Chapter Introduction Section 1 The First Israelites Section 2 The Kingdom of Israel Section 3 The Growth of Judaism Reading Review Chapter Assessment The Ancient Israelites Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.
Get Ready to Read Section Overview This section discusses the early history of the ancient Israelites, including their relationship with God, their escape from slavery, and their conflicts with the Canaanites over land. The First Israelites
Get Ready to Read (cont.) Focusing on the Main Ideas The First Israelites
The Israelites believed in one God who set down moral laws for his people. They recorded their history in the Bible .
The Israelites had to fight the Canaanites to return to their promised land.
The Israelites built walled towns to protect themselves .
The Phoenicians were a group of Canaanites who developed an alphabet.
An alphabet is a group of letters that stands for sounds.
The First Israelites
Eventually, the Israelites won the hilly region of Canaan, and the Canaanites kept the coastal areas.
(pages 84 – 85)
How did the Phoenicians affect other cultures of the world? The Phoenicians passed on their alphabet to the Greeks and Romans. This alphabet is the basis for most Western alphabets of today. The First Israelites
Why was the religion of Israel unique in the ancient world? Unlike most other religions, it had only one God. The First Israelites
The Torah is the collection of laws which God gave to Moses on top of Mount Sinai. What is the Torah, and how did the Israelites obtain it? The First Israelites
Analyze What was the importance of the Phoenician alphabet? It made writing simpler and helped in keeping records. The First Israelites
Summarize What problems did the Israelites face when they returned to Canaan? The Israelites had to fight a number of wars to get back part of the lands of Canaan from the Canaanites who lived there. The First Israelites
Expository Writing Which one of the Ten commandments do you think is most important today? Write a short essay to explain your selection. Answers will vary. The First Israelites
Explain the most important contribution made by the Israelites. The Nile Valley
Get Ready to Read (cont.) Building Your Vocabulary
empire (EHM· PYR )
proverb (PRAH· VUHRB )
The Kingdom of Israel
Get Ready to Read (cont.) Reading Strategy Categorizing Information Complete a chart like the one on page 86 of your textbook, identifying characteristics of Israel and Judah. The Kingdom of Israel
The Chaldeans took the king and thousands of Jews to Babylon .
This period is known as the Babylonian Captivity.
The Kingdom of Israel (pages 90 – 92)
What message did the prophets bring to the Israelites? The prophets warned the Israelites that being faithful to God was more than simply going to temple to worship. It meant working for a just society and dealing fairly with other people. The Kingdom of Israel
Why was David anointed king while Saul was still in charge of the Israelites? Saul displeased God by disobeying some of God’s commands, so God chose another king. The Kingdom of Israel
Prophets were messengers who claimed to be instructed by God and who taught the Israelites how to live properly. Who were the prophets, and why were they important to the Israelites? The Kingdom of Israel
Summarize What happened to the Israelites after the death of Solomon? Fighting broke out among the Israelites, and they formed two separate kingdoms. The Kingdom of Israel
Describe Who were the Samaritans, and what did the people of Judah think of them? Assyrian settlers who settled around Samaria; the people of Judah looked down on them The Kingdom of Israel
Infer Why do you think the Assyrians, and later the Chaldeans, moved Jews away from Israel and Judah after those areas were conquered? The Chaldeans moved the Jews to decrease the chance for revolt. The Kingdom of Israel
Brainstorm : Brainstorm how the events described in this section influenced our lives today. The Kingdom of Israel
The book of Genesis tells how God punished people for their bad behavior.
The Growth of Judaism
The story of Noah is in the book of Genesis.
Genesis also explains why the world has different languages.
The book of Daniel reminds Jews that God will rescue them .
Jews, Christians, and Muslims share the idea that good will triumph over evil.
(pages 94 – 95)
How does the book of Genesis explain different languages of the world? Genesis tells that the people of Babel tried to build a tower to heaven. God disapproved of the tower and made all the people speak different languages and scattered them across the earth. The Growth of Judaism
Each year Jews recall the cleansing of the temple when they celebrate Hanukkah .
The Growth of Judaism (pages 95 – 96)
How did Jewish ideas spread at the time of Alexander the Great? Some Jews who learned the Greek language but were loyal to Judaism copied the Hebrew Bible in the Greek language. In this way, people who were not Jews could read about and understand Judaism. The Growth of Judaism
Today, food that is prepared according to Jewish law is called kosher .
Men wore tunics, caps or turbans, and sandals.
Women wore dresses and covered their heads with shawls.
The Growth of Judaism
Wealthy women wore shoes, makeup, and jewelry.
(pages 97 – 98)
How is kosher meat prepared? To be kosher, the animal is killed in a certain way. Then the meat is inspected, salted, and soaked. Jewish laws instruct Jews not to cook or eat milk products with the meat. The Growth of Judaism
In A.D. 1947 Palestine was divided, and a new Jewish nation called Israel was created in 1948.
For 2,000 years most Jews lived outside Palestine and faced persecution.
The Jews and the Romans (cont.)
They combined the teachings into books called commentaries. The Talmud is an important commentary dealing with many laws about daily life.
The Growth of Judaism (pages 100 – 102)
What was the difference between the Pharisees and the Sadducees? The Pharisees stressed oral traditions and were concerned with applying the Torah to daily life and the Jewish home and family. The Sadducees were concerned with the written law and commandments and how the Torah applied to priests in the Temple. The Growth of Judaism
The Growth of Judaism What was the Diaspora? The diaspora was scattered Jews living outside of their homeland in Judah.
What was education like within a Jewish family? Mothers taught young children. Fathers taught older boys religion and the father’s trade. Boys also learned the Torah from religious teachers. Mothers taught girls the basic skills of being good wives, mothers, and housekeepers. The Growth of Judaism
Summarize How did the Jews practice their religion during the exile in Babylon? The Jews worshiped on the Sabbath and met in synagogues to pray and discuss their religion and history. The Growth of Judaism
Identify Who were the Zealots, and why were they important? Jews who revolted and drove the Romans out of Jerusalem The Growth of Judaism
Draw Conclusions Do you think that Jewish beliefs and values would have spread so widely if the lands of Israel and Judah had not been conquered by other peoples? Explain. Answers will vary. The Growth of Judaism
Persuasive Writing Imagine you are living in Judaea during the Roman conquest. Write a letter to a friend describing how you might have felt about the Romans and what actions you would like to see taken to make Judaea free again. Letters will vary. The Growth of Judaism
Identify influences of the civilization of early Israel on life today. The Growth of Judaism
__ 1. Jewish house of worship __ 2. claims to be inspired by God __ 3. family group __ 4. holy day of worship and rest __ 5. forced absence __ 6. belief in one god __ 7. deliverer sent by God __ 8. agreement Review Vocabulary
B A Define Match the vocabulary words on the right with the definitions on the left. C The Ancient Israelites F D H E G
Section 1 The First Israelites Where did the Israelites record their history and religious beliefs? in the Hebrew Bible The Ancient Israelites Review Main Ideas
Why did the Israelites fight the Canaanites? They believed it was God’s will that they conquer the Canaanites and return to their Promised Land. The Ancient Israelites Section 1 The First Israelites Review Main Ideas
Why did the Israelites choose a king? to unite them against their enemies, the Philistines The Ancient Israelites Section 1 The First Israelites Review Main Ideas
Section 2 The Kingdom of Israel What happened when the Israelites were conquered? They were forced to leave Israel and Judah. The Ancient Israelites Review Main Ideas
Section 3 The Growth of Judaism How did Jewish ideas spread throughout the Mediterranean world? Some Jews of the Diaspora copied the Hebrew Bible into Greek, which helped others learn about Jewish ideas. The Ancient Israelites Review Main Ideas
How did Romans respond to Jewish rebellions? The Jewish rebellions were forcefully put down, and the Romans destroyed the temple in Jerusalem and exiled the Jews. The Ancient Israelites Section 3 The Growth of Judaism Review Main Ideas
Contrast How was the Jewish religion different from religions of other ancient cultures? The Jewish religion had one God, while other religions had many gods and goddesses. The Jews could not create images of their God. The Ten Commandments applied to everyone equally. The Ancient Israelites
Analyze Why do you think the Israelites felt so strongly about a Promised Land? The Jews believed they had received the Promised Land through a covenant with God. The Ancient Israelites
Compare and Contrast How were Saul and David similar, and how were they different? Both led the Israelites to victory against their enemies. Saul displeased God by disobeying him. He plotted to kill David and was eventually killed in battle. David defeated Goliath, drove the Philistines out of Israel, and built Jerusalem. The Ancient Israelites
Explain How did the Jewish religion survive during the exile of the Jews? The Jews worshiped on the Sabbath and met in synagogues. The Ancient Israelites
Describe What is celebrated on the Jewish holiday of Hanukkah? the Maccabees’ defeat of the Greeks and the reclaiming and cleansing of the temple in Jerusalem The Ancient Israelites
Explore online information about the topics introduced in this chapter. Click on the Connect button to launch your browser and go to the Journey Across Time Web site. Click on Chapter 3-Chapter Overviews to preview information about this chapter. When you finish exploring, exit the browser program to return to this presentation. If you experience difficulty connecting to the Web site, manually launch your Web browser and go to http://www.jat.glencoe.com
Map Ancient Israel Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides. Charts Alphabets Major Hebrew Prophets Major Jewish Holidays
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The peak of Mount Sinai, where —according to the Hebrew Bible—Moses received the Ten Commandments, can be reached by climbing 3,750 stone steps. The steps were created by the monks of St. Catherine’s Monastery . The First Israelites
Jerusalem has had different names throughout history. Before King David conquered Jerusalem, the city was called Jebus. King David renamed the city the City of David. Accounts of the Assyrians’ conquering of the city referred to Jerusalem as the City of Judah. The Kingdom of Israel
The Jewish Sabbath, or Shabbat, begins on Friday evening at sundown and ends at sunset Saturday evening. Jews commemorate the separation of Shabbat from the rest of the week with special ceremonies. The Growth of Judaism
Finding the Main Idea Learn It! Reading Social Studies Main ideas are the most important ideas in a paragraph, section, or chapter. Supporting details are facts or examples that explain the main idea. Read the paragraph from Section 1 on page 78 of your textbook and notice how the author explains the main idea. The main idea is identified for you. The supporting details are highlighted in color.
Main idea Through trade, the Phoenicians spread ideas and goods. One of their most important ideas was an alphabet, or a group of letters that stood for sounds. The letters could be used to spell out the words in their language. Supporting details Reading Social Studies — from page 85
Create a Graphic Organizer Practice It! Read the paragraph from Chapter 3 on page 79 of your textbook.
Draw a graphic organizer like the one shown on page 79 of your textbook.
Write the main ideas in a box and supporting details in circles around the box.
Young People In… Early Israelites placed a high value on education. Rabbis — Jewish religious teachers—taught their followers, “If you have knowledge, you have everything.” Unfortunately, only boys were allowed to go to school. Fathers taught their young sons the commandments. They also taught them about the meaning of Jewish traditions and holy feasts. At age five, boys went to a school that was connected with the synagogue. There, the hazan, or minister of the synagogue, taught them the Torah. Everything the students learned—from the alphabet to Jewish history—they learned from the Torah. Jewish laws decided the stages of students’ education. Different subjects were introduced at the ages, of 5, 10, and 13. Most Jewish boys finished their education at age 13. At that age, boys became adults. Education in Ancient Israel and Judah
Young People In… They believed that those who have knowledge have everything, meaning it gave great abilities and wisdom. 1. Why was education important to the ancient Israelites? 2. What was a father’s role in his son’s education? It was the father’s role to begin his son’s education, teaching the commandments and about Jewish religious traditions and holy feasts.
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