, they would not allow their dead bodies to be burned, which was the Roman custom. Also, Roman law did not allow bodies to be buried aboveground. Therefore, starting in the A.D. 100s, Christians buried their dead beneath the city of Rome in a series of dark, cold, stench-filled tunnels called catacombs. Each tunnel was about 8 feet high and less than 3 feet wide. Bodies were stacked in slots along the sides of the tunnels. The catacomb walls were painted with images from the Bible or from Greek or Roman mythology. More than five million bodies were buried under Roman streets and buildings. Many of the Christians buried there were martyrs who had been killed for their beliefs. Christian Catacombs
  • 108. Connecting to the Past The did not believe in cremation and it was against the law to be buried aboveground. 1. Why did Christians bury their dead in catacombs? 2. What skills do you think would be necessary to dig and plan catacombs? You would need mathematics, engineering, physics and physical skills as well as physical strength.
  • 109. Biography Jesus of Nazareth Paul of Tarsus Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.
  • 110. c. 6 B.C.–A.D. 30 Jesus of Nazareth
  • 111. Paul of Tarsus C. A.D. 10–65
  • 112. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 10 – 1 Chapter 10
  • 113. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 10 – 2 Chapter 10
  • 114. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 10–3 Chapter 10
  • 115. Click the Forward button to go to the next slide. Click the Previous button to return to the previous slide. Click the Menu button to return to the Chapter Menu. Click the Return button in a feature to return to the main presentation. Click the Exit button or press the Escape key [Esc] to end the chapter slide show. Click the Help button to access this screen. Links to Presentation Plus! features such as the Reference Atlas, Daily Focus Transparencies, and others are located on the left side of the relevant slides. To use this Presentation Plus! product:
  • 116. End of Custom Shows
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