Chapter Introduction Section 1 The Early Greeks Section 2 Sparta and Athens Section 3 Persia Attacks the Greeks Section 4 The Age of Pericles Reading Review Chapter Assessment The Ancient Greeks Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.
Although Greece’s rocky soil made it difficult to farm, people could grow wheat, barley, olives, and grapes in the favorable climate.
(page 117) The Early Greeks
The Early Greeks How might a peninsula be affected by its surrounding water? Land might be limited, the climate might be positively or adversely affected, and occupations of the people might be ocean-related, such as sailing and fishing.
The military of the city-states was made of ordinary citizens, not nobles .
These citizens were called hoplites and fought each battle on foot instead of on horses.
The Early Greeks (pages 122 – 123)
How does the Greek definition of a citizen compare to the modern idea of who is a United States citizen? Ancient Greeks decided that only free, native-born, land-owning men could be citizens. In modern United States, men and women, native-born and naturalized people can be citizens, whether they own property or not. The Early Greeks
What made the Minoans wealthy? trading pottery and stone vases The Early Greeks
City-states were tiny independent countries, while cities are part of a country. How was a Greek city-state different from a city? The Early Greeks
Summarize What changes occurred in Greece during the Dark Age? Trade slowed, poverty took hold, people stopped farming, people stopped teaching writing and craftwork, and many Greeks moved elsewhere. The Early Greeks
Citizenship Skills Name three rights granted to Greek citizens that American citizens have today. Answers include voting, holding office, owning property, defending themselves in court. The Early Greeks
Link to Economics Why did the use of money help trade to grow? Money is small and easier to trade than bartered goods. The Early Greeks
Discuss the following statement: “ The geography of Greece influenced where people settled and what they did.” The Early Greeks
A democracy is a form of government in which all citizens share power .
Sparta and Athens (pages 125 – 126)
How are tyrants today different from those in ancient Greece? Today the word tyrant means a harsh, oppressive ruler. Today’s tyrants are not concerned with the common good of their country’s people. Sparta and Athens
He also created a new council to help the assembly carry out its duties .
Members of the council were chosen by lottery .
Sparta and Athens (pages 128 – 130)
Why did the people of Athens remain unhappy after Solon’s reforms? Solon refused to give away land of the wealthy nobles, so the farmers remained unhappy. Sparta and Athens
Who were the helots? The helots were captive workers in Sparta. Sparta and Athens
Most Greeks longed for rule by law with all citizens participating in government. Why did tyrants fall out of favor with the Greeks? Sparta and Athens
Evaluate Why did Athenians choose officials by lottery? Would there be drawbacks to this method? Explain. They thought elections might favor the rich. Possible answer : The most qualified people might not be picked. Sparta and Athens
Explain How did Greek nobles gain power? They seized power from kings during the Dark Age. Sparta and Athens
Analyze Why was Solon popular among some Athenian farmers and unpopular among others? He canceled farmers’ debts and freed those who had become enslaved, but he refused to give away wealthy nobles’ land. Sparta and Athens
Civics Link How did Athenian democracy keep one person from gaining too much power? A large council chosen by lottery kept power distributed among the people. Sparta and Athens
Descriptive Writing Imagine that you are a 28-year-old man living in Sparta in 700 B.C. Write a letter to your 6-year-old nephew telling him what to expect when he leaves home on his next birthday. Your letter should discuss early military training and the importance of serving Sparta. Sparta and Athens
How would a citizen of Sparta complete this sentence: “ I’m proud of my city-state because _______.” Sparta and Athens
Zoroastrianism, the religion of Persia, was founded by Zoroaster, who believed in one god, the freedom of humans, and the triumph of good.
The military of Persia consisted of full-time, paid soldiers known as Immortals.
Persia Attacks the Greeks (pages 132 – 133)
How did Cyrus’s compassion for his people help the Persian Empire grow? People are more likely to follow rulers who care about them. People often attempt to overthrow cruel or unfair rulers. Persia Attacks the Greeks
The Persians were weakened by war, and their rulers taxed the people and spent the money lavishly.
The sons of kings had little power, so they killed rulers to get power.
Persia Attacks the Greeks (pages 134 – 137)
Persia Attacks the Greeks How did modern marathon races get their name? Legend tells that the Athenians sent a messenger to Athens after their victory at the Battle of Marathon. The messenger ran nearly 25 miles to Athens. There he collapsed. His final word was “victory.” Today’s marathons are about 26 miles long.
Persia Attacks the Greeks Why was Cyrus considered a fair ruler? He treated new subjects well.
Persia Attacks the Greeks The Royal Road was a vast road that connected Persian cities. What was the Royal Road?
Persuasive Writing Imagine you are an adviser to Xerxes and are alarmed about his plan for revenge on Greece. Compose a letter to him outlining reasons why he should cancel his invasion of Greece. Answers will vary . Persia Attacks the Greeks
Why do historians consider the Greek defeat of the Persians a turning point in history? It led to the rise of Athenian power and to a period of great philosophy. Persia Attacks the Greeks
The Age of Pericles Reading Strategy Organizing Information Create a circle graph like the one on page 138 of your textbook. Show how many citizens, foreigners, and enslaved people lived in Athens in the 400s B.C.
He also supported artists, writers, architects, and philosophers .
Philosophers are people who ponder questions about life .
The Age of Pericles (pages 139 – 140)
Why wouldn’t a direct democracy work in the United States? More than 206 million adults would need to meet to cast a vote. This large number of people would make the meetings impossible. The Age of Pericles
The Spartan navy defeated the Athenian navy, which brought supplies to the Athenians.
Athens then surrendered.
The Age of Pericles (pages 144 – 146)
What was the effect of the Peloponnesian War on the city-states? Many people died, and others lost jobs. Farmers also had their land destroyed. The Greeks could not reunite again. The Age of Pericles
The Age of Pericles What caused the Peloponnesian War? expansion of Athenian power and Spartan jealousy
The Age of Pericles Citizens must obey rules, pay taxes, and defend the city. According to Pericles, what duties did Athenian citizens have?
Analyze What caused the lack of trust between Sparta and Athens. lack of understanding of their differing societies, and perceived Athenian aggression The Age of Pericles
Interpreting Visuals Examine the drawing of the Athenian home on page 142 of your textbook. What does it show about the role of women in Athens? Women performed most domestic chores and did not eat with men. The Age of Pericles
Civics Link How did the direct democracy of Athens differ from the democracy we have in the United States? Answers should reflect information from the text. The Age of Pericles
Expository Writing Describe the role of the Delian League in the creation of the Athenian empire. Athens gradually took over the Delian League and replaced it with its empire. The Age of Pericles
Summarize relations between Sparta and Athens. The Age of Pericles
__ 1. In a(n) ___, a few wealthy people hold power. __ 2. The Greek mainland is a(n) ___, a body of land with water on three sides. __ 3. In a(n) ___, people at mass meetings make decisions for the government. Review Vocabulary A. satrap B. agora C. democracy D. direct democracy E. oligarchy F. peninsula F D Define Match the vocabulary word that completes each sentence. E The Ancient Greeks
__ 4. A(n) ___, acted as tax collector, judge, chief of police, and army recruiter. __ 5. In a(n) ___, all citizens share in running the government. __ 6. Below the acropolis was an open area called an(n) ___. Review Vocabulary A. satrap B. agora C. democracy D. direct democracy E. oligarchy F. peninsula B Define Match the vocabulary word that completes each sentence. C The Ancient Greeks A
Section 1 The Early Greeks How did the geography of Greece influence where people settled and how they made a living? The rocky mountains caused people to settle by the seacoast and become fishers, sailors, and traders. The Ancient Greeks Review Main Ideas
How did the Greek colonies help industry to grow? They promoted trade, industry, and specialized goods. The Ancient Greeks Section 1 The Early Greeks Review Main Ideas
Section 2 Sparta and Athens Why were tyrants able to seize control from Greek nobles? They had the support of the common people, many of whom were hoplites. The Ancient Greeks Review Main Ideas
Describe the differences between Athens and Sparta. Sparta emphasized the military and strict living, while Athens focused on democracy and culture. The Ancient Greeks Section 2 Sparta and Athens Review Main Ideas
Section 3 Persia Attacks the Greeks What system did Darius use to unite his large empire under one government? He used divisions called satrapies with rulers responsible to him. The Ancient Greeks Review Main Ideas
Why did Sparta and Athens unite during the Persian Wars? They feared Persian conquest of Greece. The Ancient Greeks Section 3 Persia Attacks the Greeks Review Main Ideas
Section 4 The Age of Pericles How was democracy expanded during the Age of Pericles? Pericles involved more people in government and paid officeholders so poorer citizens could serve. The Ancient Greeks Review Main Ideas
The Ancient Greeks What was the result of the Peloponnesian War? Athens declined. Greece grew weaker, opening it to conquest. Section 4 The Age of Pericles Review Main Ideas
Cause and Effect How did the geography of Greece help to encourage trade? The Greek peninsula gave the Greeks easy access to sea routes all over the Mediterranean. The Ancient Greeks
Conclude Did the people of ancient Athens have a full democracy? Explain. Yes. All citizens voted and could take part in lawmaking. No. Women, foreigners, and enslaved people were excluded. The Ancient Greeks
Explain Do you think people would enjoy more freedom in an oligarchy or a tyranny? Explain. Possible answers : It would depend on the rulers. A tyrant might be fair and well-liked or harsh and disliked. An oligarchy involves more people in government, but rivalries might weaken it. Oligarchs might be more willing to let people suffer. The Ancient Greeks
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Map s Ancient Greece c. 750 B.C. Greek Colonies and Trade 750 – 550 B.C. Sparta and Athens c. 700 B.C. The Persian Empire 500 B.C. Persian Wars 499 – 479 B.C. The Peloponnesian War 431 – 404 B.C. Charts The Greek Alphabet Comparing Governments Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.
In early Greece, roads were bumpy dirt trails and of little use to travelers. Because of this, ships became very important. To be near ships, most Greek communities settled within 60 miles of the sea. The Early Greeks
Children in ancient Greece played many games we still play today, including backgammon, checkers, hockey, and chess. Sparta and Athens
After conquering Babylon in 539 B.C., Cyrus the Great wrote the Charter of Human Rights, which many historians call the first declaration of human rights. Persia Attacks the Greeks
Athens is named for its patron goddess, Athena. The Age of Pericles
Use What You Know Learn It! Reading Social Studies Unlock meaning by making a connection between what you read and what you already know. Your own experiences can help you understand words or ideas that are unfamiliar. Read the paragraph on the next slide. Make a connection between a Greek agora and a place that is familiar to you.
Below the acropolis was an open area called an agora (A ·guh·ruh). This space had two functions: it was both a market and a place where people could meet and debate issues. —from page 122
Do you know what an agora looks like? You know what a market looks like. Can you also visualize a place where people could meet? If so, then you have a good idea of what an agora might look like. Reading Social Studies
Making the Connection Practice It! Read the paragraph from Chapter 4 on page 115 of your textbook and then answer the questions below.
Do you have any family members or friends who are 20 years old? What would they say if they were required to serve in the army for 40 years?
Have you ever seen or tasted food that looks like “black broth”?
Focus on Everyday Life In ancient Athens, a woman’s place was in the home. Her two main responsibilities were caring for the household and raising children. The Greek writer Xenophon (ZEH ·nuh·fuhn) recorded a man’s explanation of women’s duties . Women’s Duties
The second floor of each home was the women’s quarters. An Athenian woman lived there with her children. She was expected to keep her children well and happy. She encouraged them to learn sports and play with toys, and taught them how to interact with friends and family members. Although boys left home at age seven to attend school, girls stayed with their mothers, learning how to care for a house and children. Women’s Duties Focus on Everyday Life
Connecting to the Past Possible answer : to keep them separate from men 1. Why do you think women and children lived on the second floor of the home? 2. Over what areas of life did an Athenian woman have authority? caring for the household and raising children
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