Linguistic info is transmitted through manual gestures and they are received visually
Turn back to their mother’s faces in the expectation of being able to read some sign of approval of disapproval of what they propose to do. Mother’s expression is taken as a commentary directed to the child that the child should consider. (Cassie – case of meeting new people and Bjorn’s 1st day in school)
Oral Language Development
Newborn – 2 Months• Cry : Main form of communication• Sense and turn toward human faces – What about a blind infant?• Know and prefer their mother’s voice• React to their mother’s smell• Respond to vocal prompts (Video 2) Bardies, 1999
3 Months• Turns head when hearing a voice• Participate in turn taking, echoing, and fleeting• Coos single syllable (Video 4) Bardies, 1999; Hermosa, 2002
4 Months• Babble strings of consonants (Video 8)• Produce first laughter and cry (Video 7)• Produce sound for showing emotion and demand Bardies, 1999; Hermosa, 2002
5 Months• Vocalize vowel sounds to toys and to image in mirror• Experiment with sounds (Video 9 and 10)• Imitate some sounds• Respond to names Bardies, 1999; Hermosa, 2002
Babies’ SmilesEffect on Others: –Calm others –Establish affectKinds of Smile1. Sleeping Smile Medieval Legend Legend of Cypselus2. True Smile Bardies, 1999
6 Months• Vocalize to show pleasure and displeasure (Video 11-14)• Interrupt their vocalization at will• Voice is higher when they are with their mother than with father Bardies, 1999; Hermosa, 2002
7-9 Months• Play vocally (Video 15)• Listen to vocalization of others• Imitate cough, hiss, and tongue click Bardies, 1999; Hermosa, 2002
Babbling• Shows that all languages are syllabic• Groups syllables and repeats sequences• Becomes clear and well articulated –Consonant-Vowel –CVC –VCV –CVCV Bardies, 1999
Stand about BabblingJakobson (1972/1941) on Babbling Babbling is only an exercise that producesseries of sounds. It has a period of silence whichis not linguistic.Lenneberg (1964) and Chomsky (1959) Babbling is a stage of maturation. Its formsare universal. Bardies, 1999
Biochemical Approach to Babbling• A baby has a small chance to escape babbling.• Individual differences and biological mechanicals create the babbling differences. Bardies, 1999
Babbling and Sign LanguageAge in DescriptionMonths 5-6 Vocalizes like a hearing baby 7 Do not babble 8 Babbles manually 12 Babbles “ba” Bardies, 1999
10-11 Months• Obey some command• Practice gesture of pointing –Begin to point toward a distant object • Demand • Call attention • Ask names of objects Bardies, 1999; Hermosa, 2002
1 Year• Recognize own name• Follow simple motor instruction with visual cue• React to “no” intonation• Practice word vocalization• Interpret and take into account the adult’s reactions to guide their exploration of the world Hermosa, 2002
Expression of Emotion• Express physiological states and emotions –Crying (Hunger, Distress, Uneasiness) –Facial expressions –Arm waving –Foot stamping –Staring Bardies, 1999
Expression of Emotion Age in Reaction to EmotionMonths4 Change of expression on portraits5 Face and voice6 Voice7 Slight facial expression8-9 Sometimes misinterpret angry facial expressions as jokes
Motherese• AKA fatherese, maidese, care giver talk• Does this consciously or unconsciously• Shows willingness to adapt to the capacities of the babyPurpose:• Gets baby’s attention• Heightens baby’s interest Bardies, 1999
Characteristics of Motherese1. Clear and slow articulation2. Emphasis on word or message3. Long, soft, melodic forms4. Frequency of repetition5. Rhythm of body movement6. Exaggerated facial expression Bardies, 1999
Culture and MothereseCulture PracticeAmerican Indians • Monotonein Guatemala • Repeat after me TechniqueSoloman Islands • Indirect infant speech Bardies, 1999
Culture and Motherese• Kaluli in New Guinea – Adults speak seldom to infants and rarely look at them directly. – Receive certain instructions – Prevent from touching an object – Correct errors of pronunciation – Do not show objects and teach names – Repeat words and sentences Bardies, 1999
Motherese and Language Dev’t• There is no correlation between the child-directed speech of the mother and the linguistic development of the child.• Parents do not teach. They furnish language models. Bardies, 1999
For Sale: An antique desk suitable for lady with thick legs and big drawers. Forms 1. Phonological 2. Morphological 3. Syntactic(Fromkin, Rodman, & Hyams, 2003)
SemanticsStudy of Richard Aslin (1993)• Present words in sentences in teaching How to Teach Children to Understand?1. Repeat sentences2. Simplify previous utterance3. Reformulate their utterance4. Clarify and comment on remarks Bardies, 1999
Syntax and Pragmatics• Imperative and Interrogative sentences are numerous on the speech of parentsStudy in the Luo Society: Case of a Father: Son – 3% imperative Daughter – 43% imperative Bardies, 1999
Language ProgressAge in Phonology Semantics Syntax PragmaticsMos. 15 Common 4-6 • 2-word 18 Everyday 20 utterance 21 Object • Sing/Hum • Q/A • Use of “I” and “Mine” • Rhyming Games
Language ProgressAge in Phonology Semantics Syntax PragmaticsYears 2 Parts of 200-400 • Short, Speech incomplete sentences • Short dialogue 3 900-1000 • 3-4 sentences • Follow 2-step command • Talk about present
Language ProgressAge in Phonology Semantics Syntax PragmaticsYears 4 1500-1600 • Ask. • Narrate. 5 90% 2100-2200 • Discuss feeling Grammar • Follow 3-step Acquisition command • Use request • Produce short passive
Language ProgressAge in Phonology Semantics Syntax PragmaticsYears 6 26000 • Complex words sentences • Keep conversation 7 • Reason • Direction 8 Produce all • All passives sounds • Consider intention. • Start to brag.
Behaviorist• B.F. Skinner• Language learning through environmental conditioning and imitation of adult modelsStudy of Darwin, 1872 Darwin’s son at 6 months assumed amelancholy expression, with the corners of themouth turned down, when he saw his nursepretend to cry. Bardies, 1999; Hermosa, 2002
Nativist• Noam Chomsky• Language is native and innate.• Language is creative.
Interactionist• Combines behaviorist and nativist• Language is a product of genetic and environmental factors.
2. Interactional• New child in the neighborhood celebrates party and invites the kids in the community.
3. Personal• A student writes a diary entrybefore sleep.
4. Heuristic• A child points to an animal in the zoo and asks his mother “What is that?”
5. Imaginative• Girls play with each other. They pretend to be princesses who are about to attend a ball.
6. Informative• A student goes home and recounts school experiences to his parents.
7. Regulatory• In the classroom, the sergeant at arms stands and writes the names of the noisy students on the board. Suddenly, the class becomes silent.
Implications• Children need to grow up in a linguistic environment with a very rich input.• Do not judge late-developing children.• Give importance to eye contact and turn taking in the classroom.• Provide “Teacherese”. Bardies, 1999
ReferencesBardies, B. d. (1999). How language comes to children: from birth to two years (pp. 38- 93). Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.Fromkin, V., Rodman, R., & Hyams, N. M. (2003). An introduction to language (7th ed.). Boston: Thomson, Heinle.Hermosa, N. (2002). The Psychology of Reading (249-254). Philippines: UP Open University.The Baby Human from the Discovery Channel