Chemistry Terminologies

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Here are some useful chemistry terminologies

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Chemistry Terminologies

  1. 1. Chemistry Terminologies
  2. 2. Chemistry Matter Property Composition Structure Changes = Laws
  3. 3. Antoine Lavoisier Robert Boyle
  4. 4. Mass vs. Weight
  5. 5. <ul><li>Unit of mass </li></ul><ul><li>Amount of material in an object </li></ul><ul><li>Constant </li></ul><ul><li>Unit of force </li></ul><ul><li>Force of gravity pulling on the object </li></ul><ul><li>Depends on the location </li></ul>Mass Weight
  6. 6. Temperature hotness or coldness of an object
  7. 7. Celsius vs. Fahrenheit vs. Kelvin <ul><li>0 C = ( 0 F – 32)/ 1.8 </li></ul><ul><li>0 F = (1.8 X 0 C) + 32 </li></ul><ul><li>K = 0 C + 273 </li></ul>
  8. 8. 273 K 32 0 F ? Freezing point 373 K ? 100 0 C Boiling point ? 98.6 0 F 37 0 C Normal body temperature K 0 F 0 C
  9. 9. 273 K 32 0 F 0 0 C Freezing point 373 K 212 0 F 100 0 C Boiling point 310 K 98.6 0 F 37 0 C Normal body temperature K 0 F 0 C
  10. 10. Evaporation vs. Condensation
  11. 12. Evaporation vs. Condensation <ul><li>Evaporation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liquid to Gas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Condensation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gas to Liquid </li></ul></ul>
  12. 14. Sublimation vs. Condensation
  13. 15. Sublimation vs. Condensation <ul><li>Sublimation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solid to Gas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Condensation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gas to Solid </li></ul></ul>
  14. 16. Sublimation Condensation
  15. 17. Matter
  16. 18. Matter Substance Mixture Element Compound Homogenous Heterogeneous Solution Suspension Colloid
  17. 19. Matter Space Mass
  18. 20. Pure Substance <ul><li>Compose of the same kind of particles </li></ul><ul><li>Has same color and taste </li></ul><ul><li>Has definite properties and uniform characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Has single phase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Salt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sugar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pure water </li></ul></ul>
  19. 21. Element <ul><li>made up of only one kind of atoms having the same atomic number </li></ul><ul><li>cannot be further reduced to simpler substances by ordinary physical or chemical processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen </li></ul></ul>
  20. 22. Compound <ul><li>Formed by the combination two or more elements </li></ul><ul><li>Could not be separated into its constituents by mechanical or physical means </li></ul><ul><li>Properties of a compound differ entirely from those of its constituent elements </li></ul>
  21. 23. Mixture <ul><li>Combination of two or more substances </li></ul><ul><li>Each substance retains its own properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gasoline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Halo Halo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fruit Salad </li></ul></ul>
  22. 24. <ul><li>Uniform characteristic </li></ul><ul><li>Single phase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gasoline </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No uniform characteristic </li></ul><ul><li>Two or more phase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fruit Salad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Halo Halo </li></ul></ul>Homogenous Heterogeneous
  23. 25. Solution <ul><li>Homogeneous mixture of two or more chemical substances </li></ul><ul><li>May be solid, liquid or gas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>salt water (liquid solution) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>air (gaseous solution) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>alloy (solid solution) </li></ul></ul>
  24. 27. Solute + Solvent = Solution
  25. 28. Suspension <ul><li>Consists of particles of a solid suspended in a liquid medium </li></ul><ul><li>Has two distinct phases </li></ul><ul><li>Particles of a suspension may not be visible to the naked eye </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sand and water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil and water </li></ul></ul>
  26. 29. Colloid <ul><li>Represents an intermediate kind between true solution and suspension </li></ul><ul><li>Two-phase heterogeneous system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>dispersed phase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dispersion medium </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dispersed phase = solute in a solution </li></ul>
  27. 30.   Soda water, whipped cream froth   Foam, Froth   Liquid   Gas   Foam, Ice-cream, Rubber   Solid foam   Solid   Gas   Insecticide sprays   Aerosols of Liquids   Gas   Liquid   Smoke, dust in air, smog   Aerosols of solids   Gas   Solid   Milk, hair cream,   Emulsion   Liquid   Liquid   cheese butter   Gels   Solid   Liquid   Paints, starch,   Sols   Liquid   Solid Colored glues, gem stones, pearls,   Solid sols   Solid   Solid   Examples   Colloidal system   Dispersed medium Dispersed phase
  28. 31. Matter Substance Mixture Element Compound Homogenous Heterogeneous Solution Suspension Colloid
  29. 32. Acid vs. Base
  30. 33. <ul><li>Latin “acidus” </li></ul><ul><li>Sour </li></ul><ul><li>Proton donor </li></ul><ul><li>Blue to red </li></ul><ul><li>Bitter </li></ul><ul><li>Slippery </li></ul><ul><li>Proton acceptor </li></ul><ul><li>Red to blue </li></ul>Acid Base
  31. 34. <ul><li>Fruits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Citric Acid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vinegar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acetic Acid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Soft drinks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbonic Acid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Milk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lactic Acid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vomit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrochloric Acid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lye </li></ul><ul><li>Baking soda </li></ul><ul><li>Milk of magnesia </li></ul><ul><li>Antacid </li></ul>Acid Base
  32. 35. Indicator Exhibits specific color in the presence of acid or base
  33. 36. pH – measure of acidity or basicity pH paper pH meter
  34. 37. pH Reading <ul><li>Values 1-14 </li></ul><ul><li>Less than 7 = acidic </li></ul><ul><li>Higher than 7 = basic </li></ul><ul><li>Equal to 7 = neutral </li></ul>
  35. 38. pH = 5 Acidic
  36. 39. pH = 4 Acidic
  37. 40. pH = 7 Neutral
  38. 41. pH = 6 Acidic
  39. 42. pH = 8 Basic
  40. 43. Strong or Weak 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
  41. 44. Acid + Base = Neutralization
  42. 45. Atom
  43. 46. Atom <ul><li>Smallest particle of an atom </li></ul><ul><li>John Dalton : indivisible </li></ul>
  44. 47. Parts of an Atom
  45. 48. Nucleus = center = proton and neutron <ul><li>Near protons </li></ul><ul><li>Holds the protons together </li></ul><ul><li>Surrounds proton and neutron </li></ul><ul><li>In the nucleus </li></ul>Location No charge - + Charge Neutron Electron Proton
  46. 49. Atomic Number vs. Atomic Mass
  47. 50. Atomic Number Atomic weight <ul><li>Equal to the number of protons </li></ul><ul><li>Equal to mass number </li></ul><ul><li>Equal to the no. of neutron + no. of proton </li></ul>
  48. 51. S 16 32.06 Ga 31 69.72 Ba 56 137.33
  49. 52. Isotope vs. Isotone vs. Isobar
  50. 53. Isotope <ul><li>Same element </li></ul><ul><li>Different atomic mass </li></ul>C 12 6 C 13 6 Mg 23 12 Mg 26 12
  51. 54. Isotone <ul><li>Same number of neutrons </li></ul><ul><li>Neutrons = A. Mass – A. No. </li></ul>C 14 6 N 15 7 Ca 40 20 K 39 19
  52. 55. Isobar <ul><li>Same atomic mass </li></ul><ul><li>Different elements </li></ul>Ne 22 10 Na 22 11 Ar 40 18 K 40 19
  53. 56. Isotope vs. Isotone vs. Isobar C 14 6 N 14 7 Pb 206 82 Pb 207 82 Na 22 11 Mg 23 12
  54. 57. Alpha vs. Beta vs. Gamma
  55. 58. Radioactivity <ul><li>process whereby unstable atomic nuclei release energetic subatomic particles </li></ul><ul><li>subatomic particles released during the process </li></ul>
  56. 59. Least Maximum No charge Gamma Less Less - Beta Maximum Least + Alpha Ionizing Power Penetrating Power Charge
  57. 60. Penetrating Power
  58. 61. <ul><li>If you have three radioactive cookies alpha beta and gamma, what will you </li></ul><ul><li>Eat? </li></ul><ul><li>Place in your pocket? </li></ul><ul><li>Hold by your hand? </li></ul>
  59. 62. <ul><li>If you have three radioactive cookies alpha beta and gamma, what will you </li></ul><ul><li>Eat? Gamma </li></ul><ul><li>Place in your pocket? Beta </li></ul><ul><li>Hold by your hand? Alpha </li></ul>
  60. 63. End

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