Chapter Introduction Section 1 The First Christians Section 2 The Christian Church Section 3 The Spread of Christian Ideas Reading Review Chapter Assessment The Rise of Christianity Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.
Get Ready to Read (cont.) Building Your Vocabulary
resurrection ( REH ·zuh·REHK·shuhn)
The First Christians
Get Ready to Read (cont.) Reading Strategy Summarizing Information Complete a diagram like the one on page 342 of your textbook, showing the purposes of early Christian churches. The First Christians
The Zealots were defeated and the temple was destroyed .
In retaliation, the Romans forced the Jews to leave Jerusalem and banned them from ever returning.
The Jews rebelled again in A.D. 132 and were defeated again.
The First Christians
What happened to the Jews after they were banished from Jerusalem? The Jews settled in many far-off places, such as Spain and central Asia. However, they still kept their religion alive. The First Christians
Christians believe Jesus is the Son of God who came to save people.
Christians believe people can gain salvation, or be saved from sin and allowed to enter heaven, by accepting Jesus.
Christians believe in the Trinity, or one God who exists as three persons: Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.
The First Christians (pages 348 – 350)
Why is Paul important to the history of Christianity? He traveled extensively, spreading Jesus’ message and founding churches throughout eastern Mediterranean. The First Christians
What are parables, and why did Jesus use them? A parable is a story that uses events from everyday life to express spiritual ideas. The First Christians
The First Christians What do Christians believe they will gain by accepting Jesus and his teachings? They believe they will gain salvation, be resurrected, and have everlasting life.
Analyze Why were the Jews looking for a messiah? Did Jesus fulfill most Jews’ expectations for a messiah? Explain. Jews hoped the promised messiah would restore their freedom. Jesus did not fulfill most Jews’ expectations. They disagreed about his authenticity. The First Christians
Explain Why was Jesus put to death? Roman rulers feared he might threaten law and order. The First Christians
Expository Writing Write an essay comparing Christianity to one or more religions that you have already learned about. Answers will vary. The First Christians
Discuss how Jesus’ teachings affected the Roman Empire in the first century. The First Christians
Helena, Constantine’s mother, helped build churches in Rome and Jerusalem.
Theodosius, the emperor after Constantine, made Christianity the official religion of Rome in A.D. 392.
The Christian Church (pages 352 – 354)
How did women serve in the early Christian church? Christian women had new and important duties to perform. They ran churches, spread Jesus’ word, and helped care for those in need. The Christian Church
Gradually the pope claimed power over other bishops.
The Latin-speaking churches in the West that were led by the pope became the Roman Catholic Church.
The pope was the bishop of Rome.
The Christian Church (pages 355 – 356)
What were the duties of a bishop? Bishops explained Christian beliefs, took care of church business, and met with other bishops to discuss questions and make decisions about Christianity. The Christian Church
What is a martyr? A martyr is a person willing to die rather than give up his or her beliefs. The Christian Church
The Christian Church What writings are included in the New Testament of the Bible? the gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John, plus the writings of Paul and other early Christian leaders
Analyze Following Jesus’ death, why was Christianity able to attract followers? Christianity offered hope and comfort. It appealed to the emotions and promised life after death. It gave people the chance to be part of a caring group. The Christian Church
Analyze Why do you think the Christian church came to be ruled by a hierarchy? Possible answer: The Roman Empire showed a successful way to unite different peoples in many places. The Christian Church
Conclude Do you think the Christian religion would have spread so quickly if it had developed in a time other than that of the Roman Empire? Answers will vary. The Christian Church
Writing Questions Write five questions that a reporter who lived at the same time as Constantine might have asked him about Christianity. Answers will vary. The Christian Church
Few people knew how to read during the time discussed in this section. Discuss why missionaries were, therefore, important for the spread of Christianity. The Christian Church
The Spread of Christian Ideas Get Ready to Read Section Overview This section describes the relationship between church and government in the Byzantine Empire, as well as the spread of Christianity.
Excommunication is a declaration that a person or group no longer belongs to the church .
The split of the two churches was known as a schism.
(pages 359 – 361) The Spread of Christian Ideas
How did the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church differ in their relationship with government? The Eastern Orthodox Church respected the wishes of the emperor, the political leader. In the Roman Catholic Church, the pope was considered the political and spiritual leader. He often argued with kings over church and government matters. The Spread of Christian Ideas
The Celts, who lived in Britain before the invasion of the Anglos and Saxons, fled to Ireland.
Anglos and Saxons invaded Britain and united to form the Anglo-Saxons.
Patrick was a priest who brought Christianity to Ireland.
(pages 361 – 364) The Spread of Christian Ideas
How did Ethelbert, the ruler of Kent, help the spread of Christianity in England? Ethelbert allowed the missionaries to build a church in the capital city of Canterbury. The Spread of Christian Ideas
The Spread of Christian Ideas What are icons, and why was their use controversial? Icons are images of Jesus, Mary, and the saints. Some Byzantines believed they were idols.
The Spread of Christian Ideas What roles did monks and nuns play in Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox life? They ran hospitals and schools, aided the poor, preserved Greek and Roman writings, and acted as missionaries.
Describe How did Cyril make the Christian message available to the Slavs? He invented a new alphabet so the Slavs could read the Bible in their own languages. The Spread of Christian Ideas
Explain What role did the Frankish king Charlemagne play in the schism between the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches? The pope gave Charlemagne the title of emperor. The Byzantines refused to recognize an emperor other than their own. The Spread of Christian Ideas
Analyze Why do you think the Basilian and Benedictine Rules were put in place for monks? Answers will vary. The Spread of Christian Ideas
Expository Writing Write a newspaper article that describes the spread of Christianity to Ireland and Britain. Answers will vary. The Spread of Christian Ideas
Discuss how one person can have an impact on millions of people. The Spread of Christian Ideas
__ 1. Jesus told symbolic stories called ___. __ 2. The bishop of Rome was called the ___. __ 3. The ___ in the Christian churches happened in A.D. 1054. __ 4. Christians who died for their faith were ___. Review Vocabulary
Define Match the vocabulary words with the definitions. E H F C The Rise of Christianity
Section 1 The First Christians How did Jews react to the Roman rule of Judaea? Some Jews opposed Rome peacefully, while others rebelled. The Rise of Christianity Review Main Ideas
On what is Christianity based? Jesus’ life and teachings and belief in his resurrection The Rise of Christianity Section 1 The First Christians Review Main Ideas
Section 2 The Christian Church How did the Roman Empire eventually recognize Christianity? through Constantine’s conversion and passing of the Edict of Milan The Rise of Christianity Review Main Ideas
What did early Christians do to organize their religion? They set up a hierarchy to rule the church. The Rise of Christianity Section 2 The Christian Church Review Main Ideas
Section 3 The Spread of Christian Ideas What was the relationship between the church and the government in the Byzantine Empire? They worked closely together. The Rise of Christianity Review Main Ideas
How and where did the Christian religion spread? It spread through missionaries to Eastern Europe, Britain, and Ireland. The Rise of Christianity Section 3 The Spread of Christian Ideas Review Main Ideas
Analyze Why do you think Jesus’ followers remembered his teachings more when he used parables? Parables used events from everyday life that people knew about and experienced. The Rise of Christianity
Contrast How did Jews and Christians differ in their belief about Jesus and his message? Christians believed Jesus was the messiah and had risen from the dead. Jews did not. The Rise of Christianity
Predict How would the growth of Christianity have been affected if the emperor Constantine had not become a Christian? The Edict of Milan would not have been issued, so the persecution of Christians might have continued. Christianity might not have grown as rapidly. The Rise of Christianity
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Map s Spread of Christianity A.D. 325 Spread of Christianity A.D. 325 – 1100 Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides. Charts Early Church Hierarchy The Cyrillic Alphabet
Palm Sunday is a Christian holy day in remembrance of Jesus’ entrance into Jerusalem the week before his death. At that time, many people spread palm branches on the ground before Jesus. Palm Sunday marks the beginning of the Christian Holy Week. The First Christians
The pope, the head of the Roman Catholic Church, lives in the State of Vatican City. It is the smallest independent country in the world. The Christian Church
According to myth, St. Patrick banished snakes from Ireland and used the three-leaf clover to teach the idea of the Trinity. St. Patrick died on March 17, the day that is now celebrated as St. Patrick’s Day. The Spread of Christian Ideas
Looking for Sequence Clues Learn It! Reading Social Studies When we speak, read, or write, we automatically use clues to tell us what happened when. These clues are called sequence words, and they show us the order in which events occur. Read the passage on the following slide about the spread of Christianity. Notice the highlighted sequence words or phrases.
Reading Social Studies — f rom page 361 After the fall of Rome, the people of Western Europe faced confusion and conflict. As a result , people were looking for order and unity. Christianity helped to meet this need. It spread rapidly into lands that had once been part of the Roman Empire. Now read the paragraph again and leave out the highlighted sequence words. Do you see how important they are in helping you understand what you are reading?
Finding Clue Words Practice It! Read the passage from page 341 of your textbook and write down any word or phrase that helps you recognize the sequence of events. Reading Social Studies
Focus on Everyday Life Christians believed in resurrection, the idea that the body would one day reunite with the soul. For this reason, they would not allow their dead bodies to be burned, which was the Roman custom. Also, Roman law did not allow bodies to be buried aboveground. Therefore, starting in the A.D. 100s, Christians buried their dead beneath the city of Rome in a series of dark, cold, stench-filled tunnels called catacombs. Each tunnel was about 8 feet high and less than 3 feet wide. Bodies were stacked in slots along the sides of the tunnels. The catacomb walls were painted with images from the Bible or from Greek or Roman mythology. More than five million bodies were buried under Roman streets and buildings. Many of the Christians buried there were martyrs who had been killed for their beliefs. Christian Catacombs
Connecting to the Past The did not believe in cremation and it was against the law to be buried aboveground. 1. Why did Christians bury their dead in catacombs? 2. What skills do you think would be necessary to dig and plan catacombs? You would need mathematics, engineering, physics and physical skills as well as physical strength.
Biography Jesus of Nazareth Paul of Tarsus Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.
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