less analytic and handles multiple input presented simultaneously
Listening to both music
Babies respond to the language through their whole brain shifts to LH
Brain of a 2-year has moreHow to teach
Brain of a 2-year has more
Brain of a 2-year has moreHow to teach
Correct pronunciation; Memory recognition; Word retrieval
Transcript of "Neurofunctional theory"
Language:A Left Hemisphere Function (Hoff, 1997)
Broca’s Area vs. Wernicke’s AreaBroca’s Area Wernicke’s Area – Responsible for – Home of meaning the precise control of the mouth and larynx muscles – Seat of grammar, comprehension, and production (Hoff, 1997 & Bardies, 1999)
Aphasia • Condition in which language functions are severely impaired(Hoff, 1997) Carl Wernicke Paul Broca
Wernicke’s or Paragrammatic Aphasia• No difficulty speaking –Speech has no sense –Use meaningless words –Speech is syntactically full but semantically empty• Great difficulty comprehending (Bardies, 1999; Ekiert 2003; Hoff, 1997)
Brain LateralizationExperiment: Experienced Musicians – Right Ear (LH) Naive Listeners – Left Ear (RH)
Brain LateralizationLeft Hemisphere (LH) Right Hemisphere (RH)• Detailed Processing • Holistic processing of Structured • Semantics and Sequence pragmatic aspects• Syntax and • Visual-spatial tasks Phonology (Hoff, 1997)
Which matures first? RH or LH • Babies – are attentive to intonation – vocalize prosodic contours before they articulate – produce isolated syllables before sequence of syllables – phonology and syntax(Bardies, 1999 & Hoff, 1997) come later
Undamaged Adult• Use dichotic listening experimentResult:1. It shows a right ear advantage – Due to the position of LH • LH is the locus of language ability2. Speech sound travels to LH (RE)3. Musical sound travels to RH (LE)
Equipotentiality Hypothesis vs. Invariance Hypothesis (Hoff, 1997)
Equipotentiality Hypothesis• Proponents: Bishop and Lenneberg• LH is not specialized for language at birth• LH and RH have equal potential for acquiring language• Language shifts to the left only with maturity (Kennedy, 1997)
Equipotentiality HypothesisEvidences 1. Infants’ Brains and Language Magnets 2. Dichotic Listening Results 3. Recovery from Aphasia 4. Brain Plasticity (Kennedy, 1997)
Invariance Hypothesis• Proponents: Kinsbourne, Satz & Lewis, Satz, and Witelson• LH has the adult specialization for language at birth• Nothing about lateralization changes in development
What happens when the LH/RH is damaged prior to language acquisition?1. Delay2. Catch up3. Subtle impairments (Hoff, 1997)
Results and Implications• Different cerebral networks support L1 and L2 acquisition• Patient’s performance varies among languages• Presence of Differential Aphasia• Anatomical separation of grammar and phonology vary to the age and manner of language acquisition
Early vs. Late Bilinguals• Early – No distinct regions for different languages• Late – Grammar and phonology are in close proximity – L2 develop separately as if L1 is already fully connected
Dual-language Environment • Early and late SLA resulted in a LH localization of the L2. • Children = Recruitment of new connection • Adult = Creation of Connection
Limitations of the Study• Brain imaging studies show lack of differences between cerebral activation and behavioral data• No study for novel sentence production• No method of control to measure proficiency of participants
Implications of Neuroscience for Educational Reform (Kennedy, 1997)
1. TRUE OR FALSE• Brain of a 2-year old has twice as many synapses or connections as an adult’s brain. TRUE• Learning experiences determine which brain connections become developed and which will no longer function.
2. TRUE OR FALSE• There is a neurological time frame for learning features of L2. TRUE• Accents are established by 6 months.• Window for acquiring syntax closes at 5-6.• Window for allowing new words may never close.• Learning an L2 become steady then decline after 6.
3. TRUE OR FALSE• Beginning language learners should be taught a new language in a different way than they acquired their first. (Kennedy, 1997)
FALSE1. Ingredients of L2 learning: –Encouragement and Natural Environment –Observing, Listening, Understanding, Speaking, Reading, and Writing2. Use ultradian rhythms in the class. (Kennedy, 1997)
4. TRUE OR FALSE• The required time in L2 learning depends on the language being learned. TRUE• Thousands of hours – Spanish and French• 4-5 times longer – Arabic, Japanese, Korean, Mandarin, and Russian (Kennedy, 1997)
5. TRUE OR FALSE• Words should be heard 20-30 times before it stays in the long term memory. FALSE• 40-80 times• Vocabulary: “Hear and Say” before “Write”• Avoid lengthy word list.• Visual imagery elicits memory retrieval. END. (Kennedy, 1997)
ReferencesBardies, B. d. (1999). The Infant Does Not Talk, But.... How language comes to children: from birth to two years (pp. 29-35). Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.Ekiert, M. (2003). The Bilingual Brain. WP TESOL/AL, 3, 1-8. Retrieved February 17, 2013, from http://journals.tc- library.org/index.php/tesol/article/view/31/
ReferencesHoff, E. (1997). Biological Bases of Language Development Language development (pp. 388-405). Brooks Cole Pub.: Pacific Grove CA.http://itre.cis.upenn.edu/~myl/languagelog/arc hives/005401.htmlhttps://www.google.com.ph/imghp?hl=fil&tab= wi
ReferencesKennedy, T. J. (2006). Language Learning and Its Impact on the Brain: Connecting Language Learning with the Mind Through Content- Based Instruction. Foreign Language Annals, 39(3), 471-486.
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