Neurofunctional theory


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This is the presentation I used for my EDL205 report.

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  • less analytic and handles multiple input presented simultaneously
  • Listening to both music
  • Babies respond to the language through their whole brain shifts to LH
  • 3
  • 3
  • Brain of a 2-year has moreHow to teach
  • Brain of a 2-year has more
  • Brain of a 2-year has moreHow to teach
  • Correct pronunciation; Memory recognition; Word retrieval
  • Neurofunctional theory

    1. 1. Neurofunctional Theory
    2. 2. Language:A Left Hemisphere Function (Hoff, 1997)
    3. 3. Broca’s Area vs. Wernicke’s AreaBroca’s Area Wernicke’s Area – Responsible for – Home of meaning the precise control of the mouth and larynx muscles – Seat of grammar, comprehension, and production (Hoff, 1997 & Bardies, 1999)
    4. 4. Aphasia • Condition in which language functions are severely impaired(Hoff, 1997) Carl Wernicke Paul Broca
    5. 5. Broca’s Aphasia orWernicke’s Aphasia
    6. 6. Broca’s or Agrammatic Aphasia• Difficulty speaking –Lacks grammatical structure –Has no understanding of expression –Has short strings of content words• Difficulty comprehending (Hoff, 1997)
    7. 7.
    8. 8. Wernicke’s or Paragrammatic Aphasia• No difficulty speaking –Speech has no sense –Use meaningless words –Speech is syntactically full but semantically empty• Great difficulty comprehending (Bardies, 1999; Ekiert 2003; Hoff, 1997)
    9. 9. m/tagged/broca%27s%2520aphasia&docid=e-LicVRyNZr5eM&imgurl= 588,r:34,s:100,i:106&iact=rc&dur=511&sig=103095329080267584863&page=9&tbnh=196&tbnw=109&ndsp=17&tx=56&ty=54
    10. 10. Brain Lateralization
    11. 11. Brain LateralizationExperiment: Experienced Musicians – Right Ear (LH) Naive Listeners – Left Ear (RH)
    12. 12. Brain LateralizationLeft Hemisphere (LH) Right Hemisphere (RH)• Detailed Processing • Holistic processing of Structured • Semantics and Sequence pragmatic aspects• Syntax and • Visual-spatial tasks Phonology (Hoff, 1997)
    13. 13. Which matures first? RH or LH • Babies – are attentive to intonation – vocalize prosodic contours before they articulate – produce isolated syllables before sequence of syllables – phonology and syntax(Bardies, 1999 & Hoff, 1997) come later
    14. 14. ResultsofExperiments (Hoff, 1997)
    15. 15. The Signers• LH damage resulted in aphasia for signers just as it does for users of a spoken language
    16. 16. Split-Brain Patients• Corpus Callosum• No communication between 2 hemispheres
    17. 17.
    18. 18. Undamaged Adult• Use dichotic listening experimentResult:1. It shows a right ear advantage – Due to the position of LH • LH is the locus of language ability2. Speech sound travels to LH (RE)3. Musical sound travels to RH (LE)
    19. 19. Equipotentiality Hypothesis vs. Invariance Hypothesis (Hoff, 1997)
    20. 20. Equipotentiality Hypothesis• Proponents: Bishop and Lenneberg• LH is not specialized for language at birth• LH and RH have equal potential for acquiring language• Language shifts to the left only with maturity (Kennedy, 1997)
    21. 21. Equipotentiality HypothesisEvidences 1. Infants’ Brains and Language Magnets 2. Dichotic Listening Results 3. Recovery from Aphasia 4. Brain Plasticity (Kennedy, 1997)
    22. 22. Invariance Hypothesis• Proponents: Kinsbourne, Satz & Lewis, Satz, and Witelson• LH has the adult specialization for language at birth• Nothing about lateralization changes in development
    23. 23. What happens when the LH/RH is damaged prior to language acquisition?1. Delay2. Catch up3. Subtle impairments (Hoff, 1997)
    24. 24. The Bilingual Brain by Monika Ekiert
    25. 25. Results and Implications• Different cerebral networks support L1 and L2 acquisition• Patient’s performance varies among languages• Presence of Differential Aphasia• Anatomical separation of grammar and phonology vary to the age and manner of language acquisition
    26. 26. Early vs. Late Bilinguals• Early – No distinct regions for different languages• Late – Grammar and phonology are in close proximity – L2 develop separately as if L1 is already fully connected
    27. 27. Dual-language Environment • Early and late SLA resulted in a LH localization of the L2. • Children = Recruitment of new connection • Adult = Creation of Connection
    28. 28. Limitations of the Study• Brain imaging studies show lack of differences between cerebral activation and behavioral data• No study for novel sentence production• No method of control to measure proficiency of participants
    29. 29. Implications of Neuroscience for Educational Reform (Kennedy, 1997)
    30. 30. 1. TRUE OR FALSE• Brain of a 2-year old has twice as many synapses or connections as an adult’s brain. TRUE• Learning experiences determine which brain connections become developed and which will no longer function.
    31. 31. 2. TRUE OR FALSE• There is a neurological time frame for learning features of L2. TRUE• Accents are established by 6 months.• Window for acquiring syntax closes at 5-6.• Window for allowing new words may never close.• Learning an L2 become steady then decline after 6.
    32. 32. 3. TRUE OR FALSE• Beginning language learners should be taught a new language in a different way than they acquired their first. (Kennedy, 1997)
    33. 33. FALSE1. Ingredients of L2 learning: –Encouragement and Natural Environment –Observing, Listening, Understanding, Speaking, Reading, and Writing2. Use ultradian rhythms in the class. (Kennedy, 1997)
    34. 34. 4. TRUE OR FALSE• The required time in L2 learning depends on the language being learned. TRUE• Thousands of hours – Spanish and French• 4-5 times longer – Arabic, Japanese, Korean, Mandarin, and Russian (Kennedy, 1997)
    35. 35. 5. TRUE OR FALSE• Words should be heard 20-30 times before it stays in the long term memory. FALSE• 40-80 times• Vocabulary: “Hear and Say” before “Write”• Avoid lengthy word list.• Visual imagery elicits memory retrieval. END. (Kennedy, 1997)
    36. 36. ReferencesBardies, B. d. (1999). The Infant Does Not Talk, But.... How language comes to children: from birth to two years (pp. 29-35). Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.Ekiert, M. (2003). The Bilingual Brain. WP TESOL/AL, 3, 1-8. Retrieved February 17, 2013, from
    37. 37. ReferencesHoff, E. (1997). Biological Bases of Language Development Language development (pp. 388-405). Brooks Cole Pub.: Pacific Grove CA. hives/005401.html wi
    38. 38. References =fil&tbo=d&biw=1241&bih=567&tbm=isch&tbnid=1H N9r4LLOG8SeM:&imgrefurl= agged/broca%27s%2520aphasia&docid=e- LicVRyNZr5eM&imgurl= mblr_lyu7xjnO5d1qcz3vdo1_500.jpg&w=417&h=750& ei=KTUgUc_mK8SOrgeLo4DIBQ&zoom=1&ved=1t:3588 ,r:34,s:100,i:106&iact=rc&dur=511&sig=103095329080 267584863&page=9&tbnh=196&tbnw=109&ndsp=17& tx=56&ty=54http://www- phasia_cases_slides.html
    39. 39. ReferencesKennedy, T. J. (2006). Language Learning and Its Impact on the Brain: Connecting Language Learning with the Mind Through Content- Based Instruction. Foreign Language Annals, 39(3), 471-486.