Achieving High Performance Operation With Energy Alarms

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This presentation was made in partner with the Massachusetts General Hospital at the American Society of Healthcare Engineering conference in San Francisco.

This presentation was made in partner with the Massachusetts General Hospital at the American Society of Healthcare Engineering conference in San Francisco.

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  • HVACLighting / Daylight Control Building Automation SystemRealize High-Performance Design in OperationDocument and Ensure Owner/Facility RequirementsBuilding Functions as Intended and RequiredPromotes Energy Efficiency
  • HVACLighting / Daylight Control Building Automation SystemRealize High-Performance Design in OperationDocument and Ensure Owner/Facility RequirementsBuilding Functions as Intended and RequiredPromotes Energy Efficiency
  • HVACLighting / Daylight Control Building Automation SystemRealize High-Performance Design in OperationDocument and Ensure Owner/Facility RequirementsBuilding Functions as Intended and RequiredPromotes Energy Efficiency
  • HVACLighting / Daylight Control Building Automation SystemRealize High-Performance Design in OperationDocument and Ensure Owner/Facility RequirementsBuilding Functions as Intended and RequiredPromotes Energy Efficiency
  • HVACLighting / Daylight Control Building Automation SystemRealize High-Performance Design in OperationDocument and Ensure Owner/Facility RequirementsBuilding Functions as Intended and RequiredPromotes Energy Efficiency

Transcript

  • 1. Achieving High Performance Operation With Energy Alarms PRESENTERS: Mike Eardley, Director of Commissioning Cannon DesignChristopher Longchamps, Senior Facilities Engineer Partners Healthcare System, Inc
  • 2. Agenda• Define a High Performance Building• Demonstrate how Commissioning (Cx) is a critical element• Define new building Cx, Retro-Cx, and Ongoing Cx• Ongoing Cx program at Massachusetts General Hospital• Partners Healthcare System – Strategic Energy Master Plan
  • 3. High Performance BuildingsCharacteristics• Functionality• Energy Efficiency• Indoor Environmental Quality• Comfort• Sustainability (ability to perform its function in a long term)
  • 4. Building Systems Commissioning • Buildings function as intended • Realize high performance
  • 5. Commissioning Definition • Commissioning (Cx) is a comprehensive and systematic process to verify and document that new or renovated facility systems function completely as designed to meet the owner’s requirements • A type of quality assurance to the systems being commissioned • Applied to building systems (e.g. HVAC) • Core element of sustainable buildings, along with energy modeling and measurement & verification
  • 6. Without Commissioning• Placement and calibration of Sensors• Simultaneous Heating and Cooling• Incorrect function of air-side Economizer and other efficiency measures• Operating Schedule is not what is necessary, or assumed by energy model• Cycling daylighting and other systems
  • 7. Reference Standards• ASHE Health Facility Commissioning Guidelines ashe.org• ASHRAE Guideline 0 The Commissioning Process ashrae.org• Building Commissioning Association Essential Attributes of Building Commissioning bcxa.org
  • 8. Why Commissioning? green cooling tower shutoff valve impeded blocked daylight sensor moisture penetration
  • 9. Purpose of Functional Testing• Verification of an operational system• Reduces adjustment and tuning during occupancy• Impacts  energy  comfort  maintenance  functionality
  • 10. Types of Functional Testing• Building Automation System• False load• Seasonal testing• Trend analysis
  • 11. Energy Impacts• Large effort in sustainable and energy efficient design• Will not be realized if design or intended use is:  misunderstood  ignored• Or if building systems are:  operating incorrectly  not thoroughly tested
  • 12. Common Problems – Air-side Economizer• Damper is stuck / broken / non-functional• Control algorithms fighting  heating during economizer  mechanical cooling when free cooling available• Outside sensor calibration or location
  • 13. Building Envelope Commissioning • Not often considered in basic scope • Affects Air infiltration, IAQ, air/water leaks, building systems performance • Involves many building components, suppliers & subcontractors • Coordination meetings; sketches or drawings; wall systems, roof, trade penetrations • Checklist & Inspections
  • 14. Building EnvelopeThermalBridging Moisture Penetration Window Water Testing
  • 15. Functional Test – Alarms and Safeties• Varying levels of rigor  verify software interactions  verify hardware interactions  verify actual conditions e.g. cold, smoke• Pull the plug  simulate actual loss of power  does transfer and restart act as intended?
  • 16. New and Existing Buildings• Commissioning: Process applied to new construction or major building renovation• Re-commissioning: Facility has previously been commissioned and is in need of a “tune-up”• Retro-commissioning: Performed on facilities that have been in service and never commissioned• Ongoing commissioning: Ongoing program of structured commissioning throughout the lifetime of a building
  • 17. Retro-Commissioning• Review of original design• Targeted functional testing• Identification of energy measures• Evaluation of measures• Energy modeling• Implementation• Verification and Persistence
  • 18. Trending• Functional testing before occupancy is a snapshot• Trending shows operation over time• Methods of trending  building automation system  portable data loggers• Analyze trends  spreadsheet calculations  software tools
  • 19. Ongoing Commissioning• Good  Cx process with functional testing• Better  Re-Cx program• Best  Ongoing Cx• Combination of software, engineering support, action
  • 20. PHS Strategic Energy Master Plan ObjectiveIn 2008, PHS Utilities and Engineering Department was chargedto develop a Strategic Energy Master Plan to Address theHospital ever-growing demand for energy and the volatile natureof the Energy market and concerns regarding global warmingand long term sustainability of resource consumption and itsimpact on the delivery of critical health care services
  • 21. PHS Strategic Energy Master Plan Goals
  • 22. MGH Actual Energy Consumption Vs ProjectionFrom PHS Strategic Energy Master Plan Study2,500,0002,000,0001,500,000 Total Energy Consumption (Do nothing) MMBTU based on1,000,000 SEMP 2008 study, including Lunder building Notes: Actual Total Energy Consumption MMBTU After SEMP up to 2012 including Lunder building from invoices 1.Lunder Building came on line on May 2011 but not fully occupied until late fall Projected Actual Total Energy ConsumptionMMBTU with 500,000 MGH SEMP Projected savings from 2012 to 2026 2.Based on escalation of 1.5% load growth Total Projected Energy Consumption MMBTU with Projected savings from SEMP including Lunder building 0 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026
  • 23. MGH SEMP Actual Total Energy Reduction Compared To 2008 PHS SEMP Energy Reduction Goal 500,000 450,000 400,000 350,000 MMBTU 300,000 250,000 MGH SEMP Primary Goal, 25% energy reduction from 2008 based line 1,509,875MMbtu 200,000 MGH actual energy reduction compare to Primary goal 150,000 MGH Projected Energy Reduction Compare to Primary Goal 100,000 50,000 0 200 200 201 201 201 201 201 201 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5
  • 24. SEMP Impact On Utilities Cost Per Sq.Ft. MGH Cost per Sq. Ft. $14 FY 2008 ($/sq ft) FY 2012 ($/sq ft) $12.36 $12 $11.04 $10 $9.02 $8 $7.67 $6.90$ / sq ft $6.56 $6.83 $6.08 $6 $5.38 $4.97 $4.43 $3.90 $4 $2 $0 MGH Combined MGH Main CNY Simches Yawkey Cox including Campus 149, 114, 75 CNY, Simches (6,371,307 ft²) (5,071,825 ft²) (945,947 ft²) (353,535 ft²) (446,960 ft²) (119,808 ft²)
  • 25. SEMP Impact On Utilities Consumption Per Sq.Ft. 600 MGH kBtu per Sq. Ft. FY 2008 (kBtu/sq ft) FY 2012 (kBtu/sq ft) 500 487 LABS 21 400 376 383 Benchmark DOE 2.1 Hospital kBtu/sq. ft. Benchmark 294 300 262 251 252 217 201 217 210 200 142 100 0 MGH Combined MGH Main CNY Simches Yawkey Cox including Campus 149, 114, 75 CNY, Simches (6,371,307 ft²) (5,071,825 ft²) (945,947 ft²) (353,535 ft²) (446,960 ft²) (119,808 ft²)
  • 26. ECMS That Have Major Savings On Outpatient,Research and Outpatient/Research/Office Facility • Building Occupied / Unoccupied schedule setback • Reduce minimum CFM set point • Schedule Room Thermostat with Dead Band • Fume Hoods modification • Lighting retrofits • Chillers Plant optimization • Steam Traps • Steam Condensate Heat recovery • Low temperature Run-Around Heat Recovery • Reset Pump DP set point • Reset AHU Supply and Return Fans S.P. set point
  • 27. Lesson Learned• The Energy conservation measures such as Set point or Schedule setback can be unintentional altered by mechanic• The Energy Alarms system need to be developed to monitor the MEP system for equipment failures and/or operating out of range• Energy Alarms can be part of an MEP Maintenance Program• A continuous measurement & verification program needs to be established to ensure the savings are continued
  • 28. Massachusetts General Hospital• Researched ongoing Cx products in the market• Some required installation of new equipment• All were costly• Concern about level of detail in the delivered product• Settled on customized, built up approach
  • 29. Massachusetts General Hospital• Reviewed Design• Developed rules based logic to identify inefficient operation• Worked with campus controls provider to implement
  • 30. What Do Energy Alarms Look At? • VAV Airflow • VAV Heating Coil • VAV Occupancy Hours • HW HX Valve Leaking • AHU Preheat Valve Leaking • AHU CHW Valve Leaking • AHU Simultaneous Heating & Cooling • CHW Low Delta T • CHW Economizer w/ Chiller(s) Running • AHU Should be in Economizer; Excessive CHW Use • AHU Should Not be in Economizer; Excessive outside air • More than 79 different types of Energy Alarm are monitored
  • 31. Energy Alarms Alarm Window
  • 32. Example of an Air Flow Alarm • Checks box’s damper operation • Very effective in locating broken damper actuators • Trigger: Box air flow is not meeting setpoint Logic: • |CFM – CFMSpt| > 0.15 x MaxCFMSpt [Delay = 1 hr] • CFM = Actual CFM • CFMSpt = CFM Setpoint • MaxCFMSpt = Maximum CFM Setpoint of box
  • 33. What is One Air Flow Alarm Worth?Schedule: Occupied:5:00AM – 6:30PM Mon-Fri (Extra CFM) x (hrs of CFM per week /Total hrs in a week)x($6/cfm)Occ hrs/wk = 67.5 hr (711 cfm – 145 cfm) x (67.5 hr/168 hr) x $4/cfm yr = $ 909 /yrUnocc hrs/wk = 100.5 hr Unoccupied: 711 cfm x (100.5 hr/168 hr) x $4/cfm yr = $ 1,701 /yr Total Estimated Annual Savings= $ 2,610
  • 34. Example of a Heating Coil Alarm • Checks that the box’s heating valve is closing completely • Trigger: An unexpected temperature difference across the heating coil Logic: • HWV% < 1% & |SAT – DAT| > 10 & CFMSpt > 0 [Delay = 2 hr] • HWV% = Hot Water Valve Position [0%=Closed, 100%=Open] • SAT = Supply Air Temp [Supply Air from AHU to the Box] • DAT = Discharge Air Temp • CFMSpt = CFM Setpoint
  • 35. What is One Heating Coil Alarm Worth? Schedule: Air Side 5:00AM-6:30PM Mon-Fri (325 cfm – 216 cfm) x (3,534 hr / 8,760 hr) Occ hrs / yr = 3534 hr = 44 cfm/yr 44 cfm/yr x $4 /cfm = $264/yr Total Estimated Annual Savings = $176
  • 36. How Does An Occupancy Alarm Work? • Checks if box switches to unoccupied mode • Trigger: Box remaining in occupied mode for a long period of time Logic: • Occ > 20 hrs in a 24 hr Period [Delay = 15 min] • Occ = Number of hours since midnight that the box has been occupied
  • 37. Example Of An Occupancy Override Yawkey Floor 9 Found Overridden ON Cancer Center Psychiatric Oncology Area Normal Occupancy Schedule: 5:00AM-6:30PM Mon-Fri Unoccupied hrs/week: 100.5 hr/wk Total Minimum CFM: 8,063 CFM Assuming $ 4/CFM yr 8,063 cfm x (100.5hr/168hr) x $4 /cfm year Annual Savings: $ 19,294
  • 38. How Does The Process Work?• Alarms are reviewed on a daily basis• Once validated there is a work order issued for the repair• Work directly with maintenance staff on difficult problems• Work order completed and issue closed
  • 39. How Many Energy Alarms Are There? More than 400 validated work orders have been addressed since summer of 2010 and $600,000 were realized.
  • 40. Questions / Discussion Achieving High Performance Operation With Energy Alarms PRESENTERS:Christopher Longchamps, Partners Healthcare System clongchamps@partners.org Mike Eardley, Cannon Design meardley@cannondesign.com @MikeEardley