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Jat Chapter 05
 

Jat Chapter 05

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    Jat Chapter 05 Jat Chapter 05 Presentation Transcript

    •  
    • Chapter Introduction Section 1 The Culture of Ancient Greece Section 2 Greek Philosophy and History Section 3 Alexander the Great Section 4 The Spread of Greek Culture Reading Review Chapter Assessment Greek Civilization Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.
    • Chapter Objectives
      • Describe important Greek developments in the arts.
      • Discuss Greek achievements in history, politics, biology, and logic.
      • Summarize how Alexander the Great created an empire.
      • Describe how Hellenistic kingdoms became centers of learning and culture.
      Greek Civilization
    • Greek Civilization
    •  
    • Get Ready to Read Section Overview This section discusses the culture of the ancient Greeks as expressed in their religion, literature, and art. The Culture of Ancient Greece
    • Get Ready to Read (cont.) Focusing on the Main Ideas The Culture of Ancient Greece
      • The Greeks believed that gods and goddesses controlled nature and shaped their lives.
      • Greek poetry and fables taught Greek values.
      • Greek drama still shapes entertainment today.
      • Greek art and architecture expressed Greek ideas of beauty and harmony.
    • Get Ready to Read (cont.) Locating Places
      • Mount Olympus (uh·LIHM·puhs)
      • Delphi (DEHL· FY )
      Meeting People
      • Homer (HOH·muhr)
      • Aesop (EE· SAHP )
      • Sophocles (SAH·fuh· KLEEZ )
      • Euripides (yu·RIH·puh· DEEZ )
      The Culture of Ancient Greece
    • Get Ready to Read (cont.) Building Your Vocabulary
      • myth (MIHTH)
      • fable (FAY·buhl)
      • drama (DRAH·muh)
      • oracle (AWR·uh·kuhl)
      • epic (EH·pihk)
      • tragedy (TRA·juh·dee)
      • comedy (KAH·muh·dee)
      The Culture of Ancient Greece
    • Get Ready to Read (cont.) Reading Strategy Compare and Contrast Create a Venn diagram like the one on page 154 of your textbook, showing similarities and differences between an epic and a fable. The Culture of Ancient Greece
    • Greek Mythology
      • The Greeks believed in many gods and goddesses.
      • The Greeks believed the 12 most important gods lived on Mount Olympus, the highest mountain in Greece.
      (pages 155 – 156)
      • They thought these deities affected people’s lives and shaped events.
      • Greek myths were stories about gods and heroes.
      The Culture of Ancient Greece
    • Greek Mythology (cont.)
      • In these stories, gods had special powers but looked and acted like humans.
      • They hoped that the gods would grant good fortune to them in return.
      • The Greeks followed rituals to win the gods’ favor.
      • The Greeks believed in prophecy, or predictions about the future.
      The Culture of Ancient Greece (pages 155 – 156)
    • Greek Mythology (cont.)
      • Many Greeks visited an oracle to receive a prophecy.
      • The most famous oracle was at the Temple of Apollo at Delphi.
      • An oracle was a sacred shrine where a priest or priestess spoke for a god or goddess.
      The Culture of Ancient Greece (pages 155 – 156)
    • How did the Greeks believe their gods and goddesses were like humans? Greek gods and goddesses married, had children, played tricks on each other, quarreled, and fought wars. The Culture of Ancient Greece
    • Greek Poetry and Fables
      • Greek poems and stories are the oldest in the Western world and serve as models for European and American poems and stories .
      (pages 157 – 158)
      • An epic is a long poem about heroic deeds.
      • The first great epics were the Iliad and the Odyssey , written by a poet named Homer.
      The Culture of Ancient Greece
    • Greek Poetry and Fables (cont.)
      • The Iliad is about a battle for the city of Troy .
      • The Odyssey is the story of Odysseus, a Greek hero.
      • Greeks believed these two epics were real history.
      The Culture of Ancient Greece (pages 157 – 158)
    • Greek Poetry and Fables (cont.)
      • A fable is a short tale that teaches a lesson .
      • Fables were passed from person to person by oral tradition.
      • A slave named Aesop wrote many fables.
      The Culture of Ancient Greece (pages 157 – 158)
    • Why were the heroes of Homer’s epics considered role models? The heroes in Homer’s stories had courage and honor. They worked to be the best they could be, and they fought to protect their honor. The Culture of Ancient Greece
    • Greek Drama
      • The Greeks used drama as part of their religious festivals .
      (pages 160 – 161)
      • The Greeks developed two types of drama— tragedies and comedies.
      • Drama is a story told by actors who pretend to be characters in the story.
      The Culture of Ancient Greece
    • Greek Drama (cont.)
      • A comedy is a story with a happy ending .
      • Aeschylus was a writer who wrote a group of three plays called Oresteia .
      • A tragedy is the story of a person who tries to overcome difficulties but fails.
      • These plays teach that evil acts cause more evil and suffering.
      The Culture of Ancient Greece (pages 160 – 161)
    • Greek Drama (cont.)
      • Euripides wrote plays about real-life people instead of gods .
      • Aristophanes wrote comedies that made fun of leading politicians and scholars.
      • The Writer Sophocles wrote the plays Oedipus and Antigone .
      The Culture of Ancient Greece (pages 160 – 161)
    • How are plays of today similar to those of ancient Greece? Actors in plays of today like those of ancient Greece wear costumes. Music and dance also occur in many of today’s plays, as they did in Greek plays. The Culture of Ancient Greece
    • Greek Art and Architecture
      • Although Greek murals have not survived, examples of Greek paintings still exist on decorated pottery .
      • The most important architecture in Greece was the temple dedicated to a god or goddess.
      • Greek artists believed in the ideas of reason, balance, harmony, and moderation and tried to show these ideas in their work.
      (pages 162 – 163) The Culture of Ancient Greece
    • Greek Art and Architecture (cont.)
      • The most famous temple is the Parthenon.
      • Greek architecture included columns, which were first made from wood.
      The Culture of Ancient Greece (pages 162 – 163)
    • Greek Art and Architecture (cont.)
      • Later, the Greeks began using marble.
      • Many of today’s churches and government buildings have columns.
      • Greek sculpture expressed Greek ideas.
      The Culture of Ancient Greece (pages 162 – 163)
    • What elements of Greek architecture are present in your school or in buildings in your community? Answers will vary, but should include symmetry and proportion between building parts, the use of columns, pediments, pedestals, or materials such as marble or tiles. The Culture of Ancient Greece
    • How and why did the Greeks honor their gods? They honored their gods with rituals, festivals, and temples, so the gods would grant good fortune. The Culture of Ancient Greece
    • courage, honor, loyalty, and the value of the husband-wife relationship What values did the epic poems of Homer teach Greeks? The Culture of Ancient Greece
    • Contrast How do Greek tragedies and comedies differ? Tragedy: person fails to overcome difficulties because of fate or personal flaws; Comedy: happy endings The Culture of Ancient Greece
    • Evaluate Do you think the themes of Euripides’ plays would be popular today? Answers will vary. The Culture of Ancient Greece
    • Make Generalizations Why did Greek artists include the ideas of reason, moderation, balance, and harmony in their work? Artists hoped viewers would be inspired by the art. The Culture of Ancient Greece
    • Expository Writing Greek literature tells us what the Greeks thought was important. Choose a modern book, movie, or television show. Write a paragraph to explain what it would tell others about our society. Answers will vary. The Culture of Ancient Greece
    • List the three most important ways the ancient Greeks have influenced our culture. Give reasons for your choices. The Culture of Ancient Greece
    •  
    • Greek Philosophy and History Get Ready to Read Section Overview This section describes Greek contributions to the study of philosophy and the writing of history.
    • Get Ready to Read (cont.) Focusing on the Main Ideas Greek Philosophy and History
      • Greeks wrote the first real histories in Western civilization.
      • Greek philosophers developed ideas that are still used today .
    • Get Ready to Read (cont.)
      • Pythagoras (puh·THA·guh·ruhs)
      Meeting People
      • Socrates (SAH·kruh· TEEZ)
      • Plato (PLAY· TOH )
      • Aristotle (AR·uh· STAH ·tuhl)
      • Herodotus (hir·RAH·duh·tuhs)
      • Thucydides (thoo·SIH·duh· DEEZ )
      Greek Philosophy and History
    • Get Ready to Read (cont.) Building Your Vocabulary
      • philosophy (fuh ·LAH ·suh·fee)
      • philosopher (fuh·LAH·suh·fuhr)
      • Sophist (SAH·fihst)
      • Socratic method (suh·KRA·tihk)
      Greek Philosophy and History
    • Get Ready to Read (cont.) Reading Strategy Categorizing Information Use diagrams like the one on page 168 of your textbook to show the basic philosophies of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. Greek Philosophy and History
    • Greek Philosophers
      • Greek thinkers, called philosophers, believed the human mind could understand everything .
      • The word philosophy comes from the Greek word for “love of wisdom .”
      (pages 169 – 171) Greek Philosophy and History
    • Greek Philosophers (cont.)
      • Sophists were professional teachers who traveled from city to city, teaching others .
      • They did not believe that gods and goddesses influenced people .
      • He developed many ideas about mathematics.
      • Pythagoras was a Greek philosopher who taught that the universe followed the same laws that governed music and numbers .
      Greek Philosophy and History (pages 169 – 171)
    • Greek Philosophers (cont.)
      • Leaders did not trust Socrates, and accused him of teaching young Athenians to rebel .
      • Socrates was a philosopher who believed that an absolute truth existed and that all real knowledge was within each person.
      • They also did not believe in absolute right or wrong .
      Greek Philosophy and History (pages 169 – 171)
    • Greek Philosophers (cont.)
      • Socrates was tried and sentenced to death.
      • Plato was one of Socrates’ best students .
      • The Socratic method is a form of teaching that uses questions to lead students to discover things for themselves.
      • In his book the Republic , Plato described the ideal government.
      Greek Philosophy and History (pages 169 – 171)
    • Greek Philosophers (cont.)
      • At the top were rulers and philosophers, in the middle were warriors, and at the bottom were all others.
      • He opened his own school called the Lyceum .
      • Aristotle was one of Plato’s students.
      • Aristotle helped advance science and government.
      Greek Philosophy and History (pages 169 – 171)
    • Greek Philosophers (cont.)
      • Many of his ideas shaped the way European and American founders thought about government.
      • The “golden mean,” one of Aristotle’s ideas, states that a person should do nothing to excess.
      Greek Philosophy and History (pages 169 – 171)
    • What did Aristotle think about democracy? Aristotle noticed that most democracies were run by the poor, and those run by a few people were run by the rich. Aristotle thought the best government would be run by the rich and the poor. Greek Philosophy and History
    • Greek Historians (page 173)
      • Many historians consider Herodotus the “father of history” because he wrote the history of the Persian Wars.
      • The Greek Thucydides is considered the greatest historian of the ancient world.
      • He wrote History of the Peloponnesian War .
      Greek Philosophy and History
    • Why is Herodotus important? He was the first person to try to explain the past by studying events. Greek Philosophy and History
    • Who were the Sophists and what were their beliefs? The Sophists were traveling teachers. They rejected the idea of absolute right and wrong. Greek Philosophy and History
    • The Greeks explained the past through legends and myths. Before Herodotus, how did Greeks explain the past? Greek Philosophy and History
    • Science Link How are Aristotle’s teachings related to the scientific method used by scientists today? Both use senses to make observations. Greek Philosophy and History
    • Contrast What is different about the works of Herodotus and Thucydides? Herodotus included gods and goddesses to describe some events. Thucydides examined history as the activities of humans, not gods. Greek Philosophy and History
    • Summarize Describe Aristotle’s contributions to government. He examined different forms of government and concluded mixed was the best. Greek Philosophy and History
    • Persuasive Writing Do you agree with Plato’s vision of the ideal state in the Republic ? Write an editorial expressing your viewpoint. Answers will vary. Greek Philosophy and History
    • Discuss the Athenians’ treatment of Socrates. Greek Philosophy and History
    •  
    • Alexander the Great Get Ready to Read Section Overview This section discusses Alexander the Great, his wide-reaching empire, and how his conquest spread Hellenism throughout southwest Asia.
    • Get Ready to Read (cont.) Focusing on the Main Ideas Alexander the Great
      • Phillip II of Macedonia united the Greek states .
      • Alexander the Great conquered the Persian Empire and spread Greek culture throughout southwest Asia.
    • Get Ready to Read (cont.) Locating Places
      • Macedonia ( MA ·suh·DOH·nee·uh)
      • Chaeronea ( KEHR ·uh·NEE·uh)
      • Syria (SIHR·ee·uh)
      • Alexandria ( A ·lihg·ZAN·dree·uh)
      Meeting People
      • Philip II
      • Alexander the Great
      Alexander the Great
    • Get Ready to Read (cont.) Building Your Vocabulary
      • legacy (LEH·guh·see)
      • Hellenistic Era ( HEH ·luh·NIHS·tihk)
      Reading Strategy Sequencing Create a diagram like the one on page 174 of your textbook to track the achievements of Alexander the Great. Alexander the Great
    • Macedonia Attacks Greece
      • Macedonia was a powerful kingdom that lay north of Greece .
      • Philip II needed to unite Greece with Macedonia to defeat the Persian Empire.
      • After training a vast army, Philip began taking over the Greek city-states.
      (pages 175 – 176) Alexander the Great
    • Macedonia Attacks Greece (cont.)
      • A lawyer named Demosthenes tried to warn the Athenians about Philip, but it was too late .
      • The Macedonians defeated the Greeks at the Battle of Chaeronea.
      • After this battle, Philip controlled all of Greece.
      Alexander the Great (pages 175 – 176)
    • What led to the Athenians’ defeat? The Greek city-states had been weakened in the Peloponnesian War, and their population had declined. Many farms had been destroyed during the war, and young people had no way to earn a living, so they had left Greece to join the Persian Army. Alexander the Great
    • Alexander Builds an Empire
      • Alexander began his conquest of the Persian Empire in 334 B.C. with the Battle of Granicus.
      • Alexander the Great became king of Macedonia after his father, Philip, died .
      • Alexander’s forces destroyed the Persian forces.
      • A year later, Alexander defeated the Persian army at Issus and freed the Greek cities in Asia Minor.
      Alexander the Great (pages 176 – 179)
    • Alexander Builds an Empire (cont.)
      • Alexander built the city of Alexandria as the center of business.
      • He then captured Syria and Egypt .
      • It became one of the most important cities in the ancient world.
      • Alexander continued his conquest of the Persian Empire by fighting in modern Pakistan, India, and Iran.
      Alexander the Great (pages 176 – 179)
    • Alexander Builds an Empire (cont.)
      • A legacy is what a person leaves behind when he or she dies.
      • In 323 B.C., Alexander planned to invade southern Arabia, but he became ill and died .
      • Alexander’s legacy is his skill and daring.
      • Alexander’s conquests marked the beginning of the Hellenistic Era.
      Alexander the Great (pages 176 – 179)
    • Alexander Builds an Empire (cont.) The lighthouse of Alexandria was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. A fire in its tall tower guided ships into harbor. Alexander the Great (pages 176 – 179)
    • Alexander Builds an Empire (cont.)
      • After Alexander’s death, his generals fought for power, and Alexander’s empire ended.
      • This was a time when Greek language and ideas spread to non Greek areas of southwest Asia .
      • Four kingdoms emerged in its place.
      • Government business in the four kingdoms was conducted in the Greek language.
      Alexander the Great (pages 176 – 179)
    • Alexander Builds an Empire (cont.)
      • This helped the Greeks maintain control.
      • People who did not speak Greek could not hold government jobs .
      • New cities were created in the Hellenistic Era, and these cities needed architects, engineers, and philosophers.
      • The rulers of the four kingdoms sent Greek colonists to southwest Asia to help build the cities. In this way, Greek culture spread.
      Alexander the Great (pages 176 – 179)
    • How did Alexander show his courage? Alexander rode into battle ahead of his men, and he often risked his own life. He once refused water because there was not enough for all of his soldiers to have a drink. Alexander the Great
    • Alexander the Great How did Philip II of Macedonia feel about the Greeks? He admired everything about the Greeks, including their art, ideas, and military.
    • Alexander the Great What ended Alexander’s conquest of India? His troops grew tired of fighting and refused to go farther.
    • Analyze Why was Alexander a good leader? His bravery inspired his troops. Alexander the Great
    • Predict How might history have been different if Alexander had lived longer? Alexander might have conquered more territory and created a lasting empire. Alexander the Great
    • Geography Skills How many continents did Alexander’s empire reach? three: Europe, Africa, and Asia Alexander the Great
    • Name current or recent figures who might also merit the title “the Great.” Why? Alexander the Great
    •  
    • The Spread of Greek Culture Get Ready to Read Section Overview This section describes the spread of Hellenistic culture in the wake of Alexander’s empire and the achievements of many great philosophers, writers, and scientists.
    • Get Ready to Read (cont.) Focusing on the Main Ideas The Spread of Greek Culture
      • Hellenistic cities became centers of learning and culture .
      • Epicurus and Zeno showed the world different ways to look at happiness.
      • Hellenistic scientists made major discoveries in math and astronomy.
    • Locating Places
      • Rhodes (ROHDZ)
      • Syracuse (SIHR·uh· KYOOS )
      Meeting People
      • Theocritus (thee·AH·kruh·tuhs)
      • Aristarchus ( AR ·uh·STAHR·kuhs)
      • Eratosthenes ( EHR ·uh·TAHS·thuh· NEEZ )
      • Euclid (YOO·kluhd)
      The Spread of Greek Culture Get Ready to Read (cont.)
    • Building Your Vocabulary
      • Epicureanism ( EH ·pih·kyu·REE·uh· NIH ·zuhm)
      • Stoicism (STOH·uh· SIH ·zuhm)
      • astronomer (uh·STRAH·nuh·muhr)
      • plane geometry (jee·AH·muh·tree)
      • solid geometry (jee·AH·muh·tree)
      The Spread of Greek Culture
      • Archimedes ( AHR ·kuh·MEE·deez)
      Meeting People Get Ready to Read (cont.)
    • Get Ready to Read (cont.) Reading Strategy Summarizing Information Create a diagram like the one on page 182 of your textbook, to show the major Greek contributions to Western civilization. The Spread of Greek Culture
    • Greek Culture Spreads
      • Philosophers, poets, scientists, and writers moved to the new Greek cities in southwest Asia, particularly Alexandria, during the Hellenistic Era .
      (page 183)
      • Hellenistic kings wanted to make their cities like those in Greece, so they hired Greek architects and sculptors.
      • The writers of the Hellenistic Era produced a large body of literature .
      The Spread of Greek Culture
    • Greek Culture Spreads (cont.)
      • Appolonius wrote the epic poem Argonautica , recounting the legend of Jason and his band of heroes .
      (page 183)
      • Theocritus wrote short poems about beauty and nature .
      • Athenians still created plays, but the plays of the Hellenistic Era were about love and relationships.
      The Spread of Greek Culture
    • Why were the cities of southwest Asia lands of opportunity for artisans, scientists, philosophers, and writers? The rulers of these cities wanted them to be like the cultural centers of Greece. To achieve that goal, the rulers needed the services of artisans, scientists, philosophers, and writers. The Spread of Greek Culture
    • Philosophy
      • Epicurus, the founder of Epicureanism, taught that happiness was the goal of life .
      (page 184)
      • Stoicism was developed by a Phoenician named Zeno .
      The Spread of Greek Culture
      • This philosophy believes that happiness comes from reason, not emotions .
    • How does our definition of epicurean today differ from the Hellenistic Era definition? Today the word means love of physical pleasure. In the Hellenistic Era, the word meant pleasure from spending time with friends and not worrying. The Spread of Greek Culture
    • Greek Science and Math
      • Astronomers study the stars, planets, and other heavenly bodies .
      (pages 185 – 186)
      • Aristarchus was an astronomer who claimed that the sun was at the center of the universe and that Earth revolved around the sun .
      • Eratosthenes was an astronomer who believed that the earth was round and measured Earth’s circumference .
      The Spread of Greek Culture
    • Greek Science and Math (cont.)
      • Euclid, one of the most famous Greek mathematicians, described plane geometry .
      • Plane geometry is the study of points, lines, angles, and surfaces .
      • Archimedes was the most famous scientist of the Hellenistic Era.
      The Spread of Greek Culture (pages 185 – 186)
    • Greek Science and Math (cont.)
      • He worked on solid geometry—the study of spheres and cylinders .
      • He also determined the value of pi , a number used to measure the area of circles .
      • Archimedes invented the catapult, among other weapons.
      The Spread of Greek Culture (pages 185 – 186)
    • What did other astronomers believe about Aristarchus’ idea that the sun was at the center of the universe? Other scientists thought Aristarchus was wrong. They believed Earth was the center of the universe. They thought the sun revolved around Earth. The Spread of Greek Culture
    • The Spread of Greek Culture Why did the city of Alexandria attract scholars? Alexandria had a large library and museum.
    • Describe the form of philosophy developed by Zeno. He developed Stoicism, which states happiness comes from following reason and duty is important. The Spread of Greek Culture
    • Compare and Contrast How were the comedies of the Hellenistic Era and those of Greece’s Golden Age similar and different? Similar: made people laugh; Different: focused on love and relationships, not criticizing people in power The Spread of Greek Culture
    • Analyze How would knowledge of geometry be helpful to the Greeks? It helped them to construct buildings and bridges, determine distances, and design machines. The Spread of Greek Culture
    • Identify What did the Epicureans believe about happiness? They believed that happiness is the goal of life. The Spread of Greek Culture
    • Discuss how the world might be different if the Hellenistic era had never occurred. The Spread of Greek Culture
    •  
    • Section 1: The Culture of Ancient Greece Focusing on the Main Ideas Greek Civilization
      • The Greeks believed that gods and goddesses controlled nature and shaped their lives.
      • Greek poetry and fables taught Greek values.
      • Greek drama still shapes entertainment today.
      • Greek art and architecture expressed Greek ideas of beauty and harmony.
    • Section 2: Greek Philosophy and History Focusing on the Main Ideas
      • Greek philosophers developed ideas that are still used today.
      • Greeks wrote the first real histories in Western civilization.
      Greek Civilization
    • Focusing on the Main Ideas Section 3: Alexander the Great
      • Philip II of Macedonia untied the Greek states.
      • Alexander the Great conquered the Persian Empire and spread Greek culture throughout southwest Asia .
      Greek Civilization
    • Focusing on the Main Ideas Section 4: The Spread of Greek Culture
      • Hellenistic cities became centers of learning and culture.
      • Epicurus and Zeno showed the world different ways to look at happiness.
      • Hellenistic scientists made major discoveries in math and astronomy.
      Greek Civilization
    •  
    • __ 1. a short tale that teaches a lesson __ 2. traditional story about gods and heroes __ 3. long poems told about heroic deeds Review Vocabulary A. epic B. fable C. myth C A Define Match the vocabulary word that completes each sentence. B Greek Civilization
    • Section 1 The Culture of Ancient Greece What did the Greeks believe about their gods and goddesses? They believed the gods controlled nature and shaped the lives of humans. Greek Civilization Review Main Ideas
    • What did Greek art and architecture express? The Greek ideas of beauty and harmony. Greek Civilization Section 1 The Culture of Ancient Greece Review Main Ideas
    • Section 2 Greek Philosophy and History How long did the ideas of Greek philosophers last? They are still used today. Greek Civilization Review Main Ideas
    • Section 2 Greek Philosophy and History Why are Greek historians so important? They wrote the first real histories in Western civilization. Greek Civilization Review Main Ideas
    • Section 3 Alexander the Great Which leader united the Greek states? Philip II of Macedonia Greek Civilization Review Main Ideas
    • What are two main accomplishments of Alexander the Great? He conquered the Persian Empire and spread Greek culture throughout southwest Asia. Greek Civilization Section 3 Alexander the Great Review Main Ideas
    • Section 4 The Spread of Greek Culture Why were Hellenistic cities important? They became centers of learning and culture. Greek Civilization Review Main Ideas
    • In what fields did Hellenistic scientists make advances? mathematics and astronomy Section 4 The Spread of Greek Culture Review Main Ideas Greek Civilization
    • Understanding Cause and Effect How did the Peloponnesian War weaken the Greek states? The war divided them and destroyed many farms and lives. Population declined, and many youths went to fight for Persia. Those who stayed fought among themselves. Greek Civilization
    • Analyze Why would knowing the circumference of Earth have been helpful to the Greeks? Possible answers: it would have been helpful in planning land and sea voyages, making maps, and other travel-related tasks. Greek Civilization
    • Compare How was religion in ancient Greece similar to religion in ancient Egypt? Possible answers: both groups believed in many gods and goddesses, life after death, and the use of rituals and priests to seek the gods’ favor. Greek Civilization
    • Analyze Why do you think the development of written history is important? Answers will vary. Greek Civilization
    •  
    • Explore online information about the topics introduced in this chapter. Click on the Connect button to launch your browser and go to the Journey Across Time Web site. Click on Chapter 5-Chapter Overviews to preview information about this chapter. When you finish exploring, exit the browser program to return to this presentation. If you experience difficulty connecting to the Web site, manually launch your Web browser and go to http://www.jat.glencoe.com
    • Map s Alexander’s Empire 323 B.C. Hellenistic World 241 B.C. Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides. Charts Greek Gods and Goddesses Greek Philosophers Greek Scientists and Their Contributions
    • Click the map to view an interactive version.
    • Click the map to view an interactive version.
    •  
    •  
    •  
    • The mountain range of Mount Olympus was declared Greece’s first national park in 1937. The area is home to about 1,700 plant species, dense forests, and various wildlife. The Culture of Ancient Greece
    • Aristotle’s father probably taught Aristotle about medicine. Aristotle’s father died when Aristotle was 10 years old. If his father had lived longer, Aristotle might have been a doctor. Greek Philosophy and History
    • Alexander the Great’s parents hired Aristotle to be his personal tutor. Aristotle trained Alexander in literature, science, medicine, and philosophy. Alexander the Great
    • Archimedes, who is regarded as one of the greatest mathematicians of all time, was probably related to Heron II, the king of Syracuse. Archimedes’ father, Phidias, was an astronomer. The Spread of Greek Culture
    • Using Context Clues Learn It! Reading Social Studies When you have trouble understanding the words in a passage, it is very difficult to get the author’s message. You many know part of a word’s definition or even how to pronounce it, but you still may not understand its full meaning. Look at the word inspiration in the paragraph on the next slide. Use the highlighted words to help you understand its meaning.
    • Look at phrases around the word to find clues to its meaning. In this paragraph, the word inspiration means something that influences or has an effect on someone. The key to Alexander’s courage may have been his childhood education. Alexander kept a copy of the Iliad under his pillow. Most likely his inspiration was Homer’s warrior-hero Achilles. In the end, Alexander’s reputation outstripped even Achilles’, and today he is called Alexander the Great. — from page 177 Reading Social Studies
    • What Does It Mean? Practice It! Read the paragraph about Aesop from Chapter 5 on page 153 of your textbook.
      • Write down all the words or phrases that help you fully understand the meaning of the word fable .
      Reading Social Studies
    • Greek Civilization Introduction
    • The Culture of Ancient Greece
    • Greek Philosophy and History
    • Alexander the Great
    • The Spread of Greek Culture
    • Demosthenes’ Warning
    • The Poetry of Theocritus
    • Science and Inventions The ancient Greeks believed that their gods had the power to cure them of illnesses and injuries. Greek temples were places of healing as well as places of worship. In temples, priests treated patients with herbs, prayed, and made sacrifices to the gods as part of the healing process. In the 400s B.C., the practice of medicine began to change. Hippocrates, a doctor and pioneer of medical science, began to separate medicine from religion. He stressed that it was important to examine the body and look at a patient’s symptoms to find out why someone was ill. He also taught that it was important to have a healthy diet. Hippocrates is well known for the oath, or pledge, that he asked his medical students to recite. His students had to promise never to harm and always to care for their patients. New doctors still take a version of the Hippocratic Oath when they graduate from medical school. Greek Medicine
    • Priests in the temples treated patients with herbs and offered prayers and sacrifice. 1. How were illnesses and injuries treated before Hippocrates? 2. How did Hippocrates change the way medicine was practiced in ancient Greece? He separated religion from medicine and stressed examining the body to diagnose illness. Connecting the Past
    • c. 750 B.C. Homer
    • Plato c 428 – 347 B.C. Plato and Aristotle Aristotle 384 – 322 B.C.
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