Jat Chapter 02

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Jat Chapter 02

  1. 2. Chapter Introduction Section 1 The Nile Valley Section 2 Egypt’s Old Kingdom Section 3 The Egyptian Empire Section 4 The Civilization of Kush Reading Review Chapter Assessment Ancient Egypt Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.
  2. 3. Chapter Objectives <ul><li>Describe how the Nile River influenced Egyptian civilization and the reasons a united government arose along its banks. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss government and religion during the Old Kingdom. </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze the accomplishments of the Middle and New Kingdoms. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the Nubian kingdom south of Egypt. </li></ul>Ancient Egypt
  3. 4. Ancient Egypt
  4. 6. Get Ready to Read Section Overview This section traces the emergence of the Egyptian civilization along the banks of the Nile River and the steps taken to create one united kingdom. The Nile Valley
  5. 7. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Focusing on the Main Ideas The Nile Valley <ul><li>The Egyptian civilization began in the fertile Nile River valley, where natural barriers discouraged invasions. </li></ul><ul><li>The Egyptians depended on the Nile’s floods to grow their crops. </li></ul><ul><li>Around 3100 B.C., Egypt’s two major kingdoms, Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt, were combined into one. </li></ul>
  6. 8. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Locating Places <ul><li>Egpyt (EE·jihpt) </li></ul><ul><li>Nile River (NYL) </li></ul><ul><li>Sahara (suh · HAR · uh) </li></ul>The Nile Valley Focusing on the Main Ideas (cont.) <ul><li>The Egyptian civilization began in the fertile Nile River valley, where natural barriers discouraged invasions. </li></ul>
  7. 9. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Meeting People The Nile Valley <ul><li>Narmer (NAR ·m uhr) </li></ul>Building Your Vocabulary <ul><li>cataract (KA·tuh· RAKT ) </li></ul><ul><li>hieroglyphics ( HY ·ruh·GLIH·fihks) </li></ul><ul><li>dynasty (DY·nuh·stee) </li></ul><ul><li>delta (DEHL·tuh) </li></ul><ul><li>papyrus (puh·PY·ruhs) </li></ul>
  8. 10. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Reading Strategy Organizing Information Create a diagram like the one on page 38 of your textbook to describe Egyptians’ irrigation systems. The Nile Valley
  9. 11. Settling the Nile <ul><li>The earliest Egyptians moved into the Nile River valley from less fertile areas. </li></ul><ul><li>The Nile River is the longest river in the world, about 4,000 miles long. </li></ul>(pages 39 – 40) <ul><li>They farmed and built villages along the riverbanks. </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptians used the Nile River for many things. </li></ul>The Nile Valley
  10. 12. Settling the Nile (cont.) <ul><li>They used river water to drink, clean, farm, and cook. </li></ul><ul><li>The Nile valley is a narrow, green valley in Egypt. </li></ul><ul><li>They ate fish from the river. </li></ul><ul><li>The northern end of the valley is a fertile area of land called a delta. </li></ul>The Nile Valley (pages 39 – 40)
  11. 13. Settling the Nile (cont.) <ul><li>The Sahara, the largest desert in the world, lies west of the Nile Valley. </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt has several natural borders to protect it. </li></ul><ul><li>The Eastern Desert lies to the east of the valley. </li></ul><ul><li>The deserts, the dangerous rapids of the Nile, and marshes in the delta kept enemies from entering Egypt. </li></ul>The Nile Valley (pages 39 – 40)
  12. 14. Settling the Nile (cont.) <ul><li>The Mediterranean Sea to the north and the Red Sea to the east allowed trade with other peoples. </li></ul><ul><li>Within Egypt, people traveled on the Nile to trade with each other. </li></ul>The Nile Valley (pages 39 – 40)
  13. 15. How did natural protection help Egypt? Enemies had difficulty attacking the country. Keeping people safe helped the Egyptian population grow. The Nile Valley
  14. 16. The River People <ul><li>Floods along the Nile were predictable and were not devastating . </li></ul>(pages 41 – 42) <ul><li>Each spring the Nile would flood and leave a dark, fertile mud along its banks. </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers learned about the waters of the Nile. </li></ul><ul><li>They used the soil left behind by the floods to grow wheat, barley, and flax seeds. </li></ul>The Nile Valley
  15. 17. The River People (cont.) <ul><li>Farmers learned about irrigation . </li></ul><ul><li>They dug basins to trap floodwaters, dug canals to channel water to the fields, and built dikes to strengthen the basin walls. </li></ul><ul><li>Papyrus, a reed plant that grew along the Nile, was used to make baskets, sandals, and river rafts. </li></ul><ul><li>Later, it was used to make paper. </li></ul>The Nile Valley (pages 41 – 42)
  16. 18. The River People (cont.) <ul><li>The Egyptian system of writing was called hieroglyphics . </li></ul><ul><li>This system consisted of thousands of picture symbols. </li></ul><ul><li>Some Egyptian men learned to read and write. </li></ul><ul><li>They attended schools to learn to be scribes. </li></ul>The Nile Valley (pages 41 – 42)
  17. 19. Why might scribes be important to Egyptian civilization? Rulers and other people in power, such as priests and priestesses, needed scribes for record keeping. Few people could go to school to be scribes, so there were not many people the rulers could hire to work as scribes. The Nile Valley
  18. 20. A United Egypt <ul><li>Because the people in Egypt had surplus food, some people became artisans instead of farmers . </li></ul>(pages 43 – 44) <ul><li>Artisans wove cloth, made pottery, carved statues, and crafted weapons and tools. </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptians traded with each other and with others in Mesopotamia. </li></ul><ul><li>A few strong chiefs united groups of villages into kingdoms. </li></ul>The Nile Valley
  19. 21. A United Egypt (cont.) <ul><li>Eventually, the strongest kingdoms overpowered the weaker ones . </li></ul><ul><li>In this way, two large kingdoms emerged—Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt. </li></ul><ul><li>Narmer united the two kingdoms. </li></ul><ul><li>He ruled from the city of Memphis, and his kingdom lasted long after his death. </li></ul>The Nile Valley (pages 43 – 44)
  20. 22. A United Egypt (cont.) <ul><li>Narmer’s descendants passed the ruling power on from father to son to grandson, forming a dynasty . </li></ul><ul><li>Ancient Egypt was ruled by 31 dynasties that historians have grouped into three time periods — Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom, and New Kingdom. </li></ul>The Nile Valley (pages 43 – 44)
  21. 23. In what ways was ancient Egypt like Mesopotamia? Both had access to powerful rivers, economies based on farming and trade, government to help the people, artisans to create products, and technological advances. The Nile Valley
  22. 24. Early Egyptian Life <ul><li>Ancient Egypt had social classes. </li></ul>(pages 45 – 46) <ul><li>The pharaoh was the highest power. </li></ul><ul><li>The upper class consisted of nobles, priests, and government officials. </li></ul><ul><li>The middle class included merchants, artisans, shopkeepers, and scribes. </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers were the largest group of people and were in a lower class than the middle class. </li></ul>The Nile Valley
  23. 25. Early Egyptian Life (cont.) <ul><li>Unskilled workers were the lowest class of people in ancient Egypt. </li></ul>The Nile Valley (pages 45 – 46)
  24. 26. Early Egyptian Life (cont.) <ul><li>Although men were the heads of households, women had more rights in Egypt than in other ancient civilizations. </li></ul><ul><li>They could own and pass on property, buy and sell goods, make wills, and obtain divorces. </li></ul>The Nile Valley (pages 45 – 46)
  25. 27. Early Egyptian Life (cont.) <ul><li>Few children went to school in ancient Egypt. </li></ul><ul><li>Children had time to play games and had toys. </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptian girls learned to sew, cook, and run a household. </li></ul><ul><li>Boys learned farming or a skilled trade. </li></ul>The Nile Valley (pages 45 – 46)
  26. 28. How are U.S. children today like children of ancient Egypt? How are they different? Both can play with toys and games. However, all children are required by law to go to school in the United States. In ancient Egypt, few children went to school. Also, U.S. girls today can learn farming or a trade skill, and boys can learn to sew and cook. The Nile Valley
  27. 29. What is papyrus and how did the Egyptians use it? It is a reed plant that was used to make baskets, sandals, river rafts, and paper. The Nile Valley
  28. 30. Women could own and pass on property, buy and sell goods, make wills, obtain divorces, and take part in religious ceremonies. What rights did women have in ancient Egypt? The Nile Valley
  29. 31. Geography Skills How did the geography of the Nile River valley lead to the growth of a civilization there? The Nile River valley had natural barriers for protection, enriched soil for farming, and the river and seas for trade. The Nile Valley
  30. 32. Describe Describe the Egyptian writing system. Picture symbols, called hieroglyphics, stood for objects, ideas, and sounds. The Nile Valley
  31. 33. Analyze What was the significance of Narmer’s double crown? It symbolized the unity of Upper and Lower Egypt. The Nile Valley
  32. 34. Explain what the “gift of the Nile” means. The Nile Valley
  33. 36. Egypt’s Old Kingdom Get Ready to Read Section Overview This section discusses government, religion, and ways of life during the Old Kingdom.
  34. 37. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Focusing on the Main Ideas Egypt’s Old Kingdom <ul><li>Egypt was ruled by all-powerful pharaohs . </li></ul><ul><li>The Egyptians believed in many gods and goddesses and in life after death for the pharaohs . </li></ul><ul><li>The Egyptians of the Old Kingdom built huge stone pyramids as tombs for their pharaohs . </li></ul>
  35. 38. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Locating Places <ul><li>Giza (GEE·zuh) </li></ul><ul><li>King Khufu (KOO·foo) </li></ul>Meeting People Egypt’s Old Kingdom
  36. 39. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Building Your Vocabulary <ul><li>pharaoh (FEHR·oh) </li></ul><ul><li>deity (DEE·uh·tee) </li></ul><ul><li>embalming (ihm·BAHM·ihng) </li></ul><ul><li>mummy (MUH·mee) </li></ul><ul><li>pyramid (PIHR·uh· MIHD ) </li></ul>Egypt’s Old Kingdom
  37. 40. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Reading Strategy Organizing Information Use a graphic organizer like the one on page 47 of your textbook to identify the different beliefs in Egypt’s religion. Egypt’s Old Kingdom
  38. 41. Old Kingdom Rulers <ul><li>Pharaohs were all-powerful Egyptian kings who guided every activity in Egypt . </li></ul><ul><li>Pharaohs appointed officials to carry out their commands . </li></ul><ul><li>The Old Kingdom lasted from about 2600 B.C. until about 2300 B.C. </li></ul>(page 48) <ul><li>Egyptian people served pharaohs because they believed the kingdom depended on one strong leader . </li></ul>Egypt’s Old Kingdom
  39. 42. Old Kingdom Rulers (cont.) <ul><li>The thought pharaohs were gods on earth . </li></ul><ul><li>They also believed the pharaohs were the sons of Re, the sun god . </li></ul>(page 48) Egypt’s Old Kingdom
  40. 43. How did people show respect to pharaohs? People bowed down or touched their heads to the ground and played music when the pharaoh appeared in public. Egypt’s Old Kingdom
  41. 44. Egypt’s Religion <ul><li>These deities controlled every human activity and all natural forces . </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptians believed in many gods and goddesses, or deities. </li></ul>(pages 49 – 50) <ul><li>The major god was Re, the sun god. </li></ul><ul><li>Another major god was Hapi, who ruled the Nile River. </li></ul>Egypt’s Old Kingdom <ul><li>Isis was the most important goddess. </li></ul>
  42. 45. Egypt’s Religion (cont.) <ul><li>The Book of the Dead contained a collections of spells that Egyptians believed they needed to enter the afterlife . </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptians believed in life after death. </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptians believed only pharaohs and a few elite people could have life after death. </li></ul>Egypt’s Old Kingdom (pages 49 – 50)
  43. 46. Egypt’s Religion (cont.) <ul><li>To protect the pharaoh’s body after death, Egyptians developed an embalming process . </li></ul><ul><li>During the process, the body’s organs were removed. </li></ul>Egypt’s Old Kingdom (pages 49 – 50) <ul><li>The body was treated with spices and oils and then wrapped with strips of linen. </li></ul>
  44. 47. Egypt’s Religion (cont.) Egypt’s Old Kingdom <ul><li>The wrapped body was called a mummy. </li></ul>(pages 49 – 50) <ul><li>They also set broken bones and stitched cuts. </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptian doctors were the first doctors to specialize in different areas of medicine, and they wrote the world’s first medical book. </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptian doctors used herbs and drugs to treat illnesses . </li></ul>
  45. 48. Why was it important for pharaohs to reach the afterlife? Egyptians believed pharaohs would continue to care for Egypt once they reached the afterlife. Egypt’s Old Kingdom
  46. 49. The Pyramids <ul><li>Egyptians built pyramids to protect the bodies of dead pharaohs . </li></ul>(pages 50 – 52) <ul><li>The pyramids also contained items the pharaohs might need in the afterlife . </li></ul><ul><li>A pyramid took thousands of people and years of labor to build . </li></ul>Egypt’s Old Kingdom
  47. 50. The Pyramids (cont.) <ul><li>Egyptians used astronomy and mathematics to create the pyramids . </li></ul>Egypt’s Old Kingdom <ul><li>To build a pyramid, Egyptians first selected a site . </li></ul><ul><li>Then, they searched for stone . </li></ul><ul><li>The artisans cut the stone into blocks, and other workers tied the stone to sleds and pulled them to the Nile . </li></ul>(pages 50 – 52)
  48. 51. The Pyramids (cont.) Egypt’s Old Kingdom (pages 50 – 52)
  49. 52. The Pyramids (cont.) <ul><li>At the river, workers loaded the stones onto barges and floated them to the site . </li></ul><ul><li>There, the blocks were unloaded and dragged or pushed up ramps . </li></ul><ul><li>While studying the skies to create pyramids, Egyptians created the 365-day calendar that became the basis for our calendar today . </li></ul>Egypt’s Old Kingdom (pages 50 – 52)
  50. 53. The Pyramids (cont.) <ul><li>The Great Pyramid is the largest pyramid in Egypt . </li></ul><ul><li>It was built for King Khufu and is located near the city of Cairo . </li></ul>Egypt’s Old Kingdom (pages 50 – 52)
  51. 54. What mathematical advances did the Egyptians make while working on the pyramids? They invented the base-10 number system and created fractions. Egypt’s Old Kingdom
  52. 55. How was stone for a pyramid transported to the building site? Cut blocks were placed on a sled and dragged over a path of logs to the Nile, then floated on a barge to the building site. Egypt’s Old Kingdom
  53. 56. They learned the use of herbs and drugs to treat illnesses, and how to sew up cuts and set broken bones. What did Egyptians learn from embalming bodies? Egypt’s Old Kingdom
  54. 57. Math/Science Link How did the building of the pyramids lead to advances in science and mathematics? The Egyptians used astronomy to find true north. They developed the 12-month calendar and a number system based on 10. Egypt’s Old Kingdom
  55. 58. Compare and Contrast How did the Egyptians’ religious beliefs compare to those of the Mesopotamians? Both believed in many gods and goddesses. Mesopotamians took a gloomy view of the afterlife; Egyptians took a hopeful view. Egypt’s Old Kingdom
  56. 59. Persuasive Writing Suppose you are an Egyptian pharaoh who wants a pyramid built to house your tomb. Write a letter to the farmers and workers in your kingdom explaining why it is their duty to build the pyramid for you. Answers will vary. Egypt’s Old Kingdom
  57. 60. Name some of the achievements made during the Old Kingdom. Egypt’s Old Kingdom
  58. 62. The Egyptian Empire Get Ready to Read Section Overview This section discusses the cultural advances and territorial expansion that occurred during the Middle and New Kingdoms.
  59. 63. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Focusing on the Main Ideas The Egyptian Empire <ul><li>The Middle Kingdom was a golden age of peace, prosperity, and advances in the arts and architecture . </li></ul><ul><li>During the New Kingdom, Egypt acquired new territory and reached the height of its power. </li></ul>
  60. 64. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Focusing on the Main Ideas (cont.) The Egyptian Empire <ul><li>Akhenaton tried to change Egypt’s religion, while Tutankhamen is famous for the treasures found in his tomb . </li></ul><ul><li>Under Ramses II, Egypt regained territory and built great temples, but the empire fell by 1150 B.C. </li></ul>
  61. 65. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Locating Places <ul><li>Thebes (THEEBZ) </li></ul>Meeting People <ul><li>Ahmose (AHM· OHS ) </li></ul><ul><li>Hatshepsut (hat·SHEHP·soot) </li></ul><ul><li>Thutmose III (thoot·MOH·suh) </li></ul><ul><li>Akhenaton ( AHK ·NAH·tuhn) </li></ul>The Egyptian Empire
  62. 66. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Meeting People <ul><li>Tutankhamen ( TOO ·tang·KAH·muhn) </li></ul><ul><li>Ramses II (RAM· SEEZ ) </li></ul>Building Your Vocabulary <ul><li>tribute (TRIH·byoot) </li></ul><ul><li>incense (IHN· SEHNS ) </li></ul>The Egyptian Empire
  63. 67. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Reading Strategy Categorizing Information Create a diagram like the one on page 59 of your textbook to show the major accomplishments of Ramses II. The Egyptian Empire
  64. 68. The Middle Kingdom <ul><li>Pharaohs lost control of Egypt in about 2300 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>At that time, a new dynasty of pharaohs created a capital at Thebes. </li></ul><ul><li>This began the Middle Kingdom, a time of stability, prosperity, and achievement. </li></ul>(pages 60 – 61) <ul><li>Egypt took control of other lands and forced conquered people to send tribute, or forced payments. </li></ul>The Egyptian Empire
  65. 69. <ul><li>In this way, Egypt increased its riches. </li></ul>The Middle Kingdom (cont.) <ul><li>During the Middle Kingdom, the arts, literature, and architecture blossomed. </li></ul><ul><li>The Middle Kingdom ended when the Hyksos attacked and conquered Egypt. </li></ul><ul><li>The Hyksos ruled until around 1500 B.C., when the Egyptian prince Ahmose led a revolt to drive the Hyksos out of Egypt. </li></ul>The Egyptian Empire (pages 60 – 61)
  66. 70. The Middle Kingdom (cont.) <ul><li>This artwork with gold inlay from the Middle Kingdom period shows a funeral boat. </li></ul>The Egyptian Empire (pages 60 – 61)
  67. 71. Why do you think arts, literature, and architecture flourished during the Middle Kingdom period? It was a period of political stability and economic prosperity. The Egyptian Empire
  68. 72. The New Kingdom <ul><li>Hatshepsut was one of the few women to rule Egypt. </li></ul>(pages 61 – 62) <ul><li>Trade grew during Hatsheput’s reign. </li></ul><ul><li>Traders exchanged beads, tools, and weapons for ivory, wood, leopard skins, and incense. </li></ul><ul><li>Trade made Egypt wealthier. </li></ul><ul><li>During the New Kingdom period, Egypt grew richer and more powerful. </li></ul>The Egyptian Empire
  69. 73. The New Kingdom (cont.) <ul><li>Thutmose conquered more lands, and Egypt grew richer from tributes. </li></ul><ul><li>Thutmose III became pharaoh after Hatshepsut’s death. </li></ul><ul><li>Slavery became common in Thutmose’s reign. </li></ul><ul><li>Slaves had some rights. </li></ul><ul><li>They could own land, marry, and eventually obtain freedom. </li></ul>The Egyptian Empire (pages 61 – 62)
  70. 74. How was Hatshepsut unlike other pharaohs? She focused on trade instead of military conquests. The Egyptian Empire
  71. 75. The Legacies of Two Pharaohs <ul><li>Amenhotep felt priests were gaining too much power. </li></ul><ul><li>Amenhotep IV came to power in 1370 B.C. </li></ul>(pages 64 – 65) <ul><li>He introduced a new religion with only one god. </li></ul><ul><li>Priests who did not follow the new religion were removed from power. </li></ul>The Egyptian Empire
  72. 76. <ul><li>He did not act when the Hittites attacked Egypt. </li></ul><ul><li>Amenhotep became so devoted to his new religion that he neglected his other duties. </li></ul><ul><li>As a result, Egypt’s empire greatly diminished. </li></ul>The Legacies of Two Pharaohs (cont.) <ul><li>Most Egyptians refused to accept the new religion. </li></ul>The Egyptian Empire (pages 64 – 65)
  73. 77. <ul><li>In A.D. 1922, a British archaeologist found King Tut’s grave. </li></ul><ul><li>He ruled for only nine years before his death. </li></ul>The Legacies of Two Pharaohs (cont.) <ul><li>Tutankhamen, now called King Tut, was a boy ruler who took power after Akhenaton died. </li></ul>The Egyptian Empire (pages 64 – 65)
  74. 78. What happened as a result of the removal of the priests? The priests were experienced in ruling Egypt. When Amenhotep neglected his duties, the priests were no longer available to make important decisions. The Egyptian Empire
  75. 79. <ul><li>Temples were used for services. </li></ul><ul><li>During Ramses’s rule, many temples were built throughout Egypt. </li></ul>(pages 65 – 67) The End of the New Kingdom <ul><li>Ramses II was one of the most effective pharaohs of the New Kingdom. </li></ul><ul><li>Most Egyptians prayed at home because they believed the temples were houses for the gods and goddesses. </li></ul>The Egyptian Empire
  76. 80. <ul><li>Beginning in the 900s B.C ., Egypt was ruled by the Libyans, then the people of Kush, and finally the Assyrians. </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt was attacked by neighboring groups and eventually controlled only the Nile delta. </li></ul>The End of the New Kingdom (cont.) <ul><li>After Ramses’s rule, Egyptian rule began to decline. </li></ul>The Egyptian Empire (pages 65 – 67)
  77. 81. In addition to religious purposes, what other purpose did the temples serve? The temples also served as banks. People stored valuable items in the temples, such as jewelry and oils. The Egyptian Empire
  78. 82. The Egyptian Empire What improvements did the Middle Kingdom rulers make? They added more waterways and dams for irrigation, increased the amount of land used for farming, built a canal between the Nile River and Red Sea, and improved art and architecture.
  79. 83. What purposes did temples serve in Egypt? Temple were houses for gods and goddesses, places for priests to perform rituals, banks, and warehouses. The Egyptian Empire
  80. 84. Evaluate What was unusual about the reign of Hatshepsut? She was the first woman to rule Egypt in her own right. The Egyptian Empire
  81. 85. Analyze How did Akhenaton upset the traditional order? He stopped worship of old gods in favor of one god. The Egyptian Empire
  82. 86. Compare and Contrast Describe the similarities and differences between the rule of Hatshepsut and Ramses II? Similarities: built many temples; Differences: Hatshepsut increased Egypt’s wealth through trade; Ramses II waged war to expand the empire. The Egyptian Empire
  83. 87. Create a list of Egyptian achievements during the Middle and New Kingdoms. The Egyptian Empire
  84. 89. The Civilization of Kush Get Ready to Read Section Overview This section traces how the Nubians built the civilization of Kush, which eventually took control of Egypt.
  85. 90. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Focusing on the Main Ideas The Civilization of Kush <ul><li>To the south of Egypt, the Nubians settled in farming villages and became strong warriors . </li></ul><ul><li>The people of Kush devoted themselves to ironworking and grew wealthy from trade . </li></ul>
  86. 91. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Locating Places <ul><li>Nubia (NOO·bee·uh) </li></ul><ul><li>Kush (KUHSH) </li></ul><ul><li>Kerma (Kar·muh) </li></ul><ul><li>Napata (NA·puh·tuh) </li></ul><ul><li>Meroë (MEHR·oh·ee) </li></ul>The Civilization of Kush
  87. 92. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Meeting People <ul><li>Kashta (KAHSH·tuh) </li></ul><ul><li>Piye (PY) </li></ul>Building Your Vocabulary <ul><li>savanna (suh·VA·nuh) </li></ul>The Civilization of Kush
  88. 93. Get Ready to Read (cont.) Reading Strategy Compare and Contrast Use a Venn diagram like the one on page 68 of your textbook, to show the similarities and differences between Napata and Meroë. The Civilization of Kush
  89. 94. Nubia <ul><li>The region of Nubia, later known as Kush, was located south of Egypt on the Nile River . </li></ul>(pages 69 – 70) <ul><li>The first people to arrive in Nubia were cattle herders, who grazed their herds on the savanna . </li></ul><ul><li>A savanna is a grassy plain . </li></ul><ul><li>Later, farmers settled in villages in Nubia . </li></ul>The Civilization of Kush
  90. 95. Nubia (cont.) <ul><li>More powerful Nubian villages took control of weaker ones, and the kingdom of Kerma was created . </li></ul><ul><li>People of Kerma traded with the Egyptians, and Kerma became wealthy . </li></ul><ul><li>The kings of Kerma were buried in tombs like the Egyptian pharaohs . </li></ul>The Civilization of Kush (pages 69 – 70)
  91. 96. Nubia (cont.) <ul><li>Egypt invaded Kerma, and after 50 years of war, Kerma was defeated . </li></ul><ul><li>During Egyptian rule, the people of Kerma adopted many of the Egyptian ways . </li></ul>The Civilization of Kush (pages 69 – 70)
  92. 97. Before the invasion by Egypt, how did the people of Kerma help the Egyptians? The people of Kerma traded with the Egyptians and served as warriors in the Egyptian armies. The Civilization of Kush
  93. 98. The Rise of Kush <ul><li>Nubians broke away from Egypt and formed their own kingdom called Kush . </li></ul>(pages 70 – 72) <ul><li>The Kushite kings ruled from the city of Napata, which was located along the upper Nile . </li></ul><ul><li>This location helped the Kush people become important traders, and Kush grew wealthy . </li></ul>The Civilization of Kush
  94. 99. The Rise of Kush (cont.) <ul><li>A king named Kashta and his son, Piye conquered Egypt in 728 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>The Assyrians later invaded Egypt and forced the Kushites out . </li></ul><ul><li>The Kushites learned iron working from the Assyrians . </li></ul><ul><li>The Kushites were the first Africans to become iron workers. </li></ul>The Civilization of Kush (pages 70 – 72)
  95. 100. The Rise of Kush (cont.) <ul><li>Kush moved the ruling city south to the city of Meroë, farther away from the Assyrians . </li></ul><ul><li>Monroë became an important center of trade and iron working . </li></ul><ul><li>Kushite kings rebuilt Meroë to look like Egypt, with pyramids and temples. </li></ul>The Civilization of Kush (pages 70 – 72)
  96. 101. The Rise of Kush (cont.) <ul><li>Axum invaded Meroë and burned it to the ground . </li></ul><ul><li>Kush eventually declined in power, and the kingdom of Axum rose up. </li></ul>The Civilization of Kush (pages 70 – 72)
  97. 102. How did iron working skills help the Kushites? They could make farming tools with iron. These superior tools helped them grow more crops. They also could make iron spears and swords. Traders also traded iron to other peoples. The Civilization of Kush
  98. 103. The Civilization of Kush Who were the Nubians? The Nubians were cattle herders in the savannas and founders of Kerma.
  99. 104. The Civilization of Kush What were the Kushites’ most important economic activities? The Kushites’ most important economic activities were trade and ironworking.
  100. 105. Geography Skills Why was Napata’s location advantageous? It was located at a point where trade caravans crossed the Nile. The Civilization of Kush
  101. 106. Analyze How did the Kushite kings demonstrate their admiration for Egyptian culture? They built similar monuments, temples, and pyramids. The Civilization of Kush
  102. 107. Compare Describe the similarities between Kush and Egypt? Possible answers: Kush modeled architecture on Egypt; both profited from trade along the Nile. The Civilization of Kush
  103. 108. Discuss how geography linked Kush and Egypt. The Civilization of Kush
  104. 110. Section 1: The Nile Valley Focusing on the Main Ideas Ancient Egypt <ul><li>By 5000 B.C., Egyptian civilization arose in the fertile Nile River valley, where natural barriers discouraged invasions. </li></ul><ul><li>The Egyptians depended on the Nile’s floods to grow their crops. </li></ul><ul><li>Around 3100 B.C., Egypt’s two major kingdoms, Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt, were combined into one. </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptian society was divided into social groups based on wealth and power. </li></ul>
  105. 111. Section 2: Egypt’s Old Kingdom <ul><li>Egypt was ruled by all-powerful pharaohs. </li></ul><ul><li>The Egyptians believed in many gods and goddesses and in life after death for the pharaohs. </li></ul><ul><li>The Egyptians of the Old Kingdom built huge stone pyramids as tombs for their pharaohs. </li></ul>Focusing on the Main Ideas Ancient Egypt
  106. 112. <ul><li>The Middle Kingdom was a golden age of peace, prosperity, and advances in the arts and architecture. </li></ul><ul><li>During the New Kingdom, Egypt acquired new territory and reached the height of its power. </li></ul>Section 3: The Egyptian Empire Focusing on the Main Ideas Ancient Egypt
  107. 113. Section 3: The Egyptian Empire <ul><li>Akhenaton tried to change Egypt’s religion, while Tutankhamen is famous for the treasures found in his tomb. </li></ul><ul><li>Under Ramses II, Egypt regained territory and built great temples, but the empire fell by 1150 B.C. </li></ul>Focusing on the Main Ideas Ancient Egypt
  108. 114. Section 4: The Civilization of Kush <ul><li>To the south of Egypt, the Nubians settled in farming villages and became strong warriors. </li></ul><ul><li>The people of Kush devoted themselves to ironworking and grew wealthy from trade. </li></ul>Focusing on the Main Ideas Ancient Egypt
  109. 116. __ 1. area of fertile soil at the end of a river __ 2. reed plant used to make baskets, rafts, and paper __ 3. grassy plain __ 4. rapids __ 5. Egyptian writing system __ 6. forced payments __ 7. title for Egyptian leaders Review Vocabulary <ul><li>A. savanna </li></ul><ul><li>B. tribute </li></ul><ul><li>C. cataract </li></ul><ul><li>D. delta </li></ul><ul><li>hieroglyphics </li></ul><ul><li>pharaoh </li></ul><ul><li>papyrus </li></ul>G A Define Match the vocabulary word that completes each sentence. D B C E F Ancient Egypt
  110. 117. Section 1 The Nile Valley What natural barriers protected Egypt from invasion? deserts, cataracts in the Nile, and delta marshes Review Main Ideas Ancient Egypt
  111. 118. What factors divided Egyptians into social groups? wealth and power Section 1 The Nile Valley Review Main Ideas Ancient Egypt
  112. 119. Section 2 Egypt’s Old Kingdom What were the Egyptians’ religious beliefs? They believed in many gods and goddesses and in an afterlife. Review Main Ideas Ancient Egypt
  113. 120. Where did Egyptians of the Old Kingdom bury their pharaohs? They buried pharaohs in large tombs, often in pyramids. Section 2 Egypt’s Old Kingdom Review Main Ideas Ancient Egypt
  114. 121. Section 3 The Egyptian Empire Why was the Middle Kingdom called a golden age? It was a time of prosperity, the empire was strong, and advances were made in the arts and architecture. Review Main Ideas Ancient Egypt
  115. 122. Why are Akhenaton and Tutankhamen well-known? Akhenaton tried to change Egypt’s religion. Tutankhamen’s tomb was found with many treasures. Section 3 The Egyptian Empire Review Main Ideas Ancient Egypt
  116. 123. Section 4 The Civilization of Kush Where did the Nubians live? The Nubians lived on the Nile in present-day Sudan. Review Main Ideas Ancient Egypt
  117. 124. What made the Kushites wealthy? Trade and iron gave them superior weapons and better farming tools. Section 4 The Civilization of Kush Review Main Ideas Ancient Egypt
  118. 125. Describe Identify the four social groups in ancient Egypt, and explain who belonged to each group. Top : pharaoh and royal family; Upper class : priests, army commanders, and nobles; Middle class : traders, artisans, shopkeepers, and other skilled workers; Lower class : unskilled workers and farmers. Ancient Egypt
  119. 126. Synthesize How do you think religious leaders reacted to Akhenaton’s changes? Religious leaders probably resisted because Akhenaton’s changes would result their loss of power and would challenge their belief systems. Ancient Egypt
  120. 127. Analyze Do you agree that Egyptian civilization can be called “the Gift of the Nile”? Explain. Answers will vary, but you should note how much Egyptians relied on the Nile. Ancient Egypt
  121. 128. Compare In what ways did Meroë look like an Egyptian city? Meroë had small pyramids, a huge temple at the end of a grand avenue lined with sculptures, and decorated walls. Ancient Egypt
  122. 130. Explore online information about the topics introduced in this chapter. Click on the Connect button to launch your browser and go to the Journey Across Time Web site. Click on Chapter 2-Chapter Overviews to preview information about this chapter. When you finish exploring, exit the browser program to return to this presentation. If you experience difficulty connecting to the Web site, manually launch your Web browser and go to http://www.jat.glencoe.com
  123. 131. Map s Ancient Egypt c. 3100 B.C. Egyptian Kingdoms Kush Kingdom c. 250 B.C. Chart Comparing Mesopotamia to Egypt Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.
  124. 132. Click the map to view an interactive version.
  125. 133. Click the map to view an interactive version.
  126. 136. After developing their method of papermaking using papyrus, the Egyptians kept the process secret, so others could not make paper. In this way, papyrus became even more valuable. The Nile Valley
  127. 137. Myths are stories people use to understand nature and their place in the world. Egyptian mythology was based on nature; the sky, sun, stars, and moon; and the Nile River. Egypt’s Old Kingdom
  128. 138. The city of Thebes contains more than 60 tombs. One of the first archaeological digs in Thebes occurred in 1816. Four archaeological expeditions are currently at work in the area. The Egyptian Empire
  129. 139. The upper class in ancient Egypt had indoor bathrooms, though they did not have running water. The Civilization of Kush
  130. 140. What Do You Predict? Learn It! Reading Social Studies A prediction is a guess based on what you already know. Making predictions before you read can help you understand and remember what you read. How do you make predictions? Read the Main Ideas on the next slide. They were taken from the opening page of Section 2 on page 47 in your textbook. Use these main ideas to make predictions about what you will read in this chapter.
  131. 141. What does “life after death” mean? Predict what the term “all-powerful” means. <ul><li>Egypt was ruled by all-powerful pharaohs. </li></ul><ul><li>The Egyptians believed in many gods and goddesses and in life after death for the pharaohs. </li></ul><ul><li>The Egyptians of the Old Kingdom built huge stone pyramids as tombs for their pharaohs. </li></ul>— from page 47 Can you predict what tools the Egyptians used to build the pyramids? Reading Social Studies
  132. 142. Making Predictions Practice It! Read the paragraph from Chapter 2 on page 37 of your textbook. <ul><li>Make at least one prediction about each of the main ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Write down each prediction. </li></ul><ul><li>Then, as you read this section, decide if your predictions were correct. </li></ul>Reading Social Studies
  133. 143. Ancient Egypt Introduction
  134. 144. The Nile Valley
  135. 145. Egypt’s Old Kingdom
  136. 146. The Egyptian Empire
  137. 147. The Civilization of Kush
  138. 148. Hymn to the Nile
  139. 149. Selecting a New King
  140. 150. Focus on Everyday Life Harvesting wheat and turning it into bread was vital to the ancient Egyptians. Some people were full-time farmers, but many others were drafted by the government to help during busy seasons. The process began as men cut the wheat with wooden sickles and women gathered it into bundles. Animals trampled the wheat to separate the kernels from the husks. The grain w was then thrown into the air so the wind w would carry away the lightweight seed c coverings. Finally, the grain was stored I in silos for later use. From Farming to Food
  141. 151. Focus on Everyday Life Turning grain into bread was a long process. Women ground the grain into flour, then men pounded it until it became very fine. For the wealthy, seeds, honey, fruit, nuts, and herbs were added to the dough for flavor. Unfortunately, it was almost impossible to keep small stones and sand out of the flour. As a result, many Egyptians developed tooth decay as these particles wore down their tooth enamel. From Farming to Food
  142. 152. Focus on Everyday Life The government drafted people to help during the busy seasons. 1. How did the government ensure that enough people were available to harvest the wheat? 2. Why do you think seeds, fruit, and other additives were reserved for the wealthy? Those additives might have been expensive or hard to obtain.
  143. 153. Hatshepsut Ramses II Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding biography.
  144. 154. Reigned 1503–1482 B.C. Hatshepsut
  145. 155. Reigned 1279–1213 B.C. Ramses II Statue of Ramses II holding an offering table. Coffin of Ramses II
  146. 156. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 2–1 Chapter 2
  147. 157. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 2 – 2 Chapter 2
  148. 158. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 2 – 3 Chapter 2
  149. 159. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 2 – 4 Chapter 2
  150. 160. Click the Forward button to go to the next slide. Click the Previous button to return to the previous slide. Click the Menu button to return to the Chapter Menu. Click the Return button in a feature to return to the main presentation. Click the Exit button or press the Escape key [Esc] to end the chapter slide show. Click the Help button to access this screen. Links to Presentation Plus! features such as the Reference Atlas, Daily Focus Transparencies, and others are located on the left side of the relevant slides. To use this Presentation Plus! product:
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