Complete Guide To F1 2010 World Championship
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Complete Guide To F1 2010 World Championship

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A complete guide to F1 2010 world championship, circuits, teams, drivers, regulations, statistics, glossary.

A complete guide to F1 2010 world championship, circuits, teams, drivers, regulations, statistics, glossary.

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Complete Guide To F1 2010 World Championship Document Transcript

  • 1. A COMPLETE GUIDE TO FORMULA 1 2010 WORLD CHAMPIONSHIP MARZO 2010 giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 1
  • 2. CONTENTS 4 - FIA Formula One World Championship - Calendar and event time start information 5 - 2010 Circuits Bahrain international circuit sakhir Albert park melbourne Sepang international circuit kuala lumpur Shanghai international circuit Circuit de catalunya barcelona Circuit de monaco monte-carlo Istambul park Circuit gilles villeneuve montreal Valencia street circuit Silverstone grand prix circuit Hockenheim-ring Hungaroring sport rt budapest Circuit de spa francorchamps Autodromo nazionale di monza Singapore street circuit Suzuka international racing course Korean international circuit yeongam Autodromo jose’ carlos pace interlagos 44 - 2010 Teams and Drivers McLaren – Mercedes 2.4 V8 – Bridgestone Jenson Button Lewis Hamilton Mercedes – Mercedes 2.4 V8 – Bridgestone Niko Rosberg Michael Schumacher Red Bull Racing – Renault 2.4 V8 – Bridgestone Sebastian Vettel Mark Webber Ferrari – Ferrari 2.4 V8 – Bridgestone Fernando Alonso Felipe Massa Williams – Toyota 2.4 V8 – Bridgestone Rubens Barrichello Niko Hulkemberg Renault – Renault 2.4 V8 – Bridgestone Robert Kubica Vitaly Petrov Force India – Mercedes 2.4 V8 – Bridgestone Adrian Sutil Tonio Liuzzi Scuderia Toro Rosso, Motore Ferrari 2.4 V8 – Bridgestone Jaime Alguersari Sebastien Buemi Lotus – Cosworth 2.4 V8 – Bridgestone Jarno Trulli Heikki Kovalainen giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 2
  • 3. Hispania Racing Team – Cosworth 2.4 V8 – - Bidgestone Bruno Senna Karun Chandhok Sauber – Ferrari 2.4 V8 – Bridgestone Kamui Kobayashi Pedro De La Rosa Virgin – Cosworth 2.4 V8 – Bridgestone Timo Glock Lucas Di Grassi 109 - 2010 season changes 111 - From the 2010 Formula One Sporting Regulations 117 - From the 2010 Formula One Technical Regulations 121 - Understand Formula one Aerodynamics Brakes Cornering Driver fitness Engine / Gearbox Flags Fuel Logistics Overtaking Pit stops Race control Race strategy Steering wheel Suspension The race start Tyres 142 - Statistics 154 - Glossary THANKS TO MAIN SOURCES www.fia.com http://en.espnf1.com/ www.formula1.com www.gazzetta.it www.f1technical.net www.f1-facts.com/ giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 3
  • 4. FIA Formula One World Championship Calendar and event time start information giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 4
  • 5. 2010 Circuits giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 5
  • 6. BAHRAIN INTERNATIONAL CIRCUIT SAKHIR Circuit 6.299 km Laps 49 giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 6
  • 7. Circuit Info Located in the middle of nowhere, the circuit has been described of having all the charm of an airport departure lounge, although some of the more modern airports might be offended by the comparison. Like many sporting arenas in the Middle east, its existence is down to the enthusiasm of enthusiast Crown Prince Sheikh Salman bin Hamad Al Khalifa and funding from government- backed investment companies. A racing enthusiast, the Crown Prince is the honorary president of the Bahrain Motor Federation. As is the case with many of the new generation of circuits BIC was designed by Hermann Tilke and contains five different track layouts within the complex. Work started in late 2002 and was completed in time for the first grand prix in March 2004. Being surrounded by sand dunes, one of the major worries has been sand on the track which can reduce tyre adhesion considerably as well as affect engines and other parts. Although the organisers sprayed the surrounding sand with an adhesive to keep it in place, although this keeps the majority of the sand off the track organisers regularly sweep the surface during a race weekend. While the facilities are superb, the heat means the only spectators are housed in the main stands - to try to watch from anywhere else would mean risking frying - and as a result the atmosphere on large sections of the circuit is too often eerily quiet. The circuit itself consists of 20 slow to medium-speed corners which means cars need to be set up for good traction. In 2007 it became the first active grand prix circuit to be named as an FIA Centre of Excellence for safety. The land around the circuit is currently being developed to provide much-needed hotels (the nearest large hotels are in Manama) as well as facilities for industry, education and entertainment in a project reported to be costing US$2billion. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 7
  • 8. ALBERT PARK MELBOURNE Circuit 5.303 km Laps 58 giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 8
  • 9. Circuit Info The Albert Park circuit is a temporary track which is only used once a year to host the Australian Grand Prix - typically the opening round of the season. The track made up of sections of the public road that circles the man-made Albert Park lake. The sections of road used were completely rebuilt in 1996 to ensure consistency and smoothness of the surface. As a result the circuit is considered the smoothest of the road circuits currently in use. Although fast, the track is thought of as to be easy to drive, however the flat terrain around the lake combined with the design means the circuit has very few proper straights making overtaking particularly hard. Despite talks of a night race to make viewing easier for Europeans, a compromise was reached between the FIA and the race organisers and the 2009 race started at 5pm local time and proved a great success. As a result the contract was extended, meaning Albert Park will host the Australian Grand Prix until 2015. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 9
  • 10. SEPANG INTERNATIONAL CIRCUIT KUALA LUMPUR Circuit 5.543 km Laps 56 giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 10
  • 11. Circuit Info In the 1990s Dr Mahathir Mohamad, Malaysia's prime minister, declared that by 2020 the country should be a fully industrialised nation. Part of this plan involved the construction of a race circuit - the result was the Sepang International Circuit. Designed by "the architect of F1", Hermann Tilke, Sepang is considered one of the most technical circuits on the calendar and is a firm favourite with the drivers. The combination of long, high- speed, straights and tight corner complexes were designed with overtaking in mind. Situated 60km from the Malaysian capital of Kuala Lumpur and close to the city's international airport, the circuit also hosts the Malaysian Motorcycle Grand Prix as well as the A1 GP race. But the government's early enthusiasm waned and little money was pumped into the venue. Nor has the racing ever attracted more than passing interest from the locals. Shortly before the 2007 grand prix, Bernie Ecclestone hit out at the facility saying it had become "shabby" and describing it as "an old house that needs a bit of redecorating". Circuit bosses admitted it was in need of $60 million to bring it up to scratch. The circuit currently has a contract to host the race until 2011 and although the organisers had expressed an interest in making the event a night race, plans have since been dropped. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 11
  • 12. SHANGHAI INTERNATIONAL CIRCUIT Circuit 5.451 km Laps 56 giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 12
  • 13. Circuit Info The new circuit in China was designed by Hermann Tilke to be a circuit for the new millennium, with impressive spectator facilities and a media centre which spans the start finish straight - on opening it was billed as the venue all others should aspire to. It features Tilke's trademark long straight followed by a tight hairpin. When it opened it was the most expensive F1 circuit costing around US$459million, funded by a government-backed joint-venture company. In September 2007, the former manager of the circuit Yu Zhifei was convicted of embezzlement in a corruption scandal which included several senior communist party officials who also lost their jobs. The shape of the circuit is designed to look like the Chinese character 'Shang' which means high or above, and there are also other echoes of traditional Chinese architecture, including the team buildings set on stilts in the lake. The land that the circuit sits on was formally swampland and had to be reclaimed before any building could begin; despite this the circuit was constructed in just 18months with a team of 3000 engineers. The inaugural race in 2004 was won by Rubens Barrichello driving a Ferrari, and in 2006 the circuit saw Michael Schumacher's final grand prix victory before his retirement at the end of the season. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 13
  • 14. CIRCUIT DE CATALUNYA BARCELONA Circuit 4.655 km Laps 66 giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 14
  • 15. Circuit Info The circuit was originally intended to host its first grand prix in 1992 to coincide with Barcelona's Olympic Games, but it was ready a year ahead of schedule. The track is a favourite for out-of- season F1 tests as well as hosting the annual Spanish Grand Prix. When the circuit was first used overtaking was rife as cars were able to get very close through the last two corners and make use of the slipstream on the straight. Since the changes to the aerodynamics of the cars, however, the turbulence caused from the rear wings has spoiled this opportunity. In 2007 the second to last corner was replaced with a slow chicane in an effort to improve overtaking, but it doesn't seem to have been successful. Although the circuit has received criticism for lack of race action over the years, there have been a number of memorable moments at the track. In 1991, Ayrton Senna and Nigel Mansell were fighting tooth and nail for second place, racing side by side down the front straight in a memorable image. It was Mansell who eventually triumphed, winning the inaugural Catalunya race, while Senna finished fifth. In 2006 Fernando Alonso became the first Spanish F1 driver to win at his home circuit. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 15
  • 16. CIRCUIT DE MONACO MONTE-CARLO Circuit 3.340 km Laps 78 giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 16
  • 17. Circuit Info Probably the most famous and recognisable circuit on the F1 Calendar, racing has taken place in the principality since 1929, it was included in the first Formula One world championship season in 1950 and has been an ever-present feature on the calendar since 1955. The race is considered as a 'must win' race for drivers, as the race is not only technically difficult but also extremely glamorous and high profile. The circuit is one of the most demanding on the calendar with no margin for error as the Armco barriers that line the track are at some points just inches from the cars. Triple world champion Nelson Piquet described the race as similar to 'trying to cycle round your living room'. The circuit itself has remained virtually unchanged from its original, the Rascasse turn was slightly altered for the 2003 race but the major change was in 2004 when the formerly cramped pit complex was replaced and spectator capacity was increased. Prior to the race, construction of the circuit takes around six weeks, dismantling takes just three. Monaco is the only race on the calendar not to have a podium; the traditional winners' celebration takes place on the steps of the royal box. Despite the dangerous nature of the circuit and although there have been numerous serious accidents there has to date only been one death, 1967 when Lorenzo Bandini died as result of burns suffered. The most famous accident must be that of Alberto Ascari, one of only two people to end up in the harbour. Graham Hill was often referred to as Mr Monaco as he won five races in the 1960s; this record was beaten by Ayrton Senna who holds the record of six wins at the venue. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 17
  • 18. ISTAMBUL PARK ISTAMBUL Circuit 5.388 km Laps 58 giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 18
  • 19. Circuit Info One of a batch a modern-day circuits designed by Hermann Tilke, Istanbul Park is a high speed track where F1 cars can reach speeds of over 205mph. Istanbul is one of only four current F1 circuits that runs anti-clockwise, the others being Singapore, Brazil and the new track in Abu Dhabi. Although the circuit does not feature Tilke's trademark long straight followed by a hairpin to encourage overtaking there are still numerous opportunities throughout the lap. The most challenging corner on the track is the multi-apex turn eight where drivers experience a load of 5G. The circuit offers excellent spectator facilities with a capacity of 130,000 people; the race however is often badly supported by spectators. Felipe Massa is the most successful driver in the short history of the circuit, winning three consecutive races between 2006 and 2008. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 19
  • 20. CIRCUIT GILLES VILLENEUVE MONTREAL Circuit 4.361 km Laps 70 giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 20
  • 21. Circuit Info Formerly called the Ile Notre-Dame Circuit, the first Canadian Grand Prix was held at its current location, a partly man-made island in the Saint-Lawrence River, in 1967. The track was renamed in 1982 to honour the late French-Canadian driver Gilles Villeneuve who claimed his maiden Formula One victory at the venue's inaugural F1 race in 1978. Known for its tricky hairpin bends and the kilometre-long straight, the circuit is also famous for its "Wall of Champions". Situated at the end of the very long high-speed straight, the chicane has caught out many drivers over the years, notably in 1999 when three world champions, Michael Schumacher, Jacques Villeneuve and Damon Hill all fell foul of the tricky chicane. The first lap is notorious for accidents, the cars are funnelled from the grid into the tight Senna curves, and so frequent is the safety car deployed that teams actually prepare strategies with one or two safety car periods in mind. The 2009 Canadian Grand Prix was dropped from the calendar following the failure to reach a deal with F1 CEO Bernie Ecclestone. The government refused to pay the increased fee that they were faced with on renewal of the contract. However, after further discussions a deal was brokered that saw the popular event making a return to the 2010 calendar giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 21
  • 22. VALENCIA STREET CIRCUIT Circuit 3.376 km Laps 57 giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 22
  • 23. Circuit Info The deal to bring the European Grand Prix to Valencia was signed in 2007 between Bernie Ecclestone and promoters Valmor Sport Group, headed by ex-motorcyclist Jorge Martinez Aspar. The deal will see the race in Valencia for seven years, despite Ecclestone previously insisting no European country should host more than one grand prix a season, with Barcelona hosting the Spanish race. The new road circuit is based in Valencia's harbour area which was heavily rebuilt as a home for the America's Cup Yacht race which was hosted by the city in 2007 and 2009. There seems to be an unwritten rule in modern F1 that you can't design a new circuit without the expertise of Herman Tilke, and Valencia is no exception. He designed infrastructure and buildings including a 140-metre long swing bridge that links the two sides of the harbour and allows the track to make the best use of the natural features. Although essentially a road course, the designers have tried to incorporate all the safety features of a permanent circuit. The circuit was tested for F1 by running a meeting at the end of July 2008 which featured Spanish F3 and International GT's; the F3 race was won by new local F1 hero Jamie Alguersuari. The first grand prix was held nearly a month later, and was won by Ferrari's Felipe Massa from pole, who was later fined 10,000 euros for nearly colliding with Adrian Sutil's car in the pit lane but retained his victory. Ticket sales for the race were sluggish for the second race in 2009 but were stimulated on the news that Michael Schumacher would return to F1 to deputise for the injured Massa. The organisers refused to refund tickets after he cancelled his comeback. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 23
  • 24. SILVERSTONE GRAND PRIX CIRCUIT Circuit 5.141 km Laps 60 Circuit Info Like many UK historic tracks, Silverstone was built on the site of an old RAF airfield with the original circuit making use of the three runways in a triangle formation, so common to World War Two airfields. The first race at the circuit is reported to have taken place in September 1947 between local resident Maurice Geoghegan and 11 friends who raced on a two-mile ad-hoc circuit. The race was plagued by sheep wandering onto the circuit; the event was nicknamed the 'Mutton Grand Prix' after Geoghegan hit one of the unfortunate creatures, signalling the end for both car and sheep. The following year the Royal Automobile Club (RAC) took a lease on the airfield and set out a more formal circuit marked by hay bales. The layout still retained use of the original runways and led to a circuit consisting of long straights joined by hairpin corners. In 1949 the layout was revised to use the perimeter track and this layout formed the circuit for the first Grand Prix held there in 1950. In the presence of King George VI, the race was won by Nino Farino in his Alfa Romeo, finishing two laps ahead of team-mate Luigi Faglioli. The start-line was moved from Farm straight to the current location for the 1952 Grand Prix and the layout remained largely unaltered for the next 35 years. The circuit continued to host grand giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 24
  • 25. prix events but shared hosting duties with Brands Hatch and Aintree up to 1986. As the speeds of the cars began to rise, a chicane was introduced in order to slow the competitors through Woodcote corner, Bridge was also subtly altered in 1987, also for safety reasons. After the 1990 Grand Prix, Silverstone underwent a major redesign in time for the 1991 race which proved popular with fans. The circuit's cause was no doubt helped when local hero Nigel Mansell won the race. At the end of the race Mansell stopped to give stranded Ayrton Senna a lift back to the pits on the side pod of his car, a now iconic F1 image. Following the death of Senna at Imola in 1994, many F1 tracks were modified in a bid to drastically reduced speeds and increase safety. For Silverstone this meant modification to Stowe corner and the flat-out Abbey kink converted to a chicane. Having hosted the British Grand Prix permanently since 1987, rifts began to show between the British Racing Drivers Club (BRDC), who now owned the facility, and the FIA. It came to a head when in September 2004 BRDC president Sir Jackie Stewart announced that Silverstone would not feature in the 2005 provisional F1 calendar. A last-minute agreement was reached in December, securing the race's future at Silverstone until 2009. The circuit's future post-2009 looked rocky when Bernie Ecclestone said that he no longer wanted to deal with the BRDC and instead wanted an official promoter appointed. He also said major redevelopment was required for them to regain the race, including a new pit and paddock complex. In August 2007 Silverstone got the go-ahead to start renovations; however on July 4, 2008 Ecclestone dropped the axe on the Northamptonshire venue by announcing the event would move to Donington Park in 2010. As Donington's plan appeared more and more shaky Ecclestone softened his "Donington or nothing" policy and admitted that Silverstone may get a chance to host the event. When Donington failed to raise the £135million it required for renovations Ecclestone once again opened discussions with Silverstone. In December 2009 British Racing Driver's Club (BRDC) president Damon Hill announced that they had agreed a 17-year deal to keep the race at Silverstone. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 25
  • 26. HOCKENHEIM-RING HOCKENHEIM Circuit 4.574 km Laps 67 giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 26
  • 27. Circuit Info Built by Mercedes-Benz as a test track in the 1930s, Hockenheim first welcomed F1 to the circuit in 1970 when drivers threatened to boycott the German Grand Prix at the Nürburgring on safety grounds. Safety measures had already been introduced at Hockenheim following the death of Jim Clark in 1968, where chicanes were added to the track's two main straights. However, the race returned to the Nürburgring the following year, where it remained until 1977 when Hockenheim became the regular home of the German Grand Prix until 2006. In 2002 the circuit underwent major alterations for safety reasons, with the new layout significantly reducing the speed of the circuit and increasing the spectator seating available. Since 1995 there had been two grand prix held in Germany every year; the German Grand Prix at Hockenheim and either the European Grand Prix or the Luxembourg Grand Prix at the Nürburgring, but in 2006 Bernie Ecclestone announced there would only be one race held in Germany from 2007, alternating between the two historic circuits. While no driver has ever been killed in an F1 race at Hockenheim, two-time F1 world champion Jim Clark died in a Formula 2 race in April 1968 after he crashed into trees at 140mph. A memorial used to mark the spot where he crashed but after the redevelopment of the circuit the memorial was replaced by a more impressive structure at turn one. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 27
  • 28. HUNGARORING SPORT RT BUDAPEST Circuit 4.381 km Laps 70 giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 28
  • 29. Circuit Info Although Hungary first hosted a grand prix in the 1930s, the Second World War and the advent of the Iron Curtain meant motor racing in Eastern Europe was seriously limited until the late 60s. In the 1980s Bernie Ecclestone looked to introduce a race behind the Iron Curtain, looking initially at Moscow before turning to Budapest, with a plan to run a race on a temporary road circuit in the city centre. Organisers made the bold move to build a completely new circuit in a valley 12 miles from Budapest; the circuit was completed in just eight months and the landscape offering amazing spectators facilities with around 80% of the circuit visible from any vantage point. The circuit held its first race in August 1986; it was a huge success attracting a crowd of nearly 200,000. The tight and twisty track has offered some excellent close races over the years, notably the 1990 race when Thierry Boutson won the race by less than 0.3 of a second from Ayrton Senna. The circuit is loved by some and considered twisty, hot and dusty by others. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 29
  • 30. CIRCUIT DE SPA FRANCORCHAMPS Circuit 7.004 km Laps 44 giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 30
  • 31. Circuit Info Belgium's Spa Francorchamps circuit is one of the oldest on the current F1 calendar; with records showing that it hosted its first non-championship grand prix in 1924. The original circuit made up of narrow roads was 9.3miles long (14.9km) and was notoriously dangerous. Despite this only two people have died at the circuit, Chris Bristow and Alan Stacey during the 1960 grand prix. The old track hosted its final race in 1970, when it was deemed too dangerous for F1. Spa was missing from the F1 calendar until 1983 when it returned with a drastically reduced circuit of almost 4.5miles. Despite the cuts in length the circuit still managed to retain its magic. The mix of long straights and fast corners, combined with a picturesque setting and notoriously changeable weather keeps it at the top of both drivers and spectators favourite circuits. Part of the magic of Spa is that it is known and respected as one of the most challenging in the world, and to prove that fact only six drivers have managed to win the Belgian Grand Prix at Spa more than twice: Juan Manual Fangio and Damon Hill both have three wins to their name, Jim Clark and Kimi Raikkonen managed one better with four wins and Ayrton Senna won the race five times. The undisputed Spa master though, is Michael Schumacher who has won a record six times. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 31
  • 32. AUTODROMO NAZIONALE DI MONZA Circuit 5.793 km Laps 53 giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 32
  • 33. Circuit Info One of the old-school of grand prix circuits Monza has a very special atmosphere; the Italians often refer to it as "La Pista Magica" or the magic track. It is set in a royal park and has played host to motorsport since 1922. After Brooklands and Indianapolis, Monza was the third permanent racing circuit in the world, and like many circuits of that era, the lap was over six miles. The remains of the old banked track can still be found in the park grounds. The high-speed nature of the track means it has had more than its fair share of serious accidents and fatalities. Monza has claimed the lives of high profile drivers including F1's only posthumous world champion Jochen Rindt in 1970. Despite numerous modifications over the years to improve safety for both drivers and spectators, the circuit faces criticism for its lack of run-off especially at the Variante della Roggia corner. Despite the ongoing safety debate the circuit is still a firm favourite with fans who can always expect an action-packed high-speed race. Legendary Ferrari fans, known as the Tifosi, turn the stands to a sea of red on race day, as they cheer on their team at their local circuit. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 33
  • 34. SINGAPORE STREET CIRCUIT Circuit 5.067 km Laps 61 giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 34
  • 35. Circuit Info Although Singapore hosted numerous non-championship races in the late 60s and early 70s, there was not a race after 1974. The announcement of the new event came at the end of 2007 and was met with mixed reaction from fans. Excitement began to build when the FIA announced that to ensure prime-time viewing for the European market the Marina Bay circuit would host F1's first ever night race. The non-permanent road circuit brought in innovative lighting techniques to ensure daylight conditions for the drivers and those working in the pits, while still offering spectators the atmospheric conditions of a night race. The first race in 2008 was won by Renault's Fernando Alonso, it was a complete sell-out, but will always be marred by the crashgate scandal. It later emerged that Renault asked driver Nelson Piquet Jnr to deliberately crash his car, in order to help his team-mate Alonso win the race. For the 2009 race the circuit was modified through the first three turns to encourage more overtaking, modifications were also made to the high kerbs at turn ten that had caused so many accidents the previous year. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 35
  • 36. SUZUKA INTERNATIONAL RACING COURSE SUZUKA-CITY Circuit 5.451 km Laps 53 giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 36
  • 37. Circuit Info Although unique is a much over-used word in F1, it can rightly be referred to Suzuka. Not only is the Japanese circuit the only one that crosses over itself, in a figure of eight format, but this fact means that it is also the only circuit that runs both clockwise and anti-clockwise. The grounds play host to a huge funfair, and the big wheel is prominent on the skyline. Designed as a test track for the Honda Motor Company in 1962 by Dutchman John Hugenholtz, it was mainly used for vehicle development. After hosting numerous races in lower formulae Suzuka began its quest to host the Japanese Grand Prix, a feat it managed in 1987, when it took the honour away from Fuji, Toyota's test track. Although the grand prix returned to Fuji for 2007 and 2008 the race is now confirmed to take place at Suzuka till 2011. An extremely fast and technical circuit, Suzuka is popular with drivers and spectators alike and has some notorious corners including Spoon Curve and 130R. The circuit closed for a year in 2008 in order to make revisions necessary for F1, it re-opened on April 12, 2009. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 37
  • 38. KOREAN INTERNATIONAL CIRCUIT YEONGAM Circuit 5.621 km Laps 55 giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 38
  • 39. Circuit Info A brand new venue for 2010 is the Korean International Circuit in South Korea. This $264million dollar project, situated in Yeongam County is being supervised by F1's new circuit guru Hermann Tilke. The project is a joint venture between private firm M-Bridge Holdings and South Jeolla provincial government known as Korea Auto Valley Operation (KAVO). Work is apparently well underway at the site 320km south of the capital Seoul, but information and pictures have so far been limited. Organisers say the 3.5-mile circuit which is being built on 425 acres of reclaimed land beside an artificial seaside lake. The anti-clockwise track will feature Asia's longest straight, allowing for speeds of up to 320km per hour. The grandstands will accommodate up to 135,000 people. KAVO have a seven-year deal to host the race, with an option to renew for a further five-year term. The organisers are happy with the progress of the facility and confidently predict that it will be ready in time for their debut race in October 2010. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 39
  • 40. AUTODROMO JOSE’ CARLOS PACE INTERLAGOS Circuit 4.309 km Laps 71 giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 40
  • 41. Circuit Info Interlagos literally means 'between the lakes' referring to two large manmade lakes built in the early 20th century to supply the city with water and electricity. The land on which the circuit stands was originally bought in 1938 by two property developers who intended to build houses on the site. When they discovered that the site was not suitable they decided to build a circuit instead, and as Sao Paulo continued to grow at an astounding rate it was not long before the track was surrounded by houses. Owing to the success of Emerson Fittipaldi, the country expressed an interest in hosting a race. Interlagos held two non-championship races in 1971 and '72 before joining the full championship calendar in 1973, and the circuit proved to be a lucky one for the local racers Fittipaldi, Carlos Pace and Carlos Reutemann who all won races there. In fact, it was the scene of Pace's only F1 win, and following his death in a plane crash in 1977 the circuit was renamed in his honour. In 1978 the Brazilian Grand Prix moved to the Jacarepagua circuit in Rio de Janeiro, but it returned to Interlagos the following year. In 1981 it was moved to Rio permanently as the organisers felt the slums of Sao Paulo were at odds with the glamour of F1. It would take a promise of a US$15million redevelopment programme to bring the race back in 1990. The circuit itself is one of the very few circuits on the calendar that runs anti-clockwise, and this, combined with its bumpy surface means it is considered hard on cars and drivers alike. The resurfacing of the track in 2007 ironed out most of the worst bumps but the circuit still retains the character as it follows the lands contours making it an interesting circuit to drive. Despite the lack of a real Brazilian hero since Senna's death the passion of the local fans has not diminished and the race continues to draw good crowds. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 41
  • 42. YAS MARINA CIRCUIT ABU DHABI Circuit 5.550 km Laps 55 giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 42
  • 43. Circuit Info The circuit is one of very few on the F1 calendar to run in an anti-clockwise direction, and it is also unique as the only track with an underground pit lane. Leaving the track on the right, it crosses underneath and rejoins on the left. Concerns were raised that the tunnel was too narrow and dangerous, and any accidents would be difficult to clear quickly. Granted the final go-ahead by the FIA in 2009, Bruno Senna was the first driver to complete a test lap during the GP2 testing. When the teams arrived in Abu Dhabi for the season finale in October 2009, not a single driver had driven the track. Much more spectator-friendly than soulless near-neighbour Bahrain, some drivers have complained the circuit is too safe. "The car can go everywhere, cutting off corners, and you don't ever lose time," moaned Adrian Sutil after the 2009 grand prix. "That can make racing very boring. There's no real flow." Purists also lamented the need to build chicanes on a new track given their only purpose was to slow down cars on existing circuits. Yas Marina made history when the 2009 Abu Dhabi Grand Prix hosted F1's first day-night race, starting at twilight with the race finishing in the dark. Floodlights were used from the start of the event to illuminate the circuit and ensure a seamless transition from light to dark. Lewis Hamilton started the race on pole but was forced to retire with brake problems. Sebastian Vettel won the race, the fifth victory of his F1 career, beating team-mate Mark Webber and 2009 champion Jenson Button to seal second place in the championship. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 43
  • 44. 2010 Teams and Drivers giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 44
  • 45. McLaren – Mercedes 2.4 V8 – Bridgestone Sede: Working Business Park, Albert Drive, Sheerwater, Working, Surrey GU21 5JY (UK) Executive Chairman of McLaren Automotive: Ron Dennis Team Principal: Martin Whitmarsh Engineering Director, McLaren Racing: Paddy Lowe Managing Director, McLaren Racing: Jonathan Neale Chief Engineer MP4-24, McLaren Racing: Pat Fry Specifications Monocoque: McLaren-moulded carbonfibre composite incorporating front and side impact structures Front suspension: Inboard torsion bar/damper system operated by pushrod and bell crank with a double wishbone arrangement Rear suspension: Inboard torsion bar/damper system operated by pushrod and bell crank with a double wishbone arrangement Suspension dampers: Koni Electronics: McLaren Electronic Systems control units incorporating electronics for chassis, engine and data acquisition. McLaren Electronic Systems also supplies the electronic dashboard, alternator voltage control, sensors, data analysis and telemetry systems Bodywork: Carbonfibre composite. Separate engine cover, sidepods and floor. Structural nose with intergral front wing. Paint solutions provided by AkzoNobel Car Refinishes using Sikkens Products Tyres: Bridgestone Potenza Radio: Kenwood Race wheels: Enkei Brake calipers: Akebono Master cylinders: Akebono Batteries: GS Yuasa Corporation Steering: McLaren power-assisted Instruments: McLaren Electronic Systems Transmission Gearbox: McLaren-moulded carbonfibre composite. Integral rear impact structure Gears: Seven forward and one reverse Gear selection: McLaren seamless shift, hand-operated fly-by-wire Clutch: Carbon/carbon, hand-operated fly-by-wire giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 45
  • 46. Engine Type: Mercedes-Benz FO 108X Capacity: 2.4 litres Cylinders: 8 Maximum rpm: 18,000 Bank angle: 90° Piston bore maximum: 98mm Number of valves: 32 Fuel: ExxonMobil High Performance Unleaded (5.75% bio fuel) Spark plugs: NGK racing spark plugs specially designed for Mercedes-Benz F1 engine Lubricants: Mobil 1 – for higher performance, lower friction, better protection, cooling and wear resistance Weight: 95kg (minimum FIA regulation weight) giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 46
  • 47. Jenson Button Great Britain Full name Jenson Alexander Lyons Button Birth date January 19, 1980 Birthplace Frome, Somerset, Great Britain Current age 30 years 75 days Height 1.82 m Weight 72 kg Current team McLaren Previous teams BAR, Benetton, Brawn, Honda, Renault, Williams Year Car Race Start Won Pod Class Best Pole Front Best Lap Hat Pts Pos 2000 Williams 17 17 0 0 11 4 0 0 3 0 0 12 8 2001 Benetton 17 17 0 0 12 5 0 0 9 0 0 2 17 2002 Renault 17 17 0 0 12 4 0 0 6 0 0 14 7 2003 BAR 16 15 0 0 10 4 0 0 5 0 0 17 9 2004 BAR 18 18 0 10 15 2 1 3 1 0 0 85 3 2005 BAR 17 16 0 2 12 3 1 4 1 0 0 37 9 2006 Honda 18 18 1 3 14 1 1 3 1 0 0 56 6 2007 Honda 17 17 0 0 11 5 0 0 6 0 0 6 15 2008 Honda 18 18 0 0 14 6 0 0 9 0 0 3 18 2009 Brawn 17 17 6 9 16 1 4 5 1 2 1 95 1 2010 McLaren 3 3 1 1 3 1 0 0 4 0 0 35 4* Total 175 173 8 25 130 1 7 15 1 2 1 362 It took nine years in the top-flight of motorsport before Jenson Button finally achieved his boyhood dream in 2009 and became Formula One World Champion. His talent and desire had been questioned on a number of occasions during his F1 career, but with the ultimate accolade next to his name he is now one of the paddock's hottest properties. When he signed for McLaren on November 18, 2009 he joined Lewis Hamilton to form the ultimate British dream team. If it was the smartest career move for him remains to be seen. Button made it to Formula One remarkably quickly, graduating from karting to grand prix racing in just two years. His skill was obvious from the start and was revered by his karting contemporaries Anthony Davidson and Hamilton. Formula Ford was the next proving ground and he duly won the British Championship in his debut year. The following year he moved to Formula 3 and again impressed. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 47
  • 48. A test with the Prost F1 team led to his name being mentioned up and down the paddock. A number of testing contracts were offered, but Frank Williams shocked everyone by signing the 20- year-old to be his second driver for 2000. A solid rookie year followed but Williams replaced him with Juan Pablo Montoya for 2001 and Button moved to Benetton. At his new team he had his first experience of driving an uncompetitive car and was overshadowed by his experienced team mate Giancarlo Fisichella. Benetton morphed into Renault in 2002 but by 2003 Button had to make way for Flavio Briatore's protégé Fernando Alonso. However, BAR team principal David Richards still saw potential in the Brit and signed him to partner Jacques Villeneuve. The move began a long, at times torturous, but ultimately fruitful period with the Brackley-based team. His first podium finally came in 2004, along with a pole position at Imola and third place in the championship behind the dominant Ferraris of Michael Schumacher and Rubens Barrichello. Yet questions were still being asked, as by his 114th race Button still hadn't won a grand prix. Then came the 13th round of the 2006 World Championship in Hungary and at last a change of luck. An unexpected rainstorm meant the tight Hungaroring circuit was open for overtaking and allowing him to pick his way through the field from 14th place on the grid to the top step of the podium. Despite the win the worst was yet to come. Honda produced a pair of forgettable cars for the 2007 and 2008 seasons before pulling out altogether and leaving Button with just nine points over the previous two seasons and no drive for 2009. The well worn but still magical Brawn fairy-tale then followed and, to the delight of John Button and son, the rest is history. Strengths and Weaknesses Telemetry can prove that Button is one most technically perfect drivers ever to sit behind the wheel of a Formula One car. However, throw in a few variables, such as cold tyres or a car with a tendency for oversteer, and Button sometimes struggles to adapt. Career High His championship winning 2009 season and his performance at the Brazilian Grand Prix which finally sealed the deal and silenced the critics who were suggesting he was not earning his title. Career Low 114 races without a victory. Quotes "If I'm not winning, I don't give a damn who else is. It doesn't make any difference to me if I'm not in a competitive car. I can't be bothered with working my nuts off and qualifying fourteenth any more. It's making me unhappy." When asked to choose between Mansell and Piquet: "Mansell. Because I like the guy and he's got a great moustache - or at least he used to have a great moustache." Trivia Button is the proud owner of a 1956, split windscreen, Volkswagen campervan. The Brit has a large garage of exotic cars but recently sold his Bugatti Veyron for around £900,000. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 48
  • 49. Lewis Hamilton Great Britain Full name Lewis Carl Hamilton Birth date January 7, 1985 Birthplace Tewin, Great Britain Current age 25 years 87 days Height 1.75 m Weight 66 kg Current team McLaren Year Car Race Start Won Pod Class Best Pole Front Best Lap Hat Pts Pos 2007 McLaren 17 17 4 12 16 1 6 12 1 2 1 109 2 2008 McLaren 18 18 5 10 17 1 7 9 1 1 1 98 1 2009 McLaren 17 17 2 5 14 1 4 4 1 0 0 49 5 2010 McLaren 3 3 0 1 3 3 0 0 4 0 0 31 6* Total 55 55 11 28 50 1 17 25 1 3 2 287 From an early age, Lewis Hamilton attracted attention as a potential F1 champion and he did not disappoint: he narrowly missed out on the championship by a single point in his maiden season in 2007 before securing it the following year, to become the youngest world champion in the sport's history. Hamilton has always been in the enviable position of having a car capable of winning the championship, but in 2009 that all changed and it showed that not even he could take an under- performing car to the top of the podium. Hamilton took his first steps towards F1 in 1993, aged eight, when he started karting at Rhye House Kart Circuit in his home county of Hertfordshire. By ten he was British Champion, on collecting his award at the Autosport Awards Ceremony the youngster approached McLaren team boss Ron Dennis, telling him, "I want to race for you one day." Dennis wrote in his autograph book that he should "give him a call in nine years". Less than three years later Dennis signed Hamilton to the McLaren Mercedes Young Driver Support Programme. The funding enabled Hamilton to progress to single-seaters and the Formula Renault series in 2002, a championship he won the second year with two rounds remaining. In 2004 he moved up to the European Formula 3 series and again in his second year took a dominant win. He followed this up by winning the GP2 series at his first attempt in 2006. After the departure of Raikkonen to Ferrari and Juan Pablo Montoya to NASCAR, McLaren found themselves requiring two drivers. In November the news came that the racing fraternity had long been expecting - Hamilton would drive for McLaren in 2007 alongside Spaniard Fernando Alonso. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 49
  • 50. Although stunning, Hamilton's first season in Formula One was not without drama. He regularly outperformed reigning world champion Alonso, standing on the podium after each of the first nine races. He scored his first race win in Canada, and followed it up one week later with a win at the US Grand Prix. Leading the championship, Hamilton was now being billed to do the unthinkable - winning the world championship at his first attempt. After a mixed second half to the season which saw heavy crashes and conflict with Alonso, the teams arrived in Brazil for the final race of the year. Hamilton was leading Alonso and Raikkonen by four and seven points respectively. He could have so easily taken the championship if it were not for a gear box issue mid-race - he missed out on the title by just one point. With Alonso heading back to Renault for the 2008 season, harmony was restored at McLaren. His determination was fired once more and he took a string of wins, despite some errors including a huge practice crash in Bahrain and running into the back of the stationary Alonso at the end of the pit lane, but by Monaco he was back at the top of the drivers' standings. Once more the season went to a final-race decider in Brazil - Hamilton arrived with a seven-point advantage, needing to finish in the top five to win the title. As rival Massa crossed the line to win the race, Hamilton was sixth prompting celebrations in the Ferrari camp. But moments later Hamilton put in a last-dash move on Timo Glock to finish fifth and take the title by a point. If his first two seasons in F1 had been a dream for Hamilton the third could be seen as a nightmare, only managing to score nine points by the tenth round of the season. Aero changes to the underperforming McLaren for the German Grand Prix showed promise, and he took two wins and two podiums in the last half of the season, but only managed fifth in the standings. Set to remain at McLaren till 2012, the 2010 season promises to be a challenge for Hamilton, as he lines up against reigning world champion and team-mate Jenson Button in the first pairing of British world champions since Graham Hill and Jim Clark at Lotus in 1968. Strengths and Weaknesses Hamilton's driving style has always ensured he stands out from the crowd, with the confidence to attempt overtaking manoeuvres not even considered by his rivals, and most of the time having the skill to pull them off. His preference for a car set up to over-steer shows off his lightning reactions. However, his desire to win every race can often backfire when he crashes out trying to gain a place rather than collecting the safe points. Career High Winning the world championship in 2008 after missing out by just one point in his debut season in 2007. Career Low Being disqualified from the Australian Grand Prix in 2009 after being found guilty of "misleading the stewards" over a yellow flag incident with Jarno Trulli. Quotes "I have no fear of death, so I don't think about it. I love the adrenalin kick that danger brings. Others get their kicks bungee jumping from tall buildings. I'm very, very competitive. I want to be the best at everything I do. It's not just driving - it's everything - it might be playing my guitar, I try to be the best at it as I possibly can." Trivia Hamilton is the proud owner of three Blue Peter badges - he received his first aged six when he appeared on the programme to drive remote control cars, his second and third aged 12 and 16 for karting. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 50
  • 51. Mercedes – Mercedes 2.4 V8 – Bridgestone Sede: Brackley, Northants, NN13 7BD (UK) Team Principal: Ross Brawn Chief Executive Officer: Nick Fry Vice President, Mercedes-Benz Motorsport: Norbert Haug Managing Director, Mercedes-Benz: Thomas Fuhr Specifications Chassis: Construction Moulded carbon fibre and honeycomb composite structure Suspension: Wishbone and pushrod activated torsion springs and rockers Dampers: Sachs Wheels: BBS forged magnesium Tyres: Bridgestone Potenza Brakes: Brembo calipers Brake: discs/pads Carbon/Carbon Steering: Power assisted rack and pinion Steering: wheel Carbon fibre construction Electronics: FIA standard ECU and FIA homologated electronic and electrical system Transmission Gearbox: Seven speed unit with carbon composite maincase Gear selection: Sequential, semi-automatic, hydraulic activation Clutch: Carbon plate Dimensions Overall length: 4800mm Overall height: 950mm Overall width: 1800mm Engine Type: Mercedes-Benz FO108X Capacity: 2.4 litres Cylinders: 8 Maximum rpm: 18,000 (maximum FIA regulation) Bank angle: 90° Piston bore: 98mm (maximum FIA regulation) No of valves: 32 Weight: 95kg (minimum FIA regulation weight) giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 51
  • 52. Nico Rosberg Germany Full name Nico Rosberg Birth date June 27, 1985 Birthplace Wiesbaden, Germany Current age 24 years 281 days Height 1.78 m Weight 71 kg Relation Father - K Rosberg Current team Mercedes Previous teams Williams Year Car Race Start Won Pod Class Best Pole Front Best Lap Hat Pts Pos 2006 Williams 18 18 0 0 9 7 0 0 3 1 0 4 17 2007 Williams 17 17 0 0 14 4 0 0 4 0 0 20 9 2008 Williams 18 18 0 2 16 2 0 0 5 0 0 17 13 2009 Williams 17 17 0 0 16 4 0 0 3 1 0 34.5 7 2010 Mercedes 3 3 0 1 3 3 0 1 2 0 0 35 5* Total 73 73 0 3 58 2 0 1 2 2 0 110.5 Despite spending his childhood around the paddock with his father, 1982 world champion Keke, Nico Rosberg was never guaranteed a future in F1. Brought up in Monaco, he was encouraged to pursue other hobbies, and even considered becoming a professional tennis player. He started karting at the age of 11, and in 2002, he moved up to German Formula BMW, winning the title in his first season with nine victories. At 17 he became the youngest person to drive an F1 car when he was given a test with Williams, and he never looked back. Driving for his father's team, Team Rosberg, he graduated to Formula 3. In 2005 he was offered a place at Imperial College in London to read for a degree in Aeronautics, but decided pursue a career in racing. His gamble paid off and that year he moved into the GP2 series with ART racing, winning the championship in his rookie year, beating rival Heikki Kovalainen by 15 points. Such an impressive display earned him with a seat with Williams for the 2006 season, alongside Mark Webber. His debut at the 2006 Bahrain Grand Prix could not have been much more impressive. After an early collision with Nick Heidfeld, that saw him slip to the back of the field he recovered to secure his first points, finishing seventh. In doing so, he became the youngest driver ever to record a fastest lap. In his second race he qualified third, only to bow out on the third lap with engine failure. He ended his rookie season in 17th, with four points. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 52
  • 53. In 2007 Rosberg improved on his debut season result with 20 points, enough for ninth in the drivers' standings. His best result came in Brazil on the final race of the season, where he finished fourth. He had to wait until the following year, however, to secure his first podium finish. On the opening race of the 2008 season he took third, and bettered this in Singapore with a second behind Fernando Alonso. However, mixed results throughout the season meant he completed the season down in 13th. 2009 was Rosberg's best season, but although he was consistently quickest in practice, he failed to replicate the speed in qualifying. Although he didn't to reach the podium, consistently finishing in the points was enough to see him take seventh, and get a drive with the new Mercedes team for 2010. Strengths and Weaknesses Rosberg is one of the most talented drivers on the circuit, with natural pace and ability. However, his failure to keep his cool when the pressure is on still remains a problem. Career High Becoming the youngest driver to set a fastest lap on his F1 debut in the 2006 Bahrain Grand Prix. Career Low After qualifying third at the Singapore Grand Prix, Rosberg was a comfortable second, and in with a chance of catching leader Lewis Hamilton for his first race victory. He pitted on lap 18, but crossed the white line exiting the pits and recieved drive-through penalty, eventually finishing a disappointing 11th. Quotes "Generally it is just annoying. I know that I am very lucky to have a father like that and it has helped my career but in the end you are the one who is racing and results are yours." Rosberg on being compared to his father, Keke. "He is the most exciting driver on the track. He digs himself out of some holes that we put him in some times - comes by three places up at the end of the first lap. He is single-minded, chirpy, a little arrogant which is good - he is always very good with the promo people, never an objection, he is very good." Williams team principal Frank Williams. Trivia Although his father, former F1 champion Keke Rosberg, is Finnish, Nico, whose mother is German, races under the German flag. He speaks fluent German, English, Italian and French, but does not speak Finnish. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 53
  • 54. Michael Schumacher Germany Full name Michael Schumacher Birth date January 3, 1969 Birthplace Hürth-Hermülheim, Germany Current age 41 years 91 days Height 1.74 m Weight 75 kg Relation Brother - R Schumacher Current team Mercedes Previous teams Benetton, Ferrari, Jordan Year Car Race Start Won Pod Class Best Pole Front Best Lap Hat Pts Pos 1991 Jordan, Benetton 6 6 0 0 3 5 0 0 5 0 0 4 14 1992 Benetton 16 16 1 8 12 1 0 1 2 2 0 53 3 1993 Benetton 16 16 1 9 9 1 0 1 2 5 0 52 4 1994 Benetton 14 14 8 10 10 1 6 12 1 8 4 92 1 1995 Benetton 17 17 9 11 13 1 4 10 1 8 1 102 1 1996 Ferrari 16 15 3 8 10 1 4 5 1 2 0 59 3 1997 Ferrari 17 17 5 8 13 1 3 7 1 3 1 78 2 1998 Ferrari 16 16 6 11 13 1 3 6 1 6 0 86 2 1999 Ferrari 10 9 2 6 8 1 3 5 1 5 0 44 5 2000 Ferrari 17 17 9 12 13 1 9 12 1 2 0 108 1 2001 Ferrari 17 17 9 14 15 1 11 13 1 3 2 123 1 2002 Ferrari 17 17 11 17 17 1 7 13 1 7 4 144 1 2003 Ferrari 16 16 6 8 15 1 5 6 1 5 3 93 1 2004 Ferrari 18 18 13 15 17 1 8 12 1 10 5 148 1 2005 Ferrari 19 19 1 5 13 1 1 3 1 3 0 62 3 2006 Ferrari 18 18 7 12 16 1 4 9 1 7 2 121 2 2010 Mercedes 3 3 0 0 2 6 0 0 7 0 0 9 10* Total 253 251 91 154 199 1 68 115 1 76 22 1378 His insatiable desire for success took him to seven world titles before he retired as a household name in 2006. He is by far and away the most successful driver of all time, but remarkably that giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 54
  • 55. isn't enough for him and in 2010 he will return to Formula One to try to add to his huge catalogue of records. His domination of the sport in the 2000s was remarkable. His natural ability, sheer determination and political nous proved to be the perfect combination for success in F1. When teamed up with Jean Todt and Ross Brawn at Ferrari these factors led to five consecutive titles from 2000 to 2004 and will likely bring success when he returns in 2010. At times he has been accused of overstepping the fine line between being determined to win and cheating. In 1994 he caused uproar when he took his first championship at a tight title showdown with Damon Hill in Australia. Hill had the superior car and looked set to clinch the title if he could pass Schumacher on track. But as Hill made his move, Schumacher clipped the wall and caused an accident that forced both to retire. In doing so he ensured he won the championship. There was more controversy in 1997 when Schumacher, fighting for the title with Jacques Villeneuve, pulled a similar stunt. This time, however, it didn't pay off and Villeneuve took the title while Schumacher was stripped of his runner-up spot. His talent was first spotted by his career-long manager Willi Weber while racing in karts. Weber guided him to the German Formula 3 championship in 1990 and then to success in sportscars and F3000 in 1991. In the same year Eddie Jordan gave him his first drive in F1 at the daunting Spa Francorchamps circuit. The opportunity came about when Jordan's regular driver Bertrand Gachot was jailed for spraying CS gas in a London taxi driver's face. Schumacher seized the chance and he qualified in an impressive seventh place on his first attempt. Unfortunately his start was a little bit too enthusiastic and he burnt the clutch, forcing him into retirement. But he had impressed the right people, and was instantly signed up by Flavio Briatore to drive for Benetton for the rest of the season. His first win came a year later, and by 1994 he was world champion. In 1995 he made it back-to- back titles, beating Hill again but this time without the controversy. For 1996 he moved to Ferrari and, alongside Todt, began building the team that would eventually dominate the sport. He started reaping the rewards in 2000 when he took his first title with the Italian marquee. It could have come a year earlier, but he was ruled out of half of the 1999 season when he crashed at Silverstone and broke his leg. Championships followed in 2001, 2002, 2003 and 2004 as he went from strength to strength and took a record 13 wins in the '04 season. 2005 then proved difficult, as Ferrari's tyre supplier Bridgestone struggled with new regulations. He still finished third in the championship but his only win came at Indianapolis when 14 Michelin runners were prevented from racing. In 2006 he came close to the title but was beaten by Fernando Alonso and Renault. He had proved he was still competitive but his mind was made up, and at an emotional press conference at Monza, he announced his retirement. He became a trackside consultant at Ferrari and started racing motorbikes as a hobby. However, after several accidents and few successes he jumped at the opportunity to return to F1 with Ferrari in 2009 to replace the injured Felipe Massa. Unfortunately one of his motorbike accidents proved more serious than first thought and doctors warned him against making a return. But the desire to race was still there and in late 2009 a deal was signed with Mercedes to return in 2010. He is now fully fit and ready to pick up where he left off in 2006, in what is bound to be one of the most exciting seasons of his career. Strengths and weaknesses He is close to being the complete package as a racing driver but his desire to win has led him astray. Even later in his career he caused controversy when he blocked the track at Monaco during a qualifying session in order to try and take pole. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 55
  • 56. Career high Winning his seventh title in 2004 in very dominant fashion Career low Being stripped of his second place in 1997 when the FIA accused him of trying to crash into Villeneuve at the final round. Quotes "I can't really imagine life without Formula One." Schumacher on his approach to F1: "You know the song My Way? I think that fits how I feel." Trivia He turned down the opportunity to play football in the UEFA Champions League, having been offered the chance to play for San Marino champions SS Murata in the opening round of the 2008 competition giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 56
  • 57. Red Bull Racing – Renault 2.4 V8 – Bridgestone Sede: Bradbourne Drive Tilbrook, Milton Keynes, MK7 8BJ United Kingdom Team Principal: Christian Horner Chief Technical Officer: Adrian Newey Head of Aerodynamics: Peter Prodromou Chief Designer: Rob Marshall Specifications Chassis: Composite monocoque structure, designed and built in-house, carrying the Renault V8 engine as fully stressed member Front suspension: Aluminium alloy uprights, carbon-composite double wishbone with springs and anti-roll bar, Multimatic dampers Rear suspension: Aluminium alloy uprights, carbon-composite double wishbone with springs and anti-roll bar, Multimatic dampers Brakes: Brembo calipers, Brembo carbon discs and pads Electronics: FIA (MESL) standard control unit Fuel: Total Group Wheels: OZ Racing (front: 12.7in x 13in; rear: 13.4in x 13in) Tires: Bridgestone Brakes: Brembo Transmission Gearbox: Seven-speed gearbox, longitudinally mounted with hydraulic system for power shift and clutch operation. Clutch: AP Racing Engine Type: Renault RS27 - 2010 Configuration: 90° V8 Capacity: 2400cc Max RPM: 18,000 rpm (limit mandated by FIA) Number of Valves: 32 Engine construction: Cylinder block in cast aluminium Engine management: FIA (MESL) standard control unit TAG310B Oil: Total Group Weight: FIA minimum weight of 95kg giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 57
  • 58. Sebastian Vettel Germany Full name Sebastian Vettel Birth date July 3, 1987 Birthplace Heppenheim, Germany Current age 22 years 275 days Height 1.76 m Weight 58 kg Current team Red Bull Previous teams BMW Sauber, Toro Rosso Year Car Race Start Won Pod Class Best Pole Front Best Lap Hat Pts Pos 2007 BMW Sauber, Toro Rosso 8 8 0 0 5 4 0 0 7 0 0 6 14 2008 Toro Rosso 18 18 1 1 12 1 1 1 1 0 0 35 8 2009 Red Bull 17 17 4 8 14 1 4 8 1 3 1 84 2 2010 Red Bull 3 3 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 0 0 37 3* Total 46 46 6 10 33 1 7 11 1 3 1 162 Now an established race winner, Sebastian Vettel is arguably the star of the new generation of drivers. With a long-term Red Bull contract in place and the rougher edges smoothed it leaves many - himself included - expecting a regular wins and even a championship. He started his career in karting before moving to Formula BMW in 2003 taking rookie honours; he followed that up by winning 18 of the 20 events on the way to the title the following year. A move to European F3 followed in 2005 and he became BMW Sauber test and reserve driver on 2006. Vettel stayed race sharp by competing in the World Series by Renault before making his F1 debut at Indianapolis in 2007. Standing in for the injured Robert Kubica, he qualified a solid seventh and finished the race in eighth before moving to Toro Rosso for the Hungarian Grand Prix. Following a few novice mistakes, he finished a strong fourth in the wet Chinese Grand Prix. He endured a tough start to the 2008 season courtesy of numerous accidents, but Monaco brought the first reward when he finished fifth. Gaining confidence, he recorded his first victory at the rain-hit Italian Grand Prix. Having finished eighth in the championship, he moved to Red Bull Racing challenging for the championship with wins at Shanghai, Silverstone and Suzuka. Vettel remains under contract to the end of the 2011 season with Red Bull, with an option for 2012. Now with two full F1 seasons behind him, he has the experience to match his natural pace and is expected to spearhead the title aspiration of Red Bull Racing in the coming years. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 58
  • 59. Strengths and Weaknesses Having shown outstanding pace in wet weather conditions, his will to win is very much a strength in his character. However, while still relatively inexperienced, this desire for success has resulted in several accidents that could have been avoided. Career High After only two full seasons in the sport, Vettel already has a number of high notes, including his first grand prix win. Driving the unfancied Toro Rosso, Vettel claimed pole position in the rain at Monza, in 2008, and went on to dominate the race in tricky conditions. His victory made him the youngest ever grand prix winner. Career Low Chasing a podium position in the 2007 Japanese Grand Prix at Fuji, a lapse of concentration saw him run into the back of second placed Mark Webber whilst running behind the safety car. Both drivers were eliminated with Webber highly critical of the then rookie driver, while Vettel returned to the Toro Rosso pit in tears. He received a ten position grid penalty for the next race for the incident. Quotes "The chequered flag is really just a stupid wooden stick and a piece of cloth. It's a small thing, but it means so much when you cross the line." "Like a ship, a car should be named after a girl as it's sexy. My original car was called Kate. But then it got smashed at the opening race in Australia. So we called this one Kate's Dirty Sister because it is more aggressive and faster." "I sort of imagine Vettel laughing to himself and telling himself jokes down long straights like this. He seems to have that demeanour about him." Martin Brundle on Vettel. Trivia Vettel is something of an anglophile and is well known for his love of British comedy and music including Monty Python, Little Britain and The Beatles. He is also partial to an English breakfast. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 59
  • 60. Mark Webber Australia Full name Mark Alan Webber Birth date August 27, 1976 Birthplace Queanbeyan, New South Wales, Australia Current age 33 years 220 days Height 1.85 m Weight 75 kg Current team Red Bull Previous teams Jaguar, Minardi, Williams Year Car Race Start Won Pod Class Best Pole Front Best Lap Hat Pts Pos 2002 Minardi 17 16 0 0 10 5 0 0 18 0 0 2 16 2003 Jaguar 16 16 0 0 11 6 0 0 3 0 0 17 10 2004 Jaguar 18 18 0 0 10 6 0 1 2 0 0 7 13 2005 Williams 19 18 0 1 13 3 0 1 2 0 0 36 10 2006 Williams 18 18 0 0 7 6 0 1 2 0 0 7 14 2007 Red Bull 17 17 0 1 10 3 0 0 5 0 0 10 12 2008 Red Bull 18 18 0 0 15 4 0 1 2 0 0 21 11 2009 Red Bull 17 17 2 8 15 1 1 2 1 3 0 69.5 4 2010 Red Bull 3 3 0 1 3 2 1 2 1 2 0 24 8* Total 143 141 2 11 94 1 2 8 1 5 0 193.5 Mark Webber had to wait until his eighth F1 season to start to realise the potential he showed when he burst onto the scene with a surprise fifth-place finish in a sluggish Minardi in his debut grand prix in 2002. His first two wins and a career-best fourth in the drivers' championship finally arrived in 2009 with Red Bull, ending years of frustration as F1's 'nearly man'. It seems like only recently Webber was a young gun who was the talk of the infield, drawing comparison with some of the greats. Given the season has almost always opened with Webber's home race in Melbourne, hype has always surrounded his chances of pushing for end of year honours. Now one of the elder statesmen of the sport, Webber has belatedly started to turn sheer potential and determination into podiums and race wins with the fastest and most reliable car he has driven. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 60
  • 61. Webber had long been referred to as the unluckiest driver in the sport - it seems mechanical failures, accidents and other incidents have followed him wherever he has gone, holding him back from greater triumphs. Although that curse has dissipated somewhat in recent years, the former Minardi, Jaguar and Williams driver still hasn't quite found the consistency required to mount a serious championship challenge. With Webber re-signed for arguably one of the top teams in the paddock for 2010 - Red Bull - he stands his strongest chance yet of delivering a championship winning performance. Strengths and Weaknesses Although highly regarded among his peers in the sport, Webber has failed to live up to his early promise. However, despite only achieving limited success, he has remained determined and focused on his race craft. He is a strong qualifier who has a history of getting good performances out of weaker cars despite being constantly let down by his race form. Career High After waiting over seven years and 130 races, Webber finally scored his first race victory at the German Grand Prix in 2009. Career Low While leading his home race in 2006, a gearbox problem forced Webber to retire. His Williams finished just seven times out of 18 starts that season. Quotes "It's an incredible day. I wanted to win so badly after Silverstone as I thought I had a good chance there, then after yesterday's pole, I knew I was in a good position to try and win the race today. It's just an incredible day for all the people who have helped me to get to where I am today." Mark Webber after his first race win, July 2009 "If you have that kind of absolute dedication ... and there's only one driver other than Michael Schumacher out there that lives, breathes, sleeps, eats Formula One 110% - and that's Mark Webber," Paul Stoddart, 2005 Trivia In 2006, Webber was officially appointed as the number one ticket holder of the Canberra Raiders, an Australian rugby league team. He worked as a ball-boy for the Raiders during the late 1980s. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 61
  • 62. Ferrari – Ferrari 2.4 V8 – Bridgestone Sede: via Ascari, 55/57 – 41053 Maranello (MO) Presidente: Luca Cordero di Montezemolo Direttore della Gestione Sportiva: Stefano Domenicali Direttore Tecnico: Aldo Costa Direttore Motori ed Elettronica: Luca Marmorini Chief Designer: Nikolas Tombazis Chassis Carbon-fibre and honeycomb composite structure Ferrari longitudinal gearbox Limited-slip differential Semi-automatic sequential electronically controlled gearbox – quick shift Number of gears: Seven, plus reverse Brembo ventilated carbon-fibre disc brakes Independent suspension, push-rod activated torsion springs front and rear Weight with water, lubricant and driver: 620 kg BBS Wheels (front and rear: 13 inch) Engine Type: 056 Number of cylinders: Eight Cylinder block in sand cast aluminium: 90-degree V Number of valves: 32 Pneumatic distribution Total displacement: .2398 cm3 Piston bore: 98 mm Weight: > 95 kg Electronic injection and ignition Fuel: Shell V-Power Lubricant: Shell Helix Ultra giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 62
  • 63. Fernando Alonso Spain Full name Fernando Alonso Díaz Birth date July 29, 1981 Birthplace Oviedo, Spain Current age 28 years 249 days Height 1.71 m Weight 68 kg Current team Ferrari Previous teams McLaren, Minardi, Renault Year Car Race Start Won Pod Class Best Pole Front Best Lap Hat Pts Pos 2001 Minardi 17 16 0 0 9 10 0 0 17 0 0 0 - 2003 Renault 16 16 1 4 11 1 2 2 1 1 0 55 6 2004 Renault 18 18 0 4 13 2 1 1 1 0 0 59 4 2005 Renault 19 18 7 15 17 1 6 9 1 2 0 133 1 2006 Renault 18 18 7 14 16 1 6 6 1 5 1 134 1 2007 McLaren 17 17 4 12 16 1 2 9 1 3 2 109 3 2008 Renault 18 18 2 3 15 1 0 1 2 0 0 61 5 2009 Renault 17 17 0 1 14 3 1 2 1 2 0 26 9 2010 Ferrari 3 3 1 1 3 1 0 0 3 1 0 37 2* Total 143 141 22 54 114 1 18 30 1 14 3 614 Following a disappointing second spell with the Renault team, Fernando Alonso joins Ferrari in 2010 with a clear aim of adding a third championship to his already impressive resume. Following a successful period in karts, in which he became world champion, he stepped up to the Euro Open Championship for Nissan in 1999 and won the title. He moved to F3000 the following year, but F1 has already recognised his talents and he enjoyed a testing role with Minardi. He got his first F1 seat with the team in 2001 and put some impressive performances. In order to further his career he opted to return to a testing role this time with Renault the following year. Renault rewarded him with the race drive in 2003, and he recorded his first win at the Hungarian Grand Prix just a few months later. In 2005 he became the youngest ever world champion beating Kimi Raikkonen to the title. Six wins from the first nine races followed in 2006, even though Michael Schumacher kept the pressure on he could not deny Alonso his second title. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 63
  • 64. He joined McLaren in 2007 and while the opening races of the season went smoothly, it was soon clear that tensions were building between Alonso, and team-mate Lewis Hamilton. Unhappy that he had to battle with his own team-mate for success, he finished third in the championship and left the team under a cloud to rejoin Renault. With undisputed no.1 status he craved in 2008, his second two-year stint with Renault was disappointing with just two wins, one of which included the fixed Singapore Grand Prix. The 2009 package was not competitive - he scored just one podium all year - and after months of rumour, he agreed a multi-year deal to join Ferrari. Strengths and Weaknesses He has astonishing consistency and will battle hard regardless of his position and chances of a strong finish. He has made it clear that he demands number one status in a team. Career High After qualifying 16th in Brazil in 2005, he raced to third position to claim his first championship and ending Michael Schumacher's period of dominance in the sport. Career Low With tension between himself, McLaren and team-mate Lewis Hamilton reaching a peak in qualifying for the 2007 Hungarian Grand Prix, he deliberately blocked the pit box to ensure that Hamilton could not start his final qualifying lap ahead of the chequered flag. He claimed pole position as a result but was subsequently penalised. Quotes "I might not be fastest, or the most technical but I am consistent." "Instead of complaining, moaning and bitching, which is what Alonso is doing at the moment, all he needs to do is concentrate on driving quicker." Niki Lauda. "I don't see many weaknesses in Alonso when he is behind the wheel - he has the full deck of cards. Right now [he] is the most complete F1 driver out there in my view. Now he has a chance to push on again and there is no doubt he has more world championships in him." Martin Brundle. Trivia Alonso is claustrophobic and is terrified of being stuck in a lift. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 64
  • 65. Felipe Massa Brazil Full name Felipe Massa Birth date April 25, 1981 Birthplace Sao Paulo, Brazil Current age 28 years 344 days Height 1.66 m Weight 59 kg Current team Ferrari Previous teams Sauber Year Car Race Start Won Pod Class Best Pole Front Best Lap Hat Pts Pos 2002 Sauber 16 16 0 0 8 5 0 0 7 0 0 4 13 2004 Sauber 18 18 0 0 14 4 0 0 4 0 0 12 12 2005 Sauber 19 18 0 0 16 4 0 0 7 0 0 11 13 2006 Ferrari 18 18 2 7 16 1 3 7 1 2 0 80 3 2007 Ferrari 17 17 3 10 15 1 6 7 1 6 2 94 4 2008 Ferrari 18 18 6 10 16 1 6 10 1 3 2 97 2 2009 Ferrari 10 9 0 1 7 3 0 0 4 1 0 22 11 2010 Ferrari 3 3 0 2 3 2 0 1 2 0 0 39 1* Total 119 117 11 30 95 1 15 25 1 12 4 359 A seasoned F1 veteran who has raced alongside some of the biggest names in the sport, Felipe Massa has shown tremendous sporting prowess, skill and race craft but above all his enthusiasm for being a race driver at the top of his game. Now very much a fixture at what is arguably the most illustrious team in the world, he is a proven winner and still a potential world champion as he returns to the sport following head injuries sustained in Hungary. He spent eight years karting before graduating to the Formula Chevrolet championship in Brazil in 1998, winning the championship the following year. A move to Europe followed and in 2000 where he took victory in the Italian Formula Renault and Eurocup series. A step up to the Euro F3000 championship followed where he claimed his fourth title in three years. Riding on the momentum, Massa tested with the Sauber F1 team and was signed up for the 2002 season. His debut season saw undisputed race pace but he decided to take a testing role with Ferrari the following year before returning to Sauber in 2004. Having rid himself of some of his rougher edges, he secured the services of Nicolas Todt (son of former Ferrari chief Jean Todt) as his manager, and was a regular points scorer. He was joined by Jacques Villeneuve the following year giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 65
  • 66. and undaunted by having a former champion as a team-mate, consistently outperformed the Canadian. He got his big break in 2006 as he rejoined Ferrari, this time as a race driver. Lining up with Michael Schumacher, he was able to show his raw speed and on occasion even left the German trailing. Despite playing the dutiful number two role, he was able to record his first grand prix win from pole position in Turkey and finished the season in third in the standings. Massa was paired Kimi Raikkonen for the 2007 season and two wins from the first four grand prix was a promising start. His performance dwindled towards the end of the season however and he was able to win just once more. He could have been champion in 2008 but was let down by errors early in the season, both from himself and the team. He recorded his sixth win of the season in Brazil, but lost the championship to Lewis Hamilton by a single point. After being so close to championship success, 2009 was a complete turnaround. The package was initially uncompetitive but a freak accident in qualifying for the Hungarian Grand Prix brought an abrupt halt to his season and almost his life. Undoubtedly one of the best of his generation, he returns in 2010 with a point to prove and a championship to finally win. Strengths and Weaknesses Certain circuits seem to suit Massa and on those he is all but unbeatable given a competitive car. He does, however, remain prone to rookie style mistakes that have blunted his championship challenge in recent years. Career High While he lost the championship to Lewis Hamilton at his home race at Interlagos in 2008, his victory and attitude in defeat characterised Massa as the gentleman of F1. Career Low He was lucky to survive when he was hit in the head by a spring from a rival car in qualifying for the Hungarian Grand Prix. Following surgery for serious head injuries, he remained positive and bullish on his chances of returning at the very highest level in 2010. Quotes "If my weekend begins well, I use the same underpants on Saturday. If that is also a good day, I wear them on Sunday. That is what I did in Brazil." "What I don't quite understand is how Massa gets the lap times he does when he so often misses the apexes of the corners. What really does impress me is the fact that he displays a determination not to be counted out, or overlooked, when it comes to fighting for the world championship." Damon Hill. Trivia In May 2007 Felipe's underwear sold at auction for just under US $775. It's an urban myth that Massa had his first experience of F1 aged seven - when he delivered pizzas to the Brazilian Grand Prix. He clarified the truth recently, he was actually 17. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 66
  • 67. Williams – Toyota 2.4 V8 – Bridgestone Sede: Grove, Wantage Oxfordshire OX12 0DQ (UK) Team Principal: Frank Williams Director of Engineering: Patrick Head Non Executive Director: Toto Wolff Technical Director: Sam Michael Chief Executive Officer: Adam Parr Chief Designer: Ed Wood Chief Aerodynamicist: Jon Tomlinson Chief Operation Engineer: Rod Nelson Team manager: Tim Newton Specifications Chassis construction: Monocoque construction fabricated from carbon epoxy and honeycomb composite structure, surpassing FIA impact and strength requirements Front suspension: Carbon fibre double wishbone arrangement, with composite toelink and pushrod activated springs and anti-roll bar Rear suspension: Double wishbone and pushrod activated springs and anti-roll bar Transmission: Williams F1 7-speed seamless sequential semi-automatic shift plus reverse gear. Gear selection: electro-hydraulically actuated Clutch: Carbon multi-plate Dampers: Williams F1 Wheels: RAYS forged magnesium Tyres: Bridgestone Potenza, F 325mm wide, R 375mm wide Brake system: 6 piston callipers all round, carbon discs and pads Steering: Williams F1 power assisted rack and pinion Fuel system: Kevlar-reinforced rubber bladder Electronic systems: FIA standard electronic control unit Cooling system: Aluminium oil, water, and gearbox radiators Cockpit: Driver six-point safety harness with 75mm shoulder straps & HANS system, removable anatomically formed carbon fibre seat covered in Alcantara Dimensions & weight: Overall width: 1800mm Engine Designation: Cosworth 2.4L V8, 90° V angle engine Valve train: pneumatic Fuel management and ignition systems: Cosworth Engine materials: include block and pistons in aluminium, crankshaft in steel billet, connecting rods in titanium giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 67
  • 68. Rubens Barrichello Brazil Full name Rubens Gonçalves Barrichello Birth date May 23, 1972 Birthplace Sao Paulo, Brazil Current age 37 years 316 days Height 1.72 m Weight 77 kg Current team Williams Previous teams Brawn, Ferrari, Honda, Jordan, Stewart Year Car Race Start Won Pod Class Best Pole Front Best Lap Hat Pts Pos 1993 Jordan 16 16 0 0 8 5 0 0 8 0 0 2 18 1994 Jordan 16 15 0 1 8 3 1 1 1 0 0 19 6 1995 Jordan 17 17 0 1 8 2 0 0 5 0 0 11 11 1996 Jordan 16 16 0 0 9 4 0 1 2 0 0 14 8 1997 Stewart 17 17 0 1 3 2 0 0 3 0 0 6 14 1998 Stewart 16 15 0 0 6 5 0 0 5 0 0 4 12 1999 Stewart 16 16 0 3 11 3 1 1 1 0 0 21 7 2000 Ferrari 17 17 1 9 13 1 1 2 1 3 0 62 4 2001 Ferrari 17 17 0 10 14 2 0 3 2 0 0 56 3 2002 Ferrari 17 15 4 10 12 1 3 8 1 5 0 77 2 2003 Ferrari 16 16 2 8 11 1 3 6 1 3 1 65 4 2004 Ferrari 18 18 2 14 17 1 4 8 1 4 1 114 2 2005 Ferrari 19 19 0 4 17 2 0 0 5 0 0 38 8 2006 Honda 18 18 0 0 15 4 0 0 3 0 0 30 7 2007 Honda 17 17 0 0 15 9 0 0 9 0 0 0 - 2008 Honda 18 18 0 1 13 3 0 0 9 0 0 11 14 2009 Brawn 17 17 2 6 16 1 1 4 1 2 0 77 3 2010 Williams 3 3 0 0 3 8 0 0 7 0 0 5 12* Total 291 287 11 68 199 1 14 34 1 17 2 612 The fourth-highest points scorer in F1 history, Rubens Barrichello begins his 18th season on the F1 grid with Williams in 2010. One of the most popular drivers on the F1 circuit, he has emerged giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 68
  • 69. from Michael Schumacher's shadow at Ferrari and in 2010 he will be looking to banish his reputation as F1's 'nearly man'. Born within a stone's throw of the Interlagos track, Barrichello was born into a motor racing family, and was given his first kart at the age of six. In 1986 he was crowned South American karting champion, and just a year later he finished ninth in the world championships, sponsored by Ayrton Senna. In 1989, aged 16, Barrichello graduated from karts to Formula Ford, before moving to England to pursue his dream to become an F1 driver. He claims he used his father's driving licence as he wasn't old enough to drive in the UK. He won the British Formula 3 championship in 1991, becoming the youngest racing driver to do so, a feat only beaten by Nelson Piquet Jnr in 2004. Barrichello made his F1 debut with Jordan in 1993, and finished on the podium just 13 months later at the Pacific Grand Prix in Japan. He finished sixth in his second season, but it was marred by the death of his friend and mentor Senna at Italian Grand Prix, while he himself escaped a horrific accident in qualifying for the same race. After three years at Jordan, Barrichello moved to Stewart Ford in 1997, where he scored three third-place finishes enough to secure him a move to Ferrari in 1999, where he was second driver to F1's most successful driver in history, Michael Schumacher. In 2000, after seven seasons in F1, Barrichello secured his first race victory at the German Grand Prix at Hockenheim. In 2007, aged 33, Barrichello moved to Honda, and endured the worst season of his career, failing to score a single point, but remarkably finishing all but two races. At the 2008 Turkish Grand Prix in May 2008, Barrichello became the sport's most experienced driver, overtaking Riccardo Patrese's record of 257 F1 starts. In 2009, the Honda team, rescued at the 11th hour by Barrichello's former Ferrari boss Ross Brawn, became the first team to win the constructors championship in their inaugural season, and Barrichello's six podiums and two race victories helped him to third-place in the drivers' standings. In November 2009 Williams announced that Barrichello would join their team for 2010 season alongside rookie driver Nico Hulkenberg. While Barrichello is the fourth-highest points scorer of all time, behind Schumacher, Alain Prost and Senna, the one race that still eludes him is the Brazilian Grand Prix in his home town of Sao Paolo. While Williams are unlikely to provide a car fast enough to see the veteran win his first world championship, a win in Interlagos would be a dream come true for one of the nicest men in motorsport. Strengths and Weaknesses Undoubtedly one of the most consistent drivers of all time, Barrichello has over 60 podium finishes and six hundred career points to his name. Forced to play second fiddle for much of his career, notably to Michael Schumacher at Ferrari and most recently Jenson Button at Brawn, Williams could be his chance to shine as number one. Career High On his 123rd race, at the German Grand Prix in Hockenheim, Rubens Barrichello won his first grand prix, after starting 18th on the grid. It was the first time the Brazilian national anthem had been played since Senna's final victory in Australian in 1993, Barrichello was clearly overwhelmed. Career Low Suffering a near-fatal collision in qualifying at the Italian Grand Prix in 1994. Barrichello hit a kerb at 140mph and his car launched into the air, rolled several times and he was knocked unconscious. After waking in hospital with a number of injuries, Senna was by his bedside. Barrichello never saw his mentor again, as the three-time world champion died on the same track two days later, he considered quitting the sport for good. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 69
  • 70. Quotes "Michael [Schumacher] might have more skill than I had, but if you threw both of us into a jail with a tiger I might get out alive - I'm not sure about him." On former team-mate and rival Michael Schumacher. "Whenever I get home after a race, we chat about what he thought of it. Once, after one of my toughest races, he asked me why I had gotten so angry at the podium if the podium is supposed to be a wonderful thing. After that comment, I promised him nothing would ever make me get angry when I got onto the podium again." On his son, Eduardo, born 2001. Trivia Barrichello's nickname is Rubinho, or little Rubens, as his father and grandfather are both called Rubens. He also shares his birthday, May 23 with his father. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 70
  • 71. Nico Hülkenberg Germany Full name Nicolas Hülkenberg Nickname The Hulk Birth date August 19, 1987 Birthplace Emmerich am Rhein, Germany Current age 22 years 228 days Height 1.84 m Weight 70 kg Current team Williams Year Car Race Start Won Pod Class Best Pole Front Best Lap Hat Pts Pos 2010 Williams 3 3 0 0 2 10 0 0 5 0 0 1 14* Total 3 3 0 0 2 10 0 0 5 0 0 1 Dubbed 'the next Michael Schumacher', F1 rookie Nico Hulkenberg has an astonishing record. And with his manager Willi Weber, the man behind the seven-time world champion's career, making the comparisons, Hulkenberg is surely destined for great things. He made his karting debut aged 10, and soon enjoyed success before moving up to German Formula BMW in 2005, dominating the championship and comfortably winning the title, following in the footsteps of Nico Rosberg and Sebastian Vettel. In 2006 he joined the German A1 Grand Prix team, almost single-handedly winning Germany the title, with nine victories in his debut season. After a year in German Formula 3, he moved across to the Formula 3 Euroseries, finishing third behind Romain Grosjean and Sebastien Buemi, before taking the title in the following year. In December 2007, Hulkenberg tested for Williams F1, outpacing official driver Kazuki Nakajima and clocking a time only 0.4 seconds slower than Rosberg. His performance impressed Williams enough to offer him a test driver seat for the 2008 season. Juggling his commitments to Williams, Hulkenberg moved on to the GP2 Asia series over the winter, taking pole in his first race and finishing sixth in the championship despite only competing in four races. The following season he progressed to the GP2 series, where he wrapped up the championship at the penultimate round at Monza, the first time the series had been won before the final round. In November 2009 Williams announced that Hulkenberg would partner veteran driver Rubens Barrichello for the 2010 season. Although the comparisons between Hulkenberg and Schumacher are obvious, Hulkenberg is keen to establish himself as an F1 name in his own right. Strengths and Weaknesses Undoubted talented, Hulkenberg will be hoping to emulate the success Hamilton and Vettel giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 71
  • 72. enjoyed in their debut seasons. While much has been made of the 'next Schumacher', the pressure could prove too much at the highest level. Career High For a driver who has won virtually every championship he has ever entered, choosing a single high is not easy, but to win the GP2 championship in his rookie season, following in the footsteps of Lewis Hamilton and Sebastian Vettel, is probably a worthy winner. Career Low After a phenomenal debut season in German Formula BMW in 2005, Hulkenberg went on to win the world final, only to be stripped of the trophy after being accused of brake-testing one of his rivals during a safety car period. Quotes "The drivers who have won GP2 in their first year - Nico Rosberg, Lewis Hamilton - are all pretty outstanding, and I think Nico will be outstanding as well." Patrick Head, Williams director of engineering. "I can say that the boy has an unbelievable talent. So much about him already reminds me of Michael Schumacher." Willi Weber, Hulkenberg's manager. "I won't be the next Michael Schumacher or whatever. When I get to Formula One, and I believe I have still a long way to go, if I do get there, I want to be the first Nico Hulkenberg." Trivia Manager Willi Weber has nicknamed Hulkenberg 'The Hulk', referring to his change in personality when he gets behind a wheel. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 72
  • 73. Renault – Renault 2.4 V8 – Bridgestone Sede: RenaultF1, Whiteways Tech., Enstone, OX7 4EE, England Team Principal: Eric Boullier Managing Director: Bob Bell Technical Director: Bob Bell Deputy Managing Director (Engine): Rob White Technical Director: James Alisson Specifications Chassis: Moulded carbon fibre and aluminium honeycomb composite monocoque, manufactured by the Renault F1 Team and designed for maximum strength with minimum weight. RS27-2010 V8 engine installed as a fully-stressed member. Front suspension: Carbon fibre top and bottom wishbones operate an inboard rocker via a pushrod system. This is connected to a torsion bar and damper units which are mounted inside the front of the monocoque. Aluminium uprights and OZ machined magnesium wheels. Rear suspension: Carbon fibre top and bottom wishbones with pushrod operated torsion bars and transverse-mounted damper units mounted in the top of the gearbox casing. Aluminium uprights and OZ machined magnesium wheels. Transmission: Seven-speed semi-automatic titanium gearbox with reverse gear. “Quickshift” system in operation to maximise speed of gearshifts. Fuel system: Kevlar-reinforced rubber fuel cell by ATL. Cooling system: Separate oil and water radiators located in the car's sidepods and cooled using airflow from the car's forward motion. Electrical: MES-Microsoft Standard Electronic Control Unit. Braking system: Carbon discs and pads (Hitco); calipers and mastercylinders by AP Racing. Cockpit: Removable driver’s seat made of anatomically formed carbon composite, with six-point harness seat belt by OMP Racing. Steering wheel integrates gear change and clutch paddles, front flap adjuster. Car dimensions and weight Front track: 1450 mm Rear track: 1400 mm Overall length: 5050 mm (250 mm more than R29) Overall height: 950 mm Overall width: 1800 mm Overall weight: 620 kg, with driver, cameras and ballast Engine Designation: Renault RS27-2010 Capacity: 2400 cc giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 73
  • 74. Architecture: 90° V8 Weight: 95 kg Max rpm: 18,000 rpm ECU: McLaren Electronics Standard ECU Fuel: TOTAL Oil: Elf (a brand of TOTAL) Battery: Renault F1 Team giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 74
  • 75. Robert Kubica Poland Full name Robert Kubica Birth date December 7, 1984 Birthplace Cracow, Poland Current age 25 years 118 days Height 1.83 m Weight 72 kg Current team Renault Previous teams BMW Sauber Year Car Race Start Won Pod Class Best Pole Front Best Lap Hat Pts Pos 2006 BMW Sauber 6 6 0 1 5 3 0 0 6 0 0 6 16 2007 BMW Sauber 16 16 0 0 13 4 0 0 4 0 0 39 6 2008 BMW Sauber 18 18 1 7 16 1 1 3 1 0 0 75 4 2009 BMW Sauber 17 17 0 1 14 2 0 0 4 0 0 17 14 2010 Renault 3 3 0 1 3 2 0 0 6 0 0 30 7* Total 60 60 1 10 51 1 1 3 1 0 0 167 Now very much part of the F1 establishment with one victory to his credit, Robert Kubica joins Renault in 2010 with a point to prove after a largely disappointing final season with BMW Sauber. He began his career in Karting before graduating the Italian Formula Renault 2000 Eurocup in 2001. A move to Formula 3 Euroseries in 2003 followed but it was not until title success in Word Series by Renault in 2005 that Kubica really made a name for himself - earning a test with Renault. BMW Sauber signed him as test driver in 2006 and he made a successful grand prix debut in Hungary deputising for an injured Jacques Villeneuve who later left the team. Kubica went on to score a podium position in Italy, in his third race with the team. His first full season saw him finish sixth in the championship. However, he was fortunate to escape serious injury in Montreal in a huge accident that saw him sidelined for the US Grand Prix. He raised his game in 2008 and completely out-shone team-mate Nick Heidfeld and secured BMW Sauber's first race victory in Canada. A championship contender, the team opted to focus its resources on 2009 - much to Kubica's frustration - losing ground and finishing the year fourth in the standings. BMW Sauber had expected to challenge for the championship with Kubica in 2009, but the F1.09 challenger was not on the pace of the front-running teams. BMW then announced it was leaving giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 75
  • 76. the sport at the end of the season and put the Swiss-based team up for sale. Moving to Renault in 2010, he should be challenging for wins on a regular basis. Strengths and Weaknesses Motivation: When given a competitive car Kubica pushes right to the edge, but lacks motivation when the car is not top flight. Career High His first and so far only victory in Montreal in 2008 - all be it following a controversial pit lane accident which eliminated Lewis Hamilton and Kimi Raikkonen. Being in the right place at the right time, he made best of the opportunity to record BMW Sauber's first grand prix victory. Career Low Again in Montreal, 2007 saw Kubica and Jarno Trulli clash, sending Kubica into the wall on the approach to the hairpin. It was a massive accident in which he was fortunate to escape unscathed. Quotes "I've never known it like this and it's difficult to know how damaging it's been, but this has been one of the worst years for politics in F1. All I want to do is to be able to focus 100% on what I love, which is driving, and that's not been possible." "In my job I spend a lot of time with a lot of action, high speed and noise. By contrast, poker and bowling are quite steady." Trivia Outside of F1 Kubica's hobbies are snooker, poker and ten pin-bowling - his hero is snooker legend Ronnie O'Sullivan. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 76
  • 77. Vitaly Petrov Russia Full name Vitaly Aleksandrovich Petrov Nickname The Vyborg Rocket Birth date September 8, 1984 Birthplace Vyborg, Russia Current age 25 years 208 days Height 1.85 m Weight 75 kg Current team Renault Year Car Race Start Won Pod Class Best Pole Front Best Lap Hat Pts Pos 2010 Renault 3 3 0 0 0 - 0 0 11 0 0 0 - Total 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 11 0 0 0 Russia's first Formula One driver Vitaly Petrov has come to the sport with massive financial backing. However, it shouldn't be forgotten that by finishing runner-up in the GP2 Series in 2009, he has completed the same rite of passage as Lewis Hamilton, Heikki Kovalainen and Bruno Senna. After skipping karting he cut his teeth in Russia's Lada Cup and winning the championship in 2002, taking victory at every race. He then spent two years racing Formula Renault in Europe, he spread his time between a number of different national championships, and failed to make a mark in any one of them. A return to Russia followed where he won the Formula 1600 Russia title in 2005, taking five victories and kick-starting his career again. A four year assault on GP2 followed, starting with a handful of races in 2006 before a full season in 2007 when he took his first race win. Driving for Campos, he took another victory in 2008 on his way to a seventh place finish overall behind Bruno Senna and Romain Grosjean. 2009 proved to be his breakthrough year as he regularly scored points, taking seven podiums, two race victories and finishing second overall in the championship. In the final standings he was a massive 25 points off Williams driver Nico Hulkenberg but ahead of Virgin Racing's Lucas di Grassi. With Russia plastered across his car as sponsorship in GP2, he claims his funding is a mix of his father's money and backing from family friends. However, Renault team principal Eric Boullier has said that he was in talks with drivers with more money than Petrov, but wanted to employ someone with the right level of skill and experience. All Petrov has to do now is prove his boss right, which could be easier said than done with F1 race-winner Robert Kubica as his team-mate. Strengths and weaknesses He proved he was a consistent point's finisher in GP2 in 2009, even if he only won two races. But he still lacks a championship victory outside his native country on his CV. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 77
  • 78. Career high Second place in the 2009 GP2 Series was the result of three seasons of slowly working his way up the grid. His win on the street circuit at Valencia was his most impressive as he held off championship winner Nico Hulkenberg throughout the race to take victory by just 0.396s. Career Low Returning to Russia in 2005 after failing to make a mark in Formula Renault in Europe. Quotes "The people in Russia, they must wake up to what has happened here because we are in F1 without any sponsorship and any help. My father has given me the money to be here. It's just him, my manager and my father's friends. No-one else." Renault boss Eric Boullier on signing Petrov: "The choice for Vitaly was clearly because he has the speed. Definitely there is a risk because he is a young driver, but we had also to think in this process about the team for the future." Trivia Petrov first drove a Lada Zhiguli off-road when he was five, before his father paid for driving lessons. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 78
  • 79. Force India – Mercedes 2.4 V8 – Bridgestone Sede: Silverstone, Northamptonshire NN12 8TJ (UK) Chairman and Team Principal: Vijay Mallya Co-Owner: Michiel Mol Chief Operating Officer: Otmar Szafnauer Team Director: Bob Fernley Technical Director: Mark Smith Team Manager: Andy Stevenson Design Director: Mark Smith Head of Aerodynamics: Simon Phillips Head of Electronics: Mike Wroe Specifications Chassis: Carbon fibre composite monocoque with Zylon legality side anti-intrusion panels. Front suspension: Aluminium uprights with carbon fibre composite wishbones, trackrod and pushrod. Inboard chassis mounted torsion springs, dampers and anti-roll bar assembly. Rear suspension: Aluminium uprights with carbon fibre composite wishbones, trackrod and pushrod. Inboard gearbox mounted torsion springs, dampers and anti-roll bar assembly. Wheels: BBS forged wheels to Force India specification Clutch: AP Racing carbon clutch Tyres: Bridegestone Potenza Brake system: AP Racing Brake material: Carbone Industrie Dampers: Penske Dimensions Wheel base: 3500mm Front track: 1480mm Rear track: 1420mm Overall height: 950mm Overall length: 4900mm Overall weight: 620kg (with driver, by regulations) Engine Engine supplier: Mercedes Benz High Performance Engines V8 2.4-litre Transmission: McLaren Racing 7-speed, semi-automatic, ‘e-shift’ Lubricants: Mobil 1 products Spark plugs: NGK giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 79
  • 80. Adrian Sutil Germany Full name Adrian Sutil Birth date January 11, 1983 Birthplace Starnberg, Germany Current age 27 years 83 days Height 1.84 m Weight 75 kg Current team Force India Previous teams Midland, Spyker Year Car Race Start Won Pod Class Best Pole Front Best Lap Hat Pts Pos 2007 Spyker 17 17 0 0 10 8 0 0 19 0 0 1 19 2008 Force India 18 18 0 0 7 13 0 0 16 0 0 0 - 2009 Force India 17 17 0 0 13 4 0 1 2 1 0 5 17 2010 Force India 3 3 0 0 2 5 0 0 4 0 0 10 9* Total 55 55 0 0 32 4 0 1 2 1 0 16 After a series of solid if not spectacular performances in 2009, Adrian Sutil was linked with a move to McLaren and Williams for 2010. Despite the rumours he re-signed for Force India at the end of November. If they can provide him with a competitive car, he may well be able to demonstrate the talent he showed in lower formula. A relatively late starter, Sutil began karting at the age of 14 and moved up to the Swiss Formula Ford, where he dominated, winning all 12 races from pole. After a year in Formula BMW with little success, he graduated to the Formula 3 Euroseries, finishing second in his second season behind close friend and team-mate Lewis Hamilton, earning himself a testing contract for Midland F1. After winning the 2006 All-Japan Formula 3 championship, he was rewarded with a race seat at Spyker, the new name of the Midland team, making his debut at the 2007 Australian Grand Prix, scoring 17th place. At Fuji he scored his first point, with an eighth place after qualifying 20th. It was the only point the Spyker team ever won. At the end of the 2007 season, Indian billionaire Vijay Mallya lead a consortium to buy Spyker, which was renamed Force India. Sutil remained with the team, but did not score a single point in the 2008 season, and failed to finish on 11 occasions. In 2009 he showed greater consistency despite the car struggling for pace, and at Monza he qualified second behind Hamilton, but despite posting the fastest time of the race, missed out on his first podium, finishing fourth. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 80
  • 81. In Brazil, he qualified third, but retired on the third lap after a collision with Toyota's Jarno Trulli. Trulli was furious with Sutil and publicly criticised him, believing him to be at fault for the crash, which also brought Fernando Alonso's race to an end. The stewards took no action against Sutil but Trulli was fined for his outburst. In 2010 Sutil will look to build on the consistency he began to show towards the end of 2009, and 2010 could well see his first podium finish. With a competitive car, Force India would expect Sutil to finish the season with double figures. Strengths and Weaknesses Impressively quick over one lap Sutil has shown his natural speed, even in a relatively uncompetitive car. However, a number of collisions this season, have given him a reputation as a dangerous driver. Career High Setting the fastest lap during the 2009 Italian Grand Prix after starting on the front of the grid beside former F3 team-mate and good friend Lewis Hamilton. Career Low After starting in 18th at the 2008 Monaco Grand Prix, Sutil moved through the field to fourth - his best ever result - only to be shunted out of the race by Kimi Raikkonen. Quotes "I want to show what I can do on the track. That shouldn't be too much to ask. It is terribly hard to always end up on the back row when you know that you can do much better. You want to prove yourself, but it is hard if the car doesn't allow that." "He is a promising young talent for us, but we have to be realistic with where we are at the moment in terms of the car. We are always working on improving it and we need to provide him with better cars to compete against the best teams and drivers. Adrian is a big asset for the future. I believe in the future he will be a big rival on the track to Lewis Hamilton." Colin Kolles, former Spyker team principal Trivia He is the son of the Uruguayan violinist, Jorge Sutil, and as a talented pianist himself, was set to follow his father into the concert hall until he discovered karting. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 81
  • 82. Tonio Liuzzi Italy Full name Vitantonio Liuzzi Birth date August 6, 1980 Birthplace Locorotondo, Italy Current age 29 years 241 days Height 1.78 m Weight 68 kg Current team Force India Previous teams Red Bull, Toro Rosso Year Car Race Start Won Pod Class Best Pole Front Best Lap Hat Pts Pos 2005 Red Bull 4 4 0 0 2 8 0 0 11 0 0 1 24 2006 Toro Rosso 18 18 0 0 14 8 0 0 12 0 0 1 19 2007 Toro Rosso 17 17 0 0 10 6 0 0 11 0 0 3 18 2009 Force India 5 5 0 0 4 11 0 0 7 0 0 0 - 2010 Force India 3 3 0 0 2 7 0 0 10 0 0 8 11* Total 47 47 0 0 32 6 0 0 7 0 0 13 Vitantonio Liuzzi is fast becoming the modern day journey man of Formula One. He has competed in four separate seasons, with three different teams, in 57 races, but has only has five points to his name. In his youth he was widely regarded as one of the top karters of his generation. He won the karting world championship in 2001, beating Michael Schumacher at the German's home track in Kerpen on his way to victory. He quickly rose through the lower formula despite failing to win any titles in Formula Renault, German Formula 3 or the World Series by Nissan. It was F3000 where he found his niche, taking best rookie honours in an impressive season in 2003. Pole position at Hungaroring was the highlight, Liuzzi out qualifying his nearest competitor by half a second having only completed nine laps at the circuit. In 2004 he won the championship, winning seven of the ten races - a record only matched by Juan Pablo Montoya and Nick Heidfeld. Formula One was the next logical step and in 2005 he shared a Red Bull race seat with Christian Klien. Liuzzi got just four races compared to Klien's 13, having only managed to pick up one point in his brief stint as race driver. However, he was given a full race seat at Red Bull's junior team, Toro Rosso, in 2006 alongside Scott Speed. The team was using a year-old chassis and a restricted V10 engine (compared with unrestricted V8s in the other cars), but he out-performed his team mate and scored the outfit's only point of the season. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 82
  • 83. For 2007 Toro Rosso used the same chassis as Red Bull, but Liuzzi still struggled for results scoring just three points. Sebastian Vettel joined the team halfway through the season and soon got the best out of the car, scoring more points in his brief time than Liuzzi had in his whole career. 2008 saw him replaced by Sebastien Bourdais and forced to take a testing role at Force India. He didn't race again in F1 until 2009 when he replaced Giancarlo Fisichella, who had been recruited by Ferrari to sub for the injured Felipe Massa. An impressive home race at Monza was cruelly cut short by transmission failure but he failed to make an impact at the following four races. In late November 2009 Force India confirmed that he would retain his race seat for the 2010 season. Strengths and Weaknesses A quick driver over one lap but has never really adapted his flamboyant karting style to suit an F1 car. Career High Scoring a point in his debut race in front of home fans at Imola. Career Low Crashing in his second and third races, scuppering his chance of a more permanent drive with Red Bull. Quotes "If I found myself without a drive at the end of 2007, it was most of all the fault of Gerhard Berger, who has never been a fan of mine, just like Adrian Newey, who in the past blocked my arrival as a regular Red Bull driver." Liuzzi getting a little over optimistic about Toro Rosso's chances in its debut year, "Though it's our first season in Formula One, we see this is going to be a very exciting time and expect at least two podium finishes by season's end." Trivia He has more body piercing's than any other F1 driver. He currently has four in his left ear and one in his left eyebrow. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 83
  • 84. Scuderia Toro Rosso, Motore Ferrari 2.4 V8, Bridgestone Sede: Via Spallanzani, 21 – 48018 Faenza Ravenna (ITA) Owner: Dietrich Mateschitz Team Principal: Franz Tost Tam Manager: Gianfranco Fantuzzi Direttore Tecnico: Giorgio Ascanelli Specifications Chassis: Carbon fibre composite monocoque structure Driver's seat: Carbon-fibre construction, moulded to driver’s shape Extinguisher system: Scuderia Toro Rosso/FEV Front Suspension: Upper and lower carbon wishbones, torsion bar springs and anti-roll bars Rear Suspension: Upper and lower carbon wishbones, torsion bar springs and anti-roll bars Dampers: Sachs Wheels: Advanti Racing (front: 12.7in x 13in , rear: 13.4in x 13in) Tyres: Bridgestone Brakes: Brembo (calipers, pads and discs) Overall weight: 620kg (with driver and camera) Cooling system: Scuderia Toro Rosso Seat belts: OMP Steering wheel: Scuderia Toro Rosso Fuel: Shell V-Power Oil: Shell Lubricant: Shell Helix Ultra Gearbox: Seven-speed hydraulic Clutch: Sachs triple-plate pull-type Engine Engine: Ferrari V8 Type 056 Total Displacement: 2398cm³ Piston bore: 98mm Max RPM: 18,000 rpm Cylinder configuration: 90° V8 Number of Valves: 32 Block Construction: Cast Aluminum Engine Management: Standard ECU provided by McLaren Electronic Systems (MES) giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 84
  • 85. Jaime Alguersuari Spain Full name Jaime Alguersuari Escudero Birth date March 23, 1990 Birthplace Barcelona, Spain Current age 20 years 12 days Current team Toro Rosso Year Car Race Start Won Pod Class Best Pole Front Best Lap Hat Pts Pos 2009 Toro Rosso 8 8 0 0 3 14 0 0 12 0 0 0 - 2010 Toro Rosso 3 3 0 0 3 9 0 0 14 0 0 2 13* Total 11 11 0 0 6 9 0 0 12 0 0 2 Despite being thrown into the F1 limelight at a very young age - and mid season to boot - Jaime Alguersuari defied his critics and is learning fast. The Spaniard who's father (also called Jaime) was a successful motorcycle racer started racing in kart at the age of eight, and made his single seater debut in 2005. The following season he won the Italian formula Renault winter series and was runner up in the main championship in 2006. He moved to the British F3 championship in 2008 with the highly regarded Carlin Motorsport team, and after a season long battle - mostly with his team mates - he became the youngest winner of the championship at 18 years and 203 days. The same year he was called up by Red Bull to deputise for the injured Mark Webber in the Race of Champions but was knocked out in the first round. He moved on to the World Series by Renault in 2009 and at the time of his call up to the Toro Rosso team he was eighth in the championship with one podium result to his credit. Despite his call up he decided to continue contesting the championship. He became F1's youngest ever driver at the age of 19 years 125 days when he replaced the sacked Sebastien Bourdais for the Hungarian Grand Prix. Despite his lack of experience Toro Rosso showed their faith in the young driver announcing in October 2009 that he would remain with the squad for 2010. Strengths and Weaknesses He has won several big championships at a young age and despite his lack of experience in F1 acquitted himself admirably in his first outings. Plenty of testing over the winter and he should show what he is really capable of in 2010. Career High Winning the prestigious British F3 championship in 2008 - former champions include Ayrton Senna (1983), Mika Hakkinen (1990), Rubens Barrichello (1991), and Takuma Sato (2001) giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 85
  • 86. Career Low Faced tough criticism after he was thrown in at the deep end of F1 - with no real testing he struggled to show pace. Quotes "I am aware that I'm facing a very tough challenge, because coming into Formula 1 is never easy, coming into Formula 1 in the middle of a season is even harder and doing so without any testing is really difficult. But already I feel that I am getting great support from the team, who have quite a reputation for looking after rookie drivers." "If you get a drive in Formula One it's because you deserve it. It's because you're good enough to drive a Formula One car. And he's been given time this year to gain experience; there's no pressure on him and hopefully he can learn step by step. Is he ready? We'll see. I'm sure he'll be fine. I wish him the best." Fernando Alonso Trivia As a teenager Alguersuari spent a year at a boarding school in Ipswich to improve his English - it was his Dad's idea to help he cope with press conferences after winning races! giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 86
  • 87. Sébastien Buemi Switzerland Full name Sébastien Buemi Birth date October 31, 1988 Birthplace Aigle, Switzerland Current age 21 years 155 days Height 1.72 m Weight 55 kg Current team Toro Rosso Year Car Race Start Won Pod Class Best Pole Front Best Lap Hat Pts Pos 2009 Toro Rosso 17 17 0 0 12 7 0 0 6 0 0 6 16 2010 Toro Rosso 3 3 0 0 2 11 0 0 12 0 0 0 - Total 20 20 0 0 14 7 0 0 6 0 0 6 Following a promising debut season, Toro Rosso have signed youngster Sebastien Buemi for 2010. Signed by Red Bull to their prestigious young driver programme in 2006, Buemi became their reserve driver in 2008 after finishing second in the F3 Euro Series in 2007. Despite having never won a championship, the 20-year-old impressed with his maturity and speed in testing. He was the team's first choice to replace Sebastian Vettel following the German's move up to Red Bull. He wasted no time in showing his potential, out qualifying team-mate Sebastien Bourdais in his debut race in Australia, and scoring points with a seventh-place finish. After an impressive start to his first season, picking up three points in his opening three races, he endured a mid-season slump, failing to finish in the points between the Chinese Grand Prix in April and the penultimate race of the season in Brazil. Buemi achieved his best qualifying at a wet Sao Paulo, starting on the third row of the grid, suggesting there is plenty more to come from the first Swiss F1 driver since Jean-Denis Délétraz in 1995. Strengths and Weaknesses Buemi joined the Toro Rosso team and immediately outperformed his more experienced team- mate Sebastien Bourdais and his composure under pressure is impressive for one so young. His lack of experience and rookie errors could still prove to be an issue. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 87
  • 88. Career High Finishing seventh in his debut race in Melbourne, ahead of Lewis Hamilton, Kimi Raikkonen and Mark Webber, amongst others. Career Low Crashing out of the Spanish Grand Prix on the first lap after being taken out by his then team- mate Bourdais. Quotes "You have to be realistic. You have to have self-confidence and put yourself in the best possible situation. But you have to keep your feet on the ground and not get depressed if the results don't come immediately." "Buemi has shown himself to be naturally talented with plenty of speed and, more importantly he is a quick learner. Having invested in his early career Red Bull is keen to see him progress at the top level of the sport. He faces a steep learning curve, but we should not forget he is still very young - he even makes Vettel look like a veteran!" Toro Rosso Team Principal Franz Tost Trivia Buemi's isn't the only racing talent in his family - his cousin, Natacha Gachnang was the first woman to race in Formula Two in 2009. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 88
  • 89. Lotus – Cosworth 2.4 V8 – Bridgestone Sede: Hingham, Norfolk NR9 4LF (UK) Team Principal: Tony Fernandes Chief Executive Officer: Riad Asmat Chief Technical Officer: Mike Gascoyne Chief Operating Officer: Keith Saunt General Manager: Paul Craig Specifications Chassis construction: Monocoque construction fabricated from carbon epoxy and honeycomb composite structure Tyres: Bridgestone Wheels: BBS Transmission: Xtrac 1044 gearbox Engine Designation: Cosworth 2.4L V8, 90° V angle engine Valve train: pneumatic Fuel management and ignition systems: Cosworth Engine materials: include block and pistons in aluminium, crankshaft in steel billet, connecting rods in titanium giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 89
  • 90. Jarno Trulli Italy Full name Jarno Trulli Birth date July 13, 1974 Birthplace Pescara, Italy Current age 35 years 265 days Height 1.73 m Weight 60 kg Current team Lotus Previous teams Jordan, Minardi, Prost, Renault, Toyota Year Car Race Start Won Pod Class Best Pole Front Best Lap Hat Pts Pos 1997 Minardi, Prost 14 13 0 0 10 4 0 0 3 0 0 3 16 1998 Prost 16 16 0 0 7 6 0 0 10 0 0 1 16 1999 Prost 16 15 0 1 8 2 0 0 7 0 0 7 11 2000 Jordan 17 17 0 0 10 4 0 2 2 0 0 6 10 2001 Jordan 17 17 0 0 8 4 0 0 4 0 0 12 9 2002 Renault 17 17 0 0 8 4 0 0 6 0 0 9 8 2003 Renault 16 16 0 1 11 3 0 2 2 0 0 33 8 2004 Renault, Toyota 17 17 1 2 14 1 2 2 1 0 0 46 6 2005 Toyota 19 18 0 3 15 2 1 4 1 0 0 43 7 2006 Toyota 18 18 0 0 13 4 0 0 3 0 0 15 12 2007 Toyota 17 17 0 0 13 6 0 0 6 0 0 8 13 2008 Toyota 18 18 0 1 15 3 0 1 2 0 0 31 9 2009 Toyota 17 17 0 3 13 2 1 4 1 1 0 32.5 8 2010 Lotus 3 3 0 0 2 17 0 0 18 0 0 0 - Total 222 219 1 11 147 1 4 15 1 1 0 246.5 Following Toyota's withdrawal from F1 at the end of the 2009 season, Jarno Trulli was left without a drive for the 2010 season. But with a number of teams still without drivers, Trulli is likely to find employment for a 14th season in F1, and is hotly tipped to join new team Lotus. Named after motorcycle champion, Jarno Saarinen, Trulli was born in to motorsport fanatics in Pescara. As with many F1 drivers, he started his career in karts, and after winning the Italian and European championships, he moved into German Formula 3, winning the championship in 1996. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 90
  • 91. In 1997 he made his F1 debut with Italian team Minardi, but after seven races he replaced the injured Olivier Panis at Prost. At the German Grand Prix he scored his first points, with a fourth, and he finished his rookie season with three points. He spent a further two seasons with Prost, and at the 1999 European Grand Prix in Germany he secured his first podium finishing - second behind Johnny Herbert. He ended the season with seven points, his most successful tally with Prost. In 2000, Trulli moved to Jordan, but in his two seasons with the team he failed to make the podium. Thanks to his manager Flavio Briatore, Trulli secured a move to Renault in 2002, alongside Jenson Button. Despite Button's superior results, it was the Englishman who made way for young test driver Fernando Alonso. Other than three retirements mid-season, Trulli enjoyed a relatively consistent season, and finished the year with 33 points, but compared to Alonso, who notched 55 points, Trulli was shown up by his rookie team-mate. In 2004, at the Monaco Grand Prix, Trulli secured his first pole, and his first race victory, ahead of former team-mate Button. However, relationships with the constructor had begun to fray, and he was sacked with three races remaining. He was replaced by Jacques Villeneuve but joined Toyota for the final two races of the season. Early season form in 2005 saw him pick up 26 points from the opening five races, outpacing team-mate Ralf Schumacher. However, he could only manage 12th in the standings. After three podiums early in 2005, Trulli did not return to the podium again until June 2008, when he fought hard to finish third at the French Grand Prix. 2009 proved to be his final season with the Japanese constructors, and he stood on the podium three times, most memorably his second place in front of the Toyota fans in Japan. Strengths and Weaknesses After well over a decade in the sport, Trulli has seen pretty much everything the sport can throw at him. His experience at a new team like Lotus would be invaluable, and he is a notoriously strong qualifier. However, he has a reputation for being easy to overtake, and despite occasional impressive results, lacks consistency. Career High Taking his maiden race victory at the Monaco Grand Prix in 2004, the most prestigious race on the calendar. By winning in Monaco, Trulli was the only driver to break Michael Schumacher's dominance from March through to August. Career Low Being sacked by Renault with three races remaining of the 2004 season. Despite securing his first race victory, Trulli was released after his relationship with team principal and former manager Briatore deteriorated. Quotes "I believe F1 puts you under exam conditions every day, every race. Today you might be over the moon. Tomorrow you could be under the floor. The point is to deal with that positively." "On a single lap, Jarno is always able to do an excellent time. It's important for a team to know fairly quickly where it is on a Saturday. Jarno would give us that." Lotus technical director and former Toyota colleague, Mike Gascoyne Trivia In November 2000, just two weeks after the end of the F1 season, Trulli completed the New York Marathon in a time of 4:02.21. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 91
  • 92. Heikki Kovalainen Finland Full name Heikki Kovalainen Birth date October 19, 1981 Birthplace Suomussalmi, Finland Current age 28 years 167 days Height 1.72 m Weight 66 kg Current team Lotus Previous teams McLaren, Renault Year Car Race Start Won Pod Class Best Pole Front Best Lap Hat Pts Pos 2007 Renault 17 17 0 1 16 2 0 0 6 0 0 30 7 2008 McLaren 18 18 1 3 15 1 1 4 1 2 0 53 7 2009 McLaren 17 17 0 0 12 4 0 1 2 0 0 22 12 2010 Lotus 3 3 0 0 2 13 0 0 15 0 0 0 - Total 55 55 1 4 45 1 1 5 1 2 0 105 Heikki Kovalainen has been living in the shadow of McLaren team-mate Lewis Hamilton for the past two seasons, finishing well off the 2008 champion's pace in his second and third seasons in Formula One. The McLaren stint came after a debut F1 season with Renault, alongside Giancarlo Fisichella. He was a product of the Renault Driver Development programme, and had been testing for the team for three years. The constructor seemed bound to Kovalainen, who drove Renault-powered cars almost exclusively through his ascent to F1. His climb through the sport was fairly linear, contrasting with fellow Finn, Kimi Raikkonen, who was launched straight from Britain's Formula Renault into a F1 drive. Kovalainen progressed from the same competition to the GP2 Series, via Formula Three and the World Series by Nissan, before finally making his F1 debut in 2007 at the age of 25. Having joined the team as a driver, after three years' testing, he seemed the logical man to take the seat after world champion Fernando Alonso jumped ship to McLaren. Despite his testing experience he failed to fill Alonso's boots, however, and finished seventh before joining McLaren in a swap with Alonso, following in the Spaniard's footsteps to make his own McLaren switch. McLaren seemed a better fit, with Kovalainen accumulating a respectable 53 points on the way to another seventh-place overall, including his one and only race win in Hungary. The 2009 season giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 92
  • 93. was somewhat of a backwards step, and despite both drivers struggling with an under- performing car, Kovalainen still remained very much in the shadow of team-mate Hamilton. Strengths and Weaknesses He has proved to be one of the sport's most consistent performers, having scored points in 29 of the 43 races he has finished. Despite that record he has never really lived up to the raw talent he showed in the lower formula. 2010 is the year he must convert good qualifying into wins if he wants to avoid fading into obscurity in the sport. Career High Profiting from a late retirement by Felipe Massa, Kovalainen scored his first F1 race win in Hungary in 2008. Career Low A strong start to the 2008 season came crashing to a halt - literally - as Kovalainen went flying into a tyre wall at the Spanish Grand Prix. He was taken to hospital but escaped without serious injury, although his form dropped after that accident. Quotes "It was always difficult to accept that Lewis was always the first to receive the new parts. I have never wanted to make a big deal out of it, but it would have been nice to just once to have the new parts on my car." Kovalainen bemoans McLaren's McLaren's favouritism towards Lewis Hamilton, 2009 "Heikki's performance? I think everyone could see on TV and I don't need to protect anyone, it was rubbish. What else can I say? If I tell you it was good then I'm a complete idiot." Renault boss Flavio Briatore was unhappy with Kovalainen's F1 debut in 2007 Trivia He is the only F1 driver who has won the individual event at the Race of Champions, where drivers from various motorsport disciplines gather to compete. After his solo triumph in 2004 he also won the team championship for Finland in 2006 with rally driver Marcus Gronholm. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 93
  • 94. Hispania Racing Team – Cosworth 2.4 V8 – Bridgestone Sede: Madrid (ESP) Colin Kolles, Team Principal and Managing Director Dr. Manfredi Ravetto, Director Business Affairs Geoff Willis, Technical Director Boris Bermes, Chief of Operations Toni Cuquerella, Chief of Racing and Testing Heike Feldkamp, Team Management Coordinator Alba Saiz, Press Officer giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 94
  • 95. Bruno Senna Brazil Full name Bruno Senna Lalli Birth date October 15, 1983 Birthplace Sao Paulo, Brazil Current age 26 years 171 days Height 1.8 m Weight 69 kg Relation Uncle - A Senna Current team HRT F1 Year Car Race Start Won Pod Class Best Pole Front Best Lap Hat Pts Pos 2010 HRT F1 3 3 0 0 1 16 0 0 23 0 0 0 - Total 3 3 0 0 1 16 0 0 23 0 0 0 Never before has a rookie entered F1 with such high expectations on his shoulders, but Bruno Senna, nephew of three-time world champion Ayrton will be desperate to prove it is more than just a name he has in common with his uncle. A talented youngster, Senna began karting when he was five, often beating his uncle in races at the family farm. However, when Bruno's father Flavio Lalli died in a motorcycle crash in 1995 shortly after Ayrton's death at Imola in 1994, his mother Viviane Senna Lalli made her son hang up his helmet. He stayed away from the sport for the best part of ten years, but unable to ignore his passion for racing, started again aged 20, and in just his third race he qualified second in the British Formula BMW Championship. Then, at the 2004 Brazilian Grand Prix ten years after his uncle's death, he drove demonstration laps in a replica of Senna's old Lotus 98T, and the talk of his future in F1 started in earnest. After just five races in the BMW series he moved up to British Formula 3 for a year, before graduating to GP2. After a year racing with Red Bull feeder team Arden International, he moved to iSport International, finishing runner-up in the championship behind veteran Giorgio Pantano. His first taste of F1 came in November 2008, testing for Honda. Senna was expected to join Jenson Button on the grid for 2009, but when Honda announced they were withdrawing from the sport and Ross Brawn stepped in to buy the ailing team, Brazilian veteran Rubens Barrichello was the preferred choice for the newly-formed Brawn team. Senna has a lot to live up to when he makes his F1 debut with Campos in 2010, and he will be determined to prove his reputation as a driver in his own right. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 95
  • 96. Strengths and Weaknesses Senna's ability is down to sheer talent, however, his lack of racing experience could prove to be the barrier to emulating the success of his uncle. Career High Signing for Campos for his debut F1 season, 2010 is Senna's chance to prove himself and step out of his uncle's shadow. Career Low Following the death of his father in a motorbike accident in 1995, just a year after his uncle Ayrton's death at Imola, Bruno's mother Viviane Senna Lalli forced the 11-year-old to retire from the sport. He did not return to racing until 2004. Quotes "If you think I'm good, wait until you see my nephew Bruno." Ayrton Senna, 1993 "Of course the name helps me, but my uncle can't drive the car for me - I have to do that myself. No-one's going to give me a drive if they don't think I can handle it. He was a great example to me in many ways and I'm trying to stay true to the way he approached life. But I don't think about him when I'm racing, I don't need him to inspire me - I'm a racing driver because I love motor racing, I love competition. Ayrton Senna was my uncle, but I am my own man." Trivia In October 2006, Senna appeared on Sky One show Vroom Vroom, where each week he would race a different car to the top of a multi-storey car park. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 96
  • 97. Karun Chandhok India Full name Karun Chandhok Birth date January 19, 1984 Birthplace Madras (now Chennai), India Current age 26 years 75 days Current team HRT F1 Year Car Race Start Won Pod Class Best Pole Front Best Lap Hat Pts Pos 2010 HRT F1 3 3 0 0 2 14 0 0 22 0 0 0 - Total 3 3 0 0 2 14 0 0 22 0 0 0 After spending three years toiling away in the GP2 championship, Karun Chandhok has finally made the step up to Formula One. His amiable personality won him a legion of fans in the junior series, but he will have to prove his worth if he is going to be fully accepted into the Formula One paddock. He made a name for himself in India when he won the Formula Maruti championship - one of relatively few junior series running in his home country. He quickly progressed to the Asia-wide Formula 2000 series and won that too. In 2002 he pitted his talents against the ultra-competitive British Formula 3 field, and in his second year in the championship he finished a respectable third with seven victories. Alongside his British F3 campaigns, he competed in a handful of races in the Worldseries by Renault and in 2005 drove three races for his country in A1 GP. In 2006 he returned to Asia to drive in the less competitive Formula V6 championship, which he duly won. That opened the door to GP2 the next year, where he steadily progressed and took a victory in the sprint race at Spa Francorchamps. His promising start in GP2 secured him two days of testing for Red Bull, at which he held his own against a whole field of both established F1 drivers and young hopefuls. For 2008 he was paired with Bruno Senna at the race-winning I-Sport outfit and was a consistent points scorer. However, as he scrapped for top-eight finishes and a single win at the Hockenheim sprint, Senna was challenging for the championship and finished the season with over double Chandhok's points. In 2009 he stayed in GP2, but his season was dogged by retirements and mistakes and he finished a lowly 18th in the standings. Nevertheless, though a combination of sponsors' money, his father's contacts and his potentially lucrative nationality he became a serious contender for a F1 race seat in 2010. His dream finally came true just a week before the start of the season when he was announced as a race driver for HRT alongside his old sparring partner Senna. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 97
  • 98. Strengths and Weaknesses He has shown he can be consistent when given a competitive car but has yet to prove his pace against really tough competition. Career High Winning his first GP2 race at Spa Francorchamps, after pulling a brave move on Andy Soucek at Les Combes. Career Low A string of retirements and accidents in the final five feature races of the 2009 GP2 season. Quotes "A Formula One car is something special and to be one of the few people in the world to drive one feels pretty cool." Vijay Mallya on giving Chandhok a drive at Force India: "At the end of the day he must win some GP2 races and come out good in the F1 simulator. And if he is competitive in the simulator, I would be the first one to offer him a position in Force India." Trivia Chandhok's father, Vicky, is a former national rally champion and is a key player behind the introduction of an Indian Grand Prix in 2011. He named as a potential candidate for the FIA presidency in 2009 and is a friend of F1 CEO Bernie Ecclestone. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 98
  • 99. Sauber – Ferrari 2.4 V8 – Bridgestone Sede: Hinwil, Switzerland (CH) Team Principal, CEO/President: Peter Sauber Technical Chief: Willy Rampf Specifications Chassis: Carbon-fibre monocoque Suspension: Upper and lower wishbones (front and rear), inboard springs and dampers, actuated by pushrods (Sachs Race Engineering) Brakes: Six-piston brake callipers (Brembo), carbon pads and discs (Brembo, Carbon Industries) Transmission: Ferrari 7-speed quick shift gearbox, carbon, longitudinally mounted, carbon-fibre clutch Chassis electronics: MES Steering wheel: BMW Sauber F1 Team design and construction Tyres: Bridgestone Potenza Wheels: OZ Dimensions Length: 4,940 mm Width: 1,800 mm Height: 1,000 mm Track width, front: 1,495 mm Track width, rear: 1,410 mm Weight: 620 kg (incl. driver, tank empty) Engine Designation: Ferrari 056 engine Type: Naturally aspirated V8, cylinder angle 90 degrees Cylinder block: Sand cast aluminium Valves / valve train: 32 / pneumatic Displacement: 2,398 cc Bore: 98 mm Weight: > 95 kg Injection: Electronic injection and ignition giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 99
  • 100. Kamui Kobayashi Japan Full name Kamui Kobayashi Birth date September 13, 1986 Birthplace Amagasaki, Hyogo, Japan Current age 23 years 203 days Height 1.7 m Weight 57 kg Current team Sauber Previous teams Toyota Year Car Race Start Won Pod Class Best Pole Front Best Lap Hat Pts Pos 2009 Toyota 2 2 0 0 2 6 0 0 11 0 0 3 18 2010 BMW Sauber 3 3 0 0 0 - 0 0 9 0 0 0 - Total 5 5 0 0 2 6 0 0 9 0 0 3 After an explosive entrance into F1 at the end of the 2009 season, Kamui Kobayashi was hoping to he had done enough to secure a full time race seat at Toyota. However, when the manufacturer announced its withdrawal from the sport with immediate effect, the son of a sushi chef was facing a future back in the kitchen with his father. Kobayashi's motorsport career began in karting, aged nine, he went on to win four titles in seven years. In 2004, he signed up to Toyota's Driver Academy, and made the move into Formula Renault, travelling around the world, the following year he took both the Italian and European titles with six race victories in each. In 2006 he graduated into the Formula 3 Euroseries, finishing the season sixth behind team-mates Paul di Resta and Sebastian Vettel, champion and runner-up respectively. The following year a single race victory was enough to take fourth place, with team-mate Sebastien Grosjean taking the title with six wins. At the end of the 2007 season, Kobayashi was confirmed as test driver for Toyota F1, replacing Franck Montagny. Alongside his F1 testing duties, he joined the GP2 Asia Series, and with two race wins he took sixth place overall. He then moved to the main series, and despite an impressive start to the 2008 season, finishing fifth and first in his debut weekend in Barcelona, he could only manage 16th place in the standings. He took the GP2 Asia Series title the following winter, beating team-mate Jerome d'Ambrosio to the top spot. However, disappointing results in the 2009 main series saw him finish 16th once more. Kobayashi's first steps into the F1 paddock were in the ideal location - in front of his home crowd in Suzuka, substituting for the unwell Timo Glock in Friday practice. However, Glock recovered in giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 100
  • 101. time for Saturday's qualifying, but was injured after crashing in the final qualifying session. The FIA refused to give Toyota permission for Kobayashi to compete in his debut race, as rules state a driver must complete qualifying to be eligible. However, with Glock suffering from fractured vertebrae, Kobayashi was given his chance just two weeks later, making his debut at the Brazilian Grand Prix. He finished the race in tenth, just outside the points. At the final race of the season he picked up his first F1 points with sixth place after qualifying 12th. If he can secure a drive, 2010 will be a crucial season for Kobayashi to prove he has what it takes. Strengths and Weaknesses Clearly unfazed by his rivals, Kobayashi is ambitious and aggressive and showed in Brazil he is not willing to give up his position, even for the world champion. However, after just two races he has already acquired a reputation as a dangerous driver, with Jenson Button labelling him as "absolutely crazy". Career High Scoring his first F1 points in his second race in Abu Dhabi. Brought in to replace the injured Glock for the final two races of the season, most people expected Kobayashi to be little more than a stopgap. However, after qualifying in 12th at Yas Marina Circuit, he went on to finish sixth to stake his claim for a drive in 2010. Career Low After an impressive debut in F1, Kobayashi's hopes of a seat with Toyota were dashed when the Japanese manufacturer withdrew from the sport. Quotes "I have to say, being a Formula One driver is not what I expected when I was a small boy because it is about more than just driving and working on the car; there are so many other tasks that I need to do. It's obvious to me now but when I was a young boy I just assumed racing drivers spent their days only racing cars!" "[Before they came into Formula 1, Kobayashi] was kind of OK, wasn't he, nothing special, but Grosjean looked a star. But you know, this is all about pressure: who can deliver under the spotlight - not just the spotlights that are here at this racetrack. Some people grow - they use the spotlight as energy; others wilt and melt under it." Martin Brundle Trivia As a child, Kobayashi wanted to be a stand-up comedian and joined his school comedy club before turning to racing. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 101
  • 102. Pedro de la Rosa Spain Full name Pedro Martinez de la Rosa Birth date February 24, 1971 Birthplace Barcelona, Spain Current age 39 years 39 days Height 1.77 m Weight 74 kg Current team Sauber Previous teams Arrows, Jaguar, McLaren Year Car Race Start Won Pod Class Best Pole Front Best Lap Hat Pts Pos 1999 Arrows 16 16 0 0 5 6 0 0 18 0 0 1 18 2000 Arrows 17 16 0 0 6 6 0 0 5 0 0 2 16 2001 Jaguar 13 13 0 0 7 5 0 0 9 0 0 3 16 2002 Jaguar 17 17 0 0 8 8 0 0 8 0 0 0 - 2005 McLaren 1 1 0 0 1 5 0 0 8 1 0 4 20 2006 McLaren 8 8 0 1 6 2 0 0 4 0 0 19 11 2010 BMW Sauber 3 3 0 0 1 12 0 0 12 0 0 0 - Total 75 74 0 1 34 2 0 0 4 1 0 29 Despite being in Formula One since 1999, Pedro de la Rosa has only completed three full seasons in the sport. He now ranks among the most experienced test drivers in F1 and up until 2009, when in-season testing was banned, he racked up countless miles in McLaren's race winning machinery. His interest in motorsport started with radio controlled cars in 1983 and eventually progressed to karts when he was 17. He progressed steadily through the lower formula, starting in Spanish Formula Ford, winning in Spanish Formula Renault and spending two years in the midfield of British Formula 3. A move to the far-east came in 1995, and he flourished. In his first year he won the Japanese Formula 3 championship and then the Formula Nippon title (equivalent to F3000) followed two years later. He got his F1 break with Jordan, which ran him as a test driver for 1998, then, in 1999, he secured his first race seat at Arrows. He scored a point in his first grand prix but failed to better or repeat giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 102
  • 103. that result for the rest of the season. He stayed at the team for 2000 but struggled, this time picking up two points over the course of the year. He moved to Jaguar in 2001 as test driver and replaced Luciano Burti as race driver after the fourth round. The Ford-backed squad had high hopes but the car was far from perfect, and he only went one better than his previous season - scoring three points. Another year at the team in 2002 proved even worse. He scored no points, retired from more than half the races and was out- performed by Eddie Irvine. Three years in the wilderness followed as he tested for McLaren and only competed in one grand prix. He was highly respected by the team but always maintained he would return as a permanent race driver. His chance came in 2006 when Juan Pablo Montoya left the team after crashing into team-mate Kimi Raikkonen at the US Grand Prix. As third driver de la Rosa got the seat for the remaining eight races. While he didn't come close to matching Raikkonen he did score his first podium and 19 points - far more than at any other point in his career. He was linked to a drive at McLaren in 2007 but Ron Dennis chanced his luck on a young rookie named Lewis Hamilton instead. He has been in the team's test-role ever since, but has been thrown into the mix for a Force India drive due to his connections with engine-supplier Mercedes. Strengths and Weaknesses His consistency and experience has served him well as a test driver but his lack of ultimate pace has kept him in that role at McLaren. Career High A second place in the wet at the 2006 Hungarian Grand Prix proved he was capable of mixing it with the best when given the right machinery. Career Low Being caught sending emails about Ferrari's technical details during the spygate controversy that saw his team fined $100 million. Quotes "I would be very happy to be at McLaren Mercedes as the reserve driver and arrange my work to race in another team as well, or simply go to another team to race." "With sponsors everything would be infinitely easier but I believe that my experience in F1 is very important. My experience is my sponsor." Trivia His favourite hobby is building and flying remote control helicopters. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 103
  • 104. Virgin – Cosworth 2.4 V8 – Bridgestone Sede: 50 Brook Green, London W6 7RR (UK) Technical Director: Nick Wirth Team Principal: John Booth Chief Executive Officer: Lowdon Graeme giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 104
  • 105. Timo Glock Germany Full name Timo Glock Birth date March 18, 1982 Birthplace Lindenfels, Germany Current age 28 years 17 days Height 1.69 m Weight 64 kg Current team Virgin Previous teams Jordan, Toyota Year Car Race Start Won Pod Class Best Pole Front Best Lap Hat Pts Pos 2004 Jordan 4 4 0 0 4 7 0 0 16 0 0 2 19 2008 Toyota 18 18 0 1 14 2 0 0 5 0 0 25 10 2009 Toyota 15 14 0 2 14 2 0 1 2 1 0 24 10 2010 Virgin 3 3 0 0 0 - 0 0 16 0 0 0 - Total 40 39 0 3 32 2 0 1 2 1 0 51 A much under-rated driver, Timo Glock is a member of an elite club of drivers who have scored points on their F1 debut. Driving for new boys Manor Grand Prix in 2010, Glock will have to use every ounce of his talent and experience to help the new squad develop a winning car. A relatively late starter to the sport, Glock only began racing at 15, but enjoyed instant success, winning numerous karting championships before moving onto Formula BMW. In 2002 he joined the highly competitive German F3 championship, and finishing third in his debut season, the best rookie. His move to the F3 Euroseries was less successful, and even with three wins and three further podium finishes he could only manage fifth in the 2003 season. In 2004 he signed as a test driver for Jordan and made his F1 debut in Canada when regular driver Giorgio Pantano had contract disputes with the team. Glock finished the race eleventh but was eventually promoted to seventh after the disqualification of Toyota and Williams. He finished returned to the Jordan race seat for the final three rounds of the season all be it with far less success. Unable to find an F1 seat for 2005, he moved to the US for the Champ Car series, where he finished eighth overall, winning the Rookie of the Year award. At the end of the season he headed back to Europe to join the GP2 grid with the BCN team, and despite an underperforming car he did well. When the opportunity came mid-season to join top team iSport, he really showed his true potential and finished fourth in the standings. He remained with the team for the 2007 season, taking the title alongside fulfilling testing duties for BMW Sauber. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 105
  • 106. He was the man in demand for the 2008 season and was linked with numerous teams, eventually choosing Toyota. He enjoyed a good season, his best result coming in Hungary when he fought off stiff competition from Kimi Raikkonen to finish second. However, his season will be mostly remembered for the Brazilian Grand Prix, when he failed to fight off Hamilton's attacks, letting him pass to take the final point he needed to become world champion. After a mixed season in 2009 his year came to a premature halt after a heavy crash in qualifying for the Japanese Grand Prix. Although it was initially thought that his only injuries were a deep cut to his leg, further investigation revealed a cracked vertebra which ruled him out for the rest of the season. After Toyota announced their immediate withdrawal from the sport at the end of 2009 Glock's future initially looked bleak. Although he was linked to the second Renault seat, on November 17 new team Manor Grand Prix announced that they had secured his services as lead driver. Strengths and Weaknesses Although a mature and confident driver, Glock has yet to make his name as a race winner despite delivering some superb qualifying performances. Although he will relish the opportunity of developing a new car with Manor in 2010, the combination is unlikely to give him the podiums he so desperately needs. Career High Winning the prestigious 2007 GP2 championship Career Low A heavy qualifying crash in Japan left him with injuries that ruled him out for the final three races of the season Quotes "From track to track my motivation doesn't really change; I always give my all and do my very best to get a strong result for the team. Every race is important so if you're not giving 100% you are not doing your job properly." "I underestimated Timo Glock in his first full season in 2008 and he matured into a strong F1 driver. He has shown he can keep his head under pressure and deliver the goods. Glock raises this game when it counts; he's got confidence and sets his car up well." Martin Brundle Trivia Glock gets himself ready for races by listening to Guns N' Roses. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 106
  • 107. Lucas di Grassi Brazil Full name Lucas Tucci di Grassi Birth date August 11, 1984 Birthplace Sao Paulo, Brazil Current age 25 years 236 days Current team Virgin Year Car Race Start Won Pod Class Best Pole Front Best Lap Hat Pts Pos 2010 Virgin 3 3 0 0 1 14 0 0 22 0 0 0 - Total 3 3 0 0 1 14 0 0 22 0 0 0 Lucas di Grassi has spent four years on the fringes of Formula One, seeing many of his contemporaries promoted to the top flight ahead of him. On his day he has beaten Robert Kubica, Sebastian Vettel, Timo Glock, Romain Grosjean and Bruno Senna but all of them have made the jump ahead of him. The main reason he has been overlooked is because he has never won a championship in single seaters. However, this statistic is misleading as he has seldom been with a top team at the right time and has put in consistent performances throughout his career. His greatest single achievement to date was winning the Macau Grand Prix in 2005 with Manor, beating one of the strongest fields in recent years at the F3 race. He held off Kubica and Vettel, winning by just 0.6 seconds while big names like Grosjean, Senna and Kazuki Nakajima barely featured. This unlocked the door to GP2 where he spent the next four years of his career. His best result in F1's feeder series was in 2007 when he finished second in the championship to Timo Glock. However, his most impressive season was in 2008 when he joined the series halfway through and scored more points than any other driver from that point onwards. As a Renault development driver, di Grassi tested for the team in 2008 but was beaten to a race seat by Nelson Piquet Jnr. He was then in the running for a Honda drive for 2009, completing a number of tests for the team alongside Senna. However, when the manufacturer withdrew from the sport, new team-owner Ross Brawn opted for experience over youth and kept Rubens Barrichello instead. Now he looks set to break into F1 again, this time with his old F3 team Manor. Strengths and Weaknesses He has consistently racked up podiums in his time in GP2 but a failure to win regularly has kept him from becoming champion. Career high Winning at Macau in 2005 against some of the sports top names. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 107
  • 108. Career low Spinning out of the 2007 GP2 championship decider at Valencia - a mistake that cost him the championship to and a potential F1 drive. Quotes When asked who was more successful with the ladies, him or team-mate Dani Clos. "Definitely me, but I have a girlfriend. Actually, I would have been more successful if I didn't have a girlfriend." "GP2 was my finishing school, my university before I got the job in Formula One. While other categories like F3 are important, I think GP2 plays a very important role as a fine tuning category; it is a fast car, very close to Formula One, and you race at the same circuits." Trivia He took up golf during the 2009 GP2 season and lists Tiger Wood's as one of his sporting heros. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 108
  • 109. 2010 season changes Though not as dramatic as the rule changes introduced for the 2009 season, the revisions for 2010 could still have a significant impact on the teams’ relative performance. Refuelling The biggest change for the 2010 season is the banning of refuelling during races for the first time since 1993. Pit stops will not become a thing of the past, however, as drivers still have to use both dry-weather tyre compounds during a Grand Prix. Of course, those stops will now be much quicker, quite possibly under four seconds. The change requires cars to possess a much larger fuel tank - up from around 80 litres to something nearer 250 - and has a major effect on race strategy, with drivers having to pay more attention to tyre and brake conservation. To accommodate the bigger tank, the cars are likely to feature wider rear bodywork and a longer wheelbase. As a result, the weight distribution will be quite different to that of a 2009 car. Points system In place of the previous structure, which saw the top eight drivers scoring 10, 8, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2 and 1 point respectively, from 2010 the top ten finishers in a Grand Prix score points. The change has been introduced as a result of the expanded grid of 13 teams. Under the new system, the race winner takes 25 points, with 18 and 15 being awarded for second and third places respectively. The next seven finishers will score 12, 10, 8, 6, 4, 2 and 1 point respectively. Weight The minimum weight of the car has been raised from 605kg to 620kg. The initial thinking behind this was to offset the disadvantage faced by taller, heavier drivers in KERS-equipped cars (the additional weight of the KERS system meant they were left with less flexibility in terms of weight distribution than their lighter rivals). By mutual agreement, however, teams are now not expected to run KERS in 2010. Narrower front tyres When slick tyres returned to Formula One racing in 2009, the tyre size remained unchanged. In terms of contact area, this meant that the fronts gained proportionally more grip than the rears. This has been addressed for 2010, with front tyre width reduced from 270mm to 245mm, thus helping to bring back a better grip balance. Also, the ban on refuelling means cars will be around 100kg heavier at the start of a race than in 2009, so Bridgestone will use slightly harder tyre compounds to compensate. The number of dry tyres available to each driver has been decreased from 14 to 11 sets per weekend and any driver who participates in Q3 must start the race on the same tyres he used to set his grid time. No wheel fairings Teams are no longer allowed to use the wheel rim covers that became so commonplace in 2009. Their removal means one less thing to go wrong when pit crews are trying to change of set of tyres in less than four seconds, and could also aid overtaking by making the airflow immediately behind cars less turbulent. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 109
  • 110. More teams Twelve teams - 24 cars - will feature on the grid in 2010. This means a slight alteration to the knockout qualifying session, which will now see seven drivers (as opposed to five) eliminated in Q1 and Q2, leaving ten to fight it out for pole in Q3. The ban on refuelling means that cars will qualify on low fuel in all three phases of the session. Testing If a team declares that one of their current race drivers is to be substituted by a driver who has not participated in an F1 race in the two previous calendar years, one day of track testing will now be permitted, on an approved circuit not being used for a Grand Prix in the current season. This is to avoid scenarios such as that seen in 2009 when Jaime Alguersuari made his Formula One debut with Toro Rosso having only previously driven an F1 car in straight-line testing. In another minor change, teams will be allowed six rather than eight days of straight-line aero testing per season. They will also have the option of substituting any of these days for four hours of wind tunnel testing with a full-scale (rather than the normal 60 percent-scale) model. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 110
  • 111. From the 2010 Formula One Sporting Regulations: 29) REFUELLING 29.1 a) Refuelling is only permitted in the team's designated garage area. b) No car may be refuelled after it has left the pit lane for the first time whilst the pit exit is open for the race. c) Fuel may not be added to nor removed from a car during a race. 29.2 No car may be refuelled, nor may fuel be removed from a car, at a rate greater than 0.8 litres/second. 29.3 The driver may remain in his car throughout refuelling but the engine must be stopped. 29.4 Each competitor must ensure that an assistant equipped with a suitable fire extinguisher of adequate capacity is beside the car throughout all refuelling operations. 6) WORLD CHAMPIONSHIP 6.1 The Formula One World Championship driver's title will be awarded to the driver who has scored the highest number of points, taking into consideration all the results obtained during the Events which have actually taken place. 6.2 The title of Formula One World Champion Constructor will be awarded to the make which has scored the highest number of points, results from both cars (see Article 13.6) being taken into account. 6.3 A constructor is the person (including any corporate or unincorporated body) which designs the Listed Parts set out in Schedule 3 to The 2009 Concorde Agreement. The make of an engine or chassis is the name attributed to it by its constructor. The obligation to design and use Listed Parts shall not prevent a constructor from outsourcing the design and/or manufacture of any Listed Parts to a third party in accordance with the provisions of Schedule 3 to The 2009 Concorde Agreement. If the make of the chassis is not the same as that of the engine, the title will be awarded to the former which shall always precede the latter in the name of the car. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 111
  • 112. 6.4 Points for both titles will be awarded at each Event according to the following scale : 1st : 25 points 2nd : 18 points 3rd : 15 points 4th : 12 points 5th : 10 points 6th : 8 points 7th : 6 points 8th : 4 points 9th : 2 points 10th : 1 point 6.5 If a race is suspended under Article 41, and cannot be resumed, no points will be awarded if the leader has completed less than two laps, half points will be awarded if the leader has completed more than two laps but less than 75% of the original race distance and full points will be awarded if the leader has completed more than 75% of the original race distance. 6.6 The drivers finishing first, second and third in the Championship must be present at the annual FIA Prize Giving ceremony. 7) DEAD HEAT 7.1 Prizes and points awarded for all the positions of competitors who tie, will be added together and shared equally. 7.2 If two or more constructors or drivers finish the season with the same number of points, the higher place in the Championship (in either case) shall be awarded to: a) the holder of the greatest number of first places, b) if the number of first places is the same, the holder of the greatest number of second places, c) if the number of second places is the same, the holder of the greatest number of third places and so on until a winner emerges. d) if this procedure fails to produce a result, the FIA will nominate the winner according to such criteria as it thinks fit. 33) QUALIFYING PRACTICE 33.1 The qualifying practice session will take place on the day before the race from 14.00 to 15.00. The session will be run as follows : a) From 14.00 to 14.20 (Q1) all cars will be permitted on the track and at the end of this period the slowest eight cars will be prohibited from taking any further part in the session. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 112
  • 113. Lap times achieved by the eighteen remaining cars will then be deleted. b) From 14.27 to 14.42 (Q2) the eighteen remaining cars will be permitted on the track and at the end of this period the slowest eight cars will be prohibited from taking any further part in the session. Lap times achieved by the ten remaining cars will then be deleted. c) From 14.50 to 15.00 (Q3) the ten remaining cars will be permitted on the track. The above procedure is based upon a Championship entry of 26 cars. If 24 cars are entered seven will be excluded after Q1 and Q2 and if 22 cars are entered only six cars will be excluded after Q1 and Q2. 33.2 Any driver whose car stops on the circuit during the qualifying session will not be permitted to take any further part in the session. Any car which stops on the circuit during the qualifying session, and which is returned to the pits before the end of the session, will be held in parc ferme until the end of the session. 22) TRACK AND WIND TUNNEL TESTING 22.1 a) Track testing shall be considered any track running time undertaken by a competitor entered in the Championship with the exception of : i) promotional or demonstration events carried out using tyres provided specifically for this purpose by the appointed supplier ; ii) one three day young driver training test, carried out on a site approved by the FIA for Formula 1 cars and between the end of the last Event of the Championship and 31 December of the same year, any such driver having not competed in more than two F1 World Championship Events ; iii) six one day aerodynamic tests carried out on FIA approved straight line or constant radius sites between 1 January 2010 and the end of the last Event of the Championship. Any of these days may be substituted for four hours of wind-on full scale wind tunnel testing to be carried out in a single twenty four hour period. b) No competitor may carry out more than 15,000km of track testing during a calendar year. c) No track testing may take place between the start of the week preceding the first Event of the Championship and 31 December of the same year with the following exception. If a team declares that one of its current race drivers is to be substituted by a driver who has not participated in an F1 race in the two previous calendar years, one day of track testing will be permitted between the start of the week preceding second Event and the last Event of the Championship. The following must be observed : giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 113
  • 114. - Any such day may only be carried out by the new driver and may not take place on a circuit hosting a race in the current Championship year. - Any such day may only take place within a period 14 days prior to the substitution and 14 days after the substitution has taken place. - If a team, having declared the driver's substitution and performed the test, does not then enter an Event with the new driver, the team will be penalised by a reduction of one day from the pre- season track testing days available in the following year. d) During all track testing cars must be fitted with the FIA ECU required by Article 8.2 of the 2009 FIA Formula One Technical Regulations. e) No track testing is permitted at sites which are not currently approved for use by Formula 1 cars. In order to ensure that venue licence conditions are respected at all times during track testing, competitors are required to inform the FIA of their test schedule in order that an observer may be appointed if deemed necessary. f) During all Formula One track testing : - red flag procedures must be respected ; - no other type of vehicle is permitted on the track ; - every reasonable effort should be made to ensure that the recommendations concerning emergency services detailed in Article 16 of Appendix H to the Code are followed. g) If, after an incident during track testing, the Medical Warning Light signals that threshold forces have been exceeded the driver must present himself for examination in the circuit medical centre without delay. h) With the exception of the full scale testing permitted in 22.1(a) above, no wind tunnel testing may be carried out using a scale model which is greater than 60 percent of full size. i) No wind tunnel testing may be carried out at a speed exceeding 50 metres/second. 25) SUPPLY OF TYRES IN THE CHAMPIONSHIP AND TYRE LIMITATION DURING THE EVENT 25.1 Supply of tyres : A single tyre manufacturer has been chosen by the FIA for the 2008, 2009 and 2010 seasons following an invitation for tenders to supply tyres to all the cars entered in Championship Events for the duration of these seasons. A single tyre manufacturer will be chosen by the FIA for subsequent seasons following an invitation for tenders to supply tyres to all the cars entered in Championship Events for the duration of such subsequent seasons. The appointed tyre supplier must undertake to provide : giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 114
  • 115. - two specifications of dry-weather tyre at each Event, each of which must be of one homogenous compound and visibly distinguishable from one another when a car is on the track ; - one specification of intermediate tyre at each Event which must be of one homogenous compound ; - one specification of wet-weather tyre at each Event which must be of one homogenous compound ; 25.2 Quantity of tyres : During the Event no driver may use more than eleven sets of dry-weather tyres (six of “prime” specification and five of “option” specification), four sets of intermediate tyres and three sets of wet-weather tyres. No driver may use more than two sets of each specification of dry-weather tyre during P1 and P2. A set of tyres will be deemed to comprise two front and two rear tyres all of which must be of the same specification. 25.3 Control of tyres : a) The outer sidewall of all tyres which are to be used at an Event must be marked with a unique identification. b) Other than in cases of force majeure (accepted as such by the stewards of the meeting), all tyres intended for use at an Event must be presented to the FIA technical delegate for allocation prior to the end of initial scrutineering. c) At any time during an Event, and at his absolute discretion, the FIA technical delegate may select alternative dry-weather tyres to be used by any team or driver from among the stock of tyres the appointed supplier has present at the Event. d) A competitor wishing to replace one unused tyre by another identical unused one must present both tyres to the FIA technical delegate. e) The use of tyres without appropriate identification may result in a grid position penalty or exclusion from the race. f) The only permitted type of tyre heating devices are blankets which use resistive heating elements. The heating elements may only act upon the outer tyre surface. 25.4 Use of tyres : a) Each nominated driver will be allocated three sets of dry-weather tyres for use during P1 and P2, two of “prime” specification and one of “option” specification. These are the only dry-weather tyres which may be used during these sessions. One set of “prime” specification must be returned to the tyre supplier before the start of P2 and one set of each specification before the start of P3. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 115
  • 116. If an additional driver is used (see Article 19.1(b) he must use the tyres allocated to the nominated driver he replaced. b) Each nominated driver will be allocated eight further sets of dry-weather tyres, four of each specification, for use during the remainder of the Event. However, one set of each specification must be returned to the tyre supplier before the start of the qualifying practice session and may not be used during the remainder of the Event. c) Prior to the start of the qualifying practice session intermediate and wet-weather tyres may only be used after the track has been declared wet by the race director, following which intermediate, wet or dry-weather tyres may be used for the remainder of the session. d) At the start of the race each car which took part in Q3 must be fitted with the tyres with which the driver set his grid time. This will only be necessary if dry-weather tyres were used to set the grid time and if dry-weather are used at the start of the race. Any such tyres damaged during Q3 will be inspected by the FIA technical delegate who will decide, at his absolute discretion, whether any may be replaced and, if so, which tyres they should be replaced with. e)Unless he has used intermediate or wet-weather tyres during the race, each driver must use at least one set of each specification of dry-weather tyres during the race. f) If the race is started behind the safety car because of heavy rain (see Article 40.14), or resumed in accordance with Article 42.5(a), the use of wet-weather tyres until the safety car returns to the pits is compulsory. 25.5 Testing of tyres : a)Tyres supplied to any competitor at any time may not be used on any rig or vehicle (other than an F1 car on an F1 approved track, at the exclusion of any kind of road simulator), either Team owned or rented, providing measurements of forces and/or moments produced by a rotating full size F1 tyre, other than uniquely vertical forces, tyre rolling resistance and aerodynamic drag. b) Tyres may be used on a test rig providing forces control and monitoring by F1 rim manufacturers for the sole purpose of proof testing their products. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 116
  • 117. From the 2010 Formula One Technical Regulations: ARTICLE 4: WEIGHT 4.1 Minimum weight: The weight of the car must not be less than 620kg at all times during the Event. 4.2 Ballast: Ballast can be used provided it is secured in such a way that tools are required for its removal. It must be possible to fix seals if deemed necessary by the FIA technical delegate. 4.3 Adding during the race: With the exception of compressed gases, no substance may be added to the car during the race. If it becomes necessary to replace any part of the car during the race, the new part must not weigh any more than the original part. ARTICLE 12: WHEELS AND TYRES 12.1 Location: Wheels must be external to the bodywork in plan view, with the rear aerodynamic device removed. 12.2 Number of wheels: The number of wheels is fixed at four. 12.3 Wheel material: Wheels must be made from an homogeneous metallic material with a minimum density of 1.74g/cmUPU3UPU at 20°C. The use of magnesium M18430 is forbidden. 12.4 Wheel dimensions : 12.4.1 Complete wheel width must lie between 305mm and 355mm when fitted to the front of the car and between 365mm and 380mm when fitted to the rear. 12.4.2 Complete wheel diameter must not exceed 660mm when fitted with dry-weather tyres or 670mm when fitted with wet weather tyres. 12.4.3 Complete wheel width and diameter will be measured horizontally at axle height, with the wheel held in a vertical position and when fitted with new tyres inflated to 1.4 bar. 12.4.4 Wheel dimensions and geometry must comply with the following specifications : giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 117
  • 118. - the minimum wheel thickness is 3.0mm ; - the minimum bead thickness is 4.0mm (measured from hump to outer edge of the lip) ; - the ETRTO standard bead profile is prescribed ; - the tyre mounting widths are 12” (304.8mm +/-0.5mm) front; 13.7” (348.0mm +/-0.5mm) rear ; - the wheel lip thickness is 9mm (+/-1mm) ; - the outer lip diameter is 358mm (+/-1mm) ; - a lip recess of maximum 1.0mm depth between a radius of 165mm and a radius of 173mm from wheel axis is permitted (for wheel branding, logo, part number, etc) ; - with the exception of the wheel lip, only a single turned profile with a maximum thickness of 8mm is allowed radially outboard of the exclusion zones specified in Article 12.4.5 ; - the design of the wheel must meet the general requirements of the tyre supplier for the mounting and dismounting of tyres including allowance for sensors and valves ; - the wheel design cannot be handed between left and right designs. U12.4.5U UNo wheel material is permitted in the following exclusion zones : - A concentric cylinder of diameter 305mm and length 115mm positioned with its inner face lying in the same plane as the inboard face of the front wheel ; - A concentric cylinder of diameter 305mm and length 25mm positioned with its outer face lying in the same plane as the outboard face of the front wheel ; - A concentric cylinder of diameter 305mm and length 100mm positioned with its inner face lying in the same plane as the inboard face of the rear wheel ; - A concentric cylinder of diameter 305mm and length 30mm positioned with its outer face lying in the same plane as the outboard face of the rear wheel. 12.5 Supply of tyres : 12.5.1 All tyres must be used as supplied by the manufacturer, any modification or treatment such as cutting, grooving or the application of solvents or softeners is prohibited. This applies to dry, intermediate and wet-weather tyres. 12.5.2 If, in the opinion of the appointed tyre supplier and FIA technical delegate, the nominated tyre specification proves to be technically unsuitable, the stewards may authorise the use of additional tyres to a different specification. 12.5.3 If, in the interests of maintaining current levels of circuit safety, the FIA deems it necessary to reduce tyre grip, it shall introduce such rules as the tyre supplier may advise or, in the absence giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 118
  • 119. of advice which achieves the FIA's objectives, specify the maximum permissible contact areas for front and rear tyres. 12.6 Specification of tyres : 12.6.1 An intermediate tyre is one which has been designed for use on a wet or damp track. All intermediate tyres must, when new, have a contact area which does not exceed 280cm² when fitted to the front of the car and 440cm² when fitted to the rear. Contact areas will be measured over any square section of the tyre which is normal to and symmetrical about the tyre centre line and which measures 200mm x 200mm when fitted to the front of the car and 250mm x 250mm when fitted to the rear. For the purposes of establishing conformity, void areas which are less than 2.5mm in depth will be deemed to be contact areas. 12.6.2 A wet-weather tyre is one which has been designed for use on a wet track. All wet-weather tyres must, when new, have a contact area which does not exceed 240cm² when fitted to the front of the car and 375cm² when fitted to the rear. Contact areas will be measured over any square section of the tyre which is normal to and symmetrical about the tyre centre line and which measures 200mm x 200mm when fitted to the front of the car and 250mm x 250mm when fitted to the rear. For the purposes of establishing conformity, void areas which are less than 5.0mm in depth will be deemed to be contact areas. 12.6.3 Tyre specifications will be determined by the FIA no later than 1 September of the previous season. Once determined in this way, the specification of the tyres will not be changed during the Championship season without the agreement of all competing teams. 12.7 Tyre Gases : 12.7.1 Tyres may only be inflated with air or nitrogen. 12.7.2 Any process the intent of which is to reduce the amount of moisture in the tyre and/or in it's inflation gas is forbidden. 12.8 Wheel assembly : 12.8.1 The only parts which may be physically attached to the wheel in addition to the tyre are surface treatments for appearance and protection, valves for filling and discharging the tyre, balance weights, drive pegs, tyre pressure and temperature monitoring devices and spacers on the inboard mounting face of identical specification on all wheels for the same axle. 12.8.2 The wheel must be attached to the car with a single fastener. The outer diameter of the fastener must not exceed 105mm and the axial length must not exceed 75mm. The wheel fastener may not attach or mount any part to the car except the wheel assembly described in Article 12.8.1. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 119
  • 120. 12.8.3 A complete wheel must contain a single fixed internal gas volume. No valves, bleeds or permeable membranes are permitted other than to inflate or deflate the tyre whilst the car is stationary. 12.8.4 Powered devices which assist in the fitting or removal of wheel fasteners may only be powered by compressed gas. ARTICLE 11: BRAKE SYSTEM 11.4 Air ducts: Air ducts around the front and rear brakes will be considered part of the braking system and shall not protrude beyond: - a plane parallel to the ground situated at a distance of 160mm above the horizontal centre line of the wheel; - a plane parallel to the ground situated at a distance of 160mm below the horizontal centre line of the wheel; - a vertical plane parallel to the inner face of the wheel rim and displaced from it by 120mm toward the car centre line. Furthermore: - when viewed from the side the ducts must not protrude forwards beyond a radius of 330mm from the centre of the wheel or backwards beyond a radius of 180mm from the centre of the wheel. - the ducts may not rotate with the wheels nor may they, or any of their mountings, protrude axially beyond the outer face of the wheel fastener ; - no part of the car, other than those specifically defined in Articles 12.8.1 and 12.8.2, may obscure any part of the wheel when viewed from the outside of the car towards the car centre line along the axis of the wheel. All measurements will be made with the wheel held in a vertical position. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 120
  • 121. Understand Formula one Aerodynamics A modern Formula One car has almost as much in common with a jet fighter as it does with an ordinary road car. Aerodynamics have become key to success in the sport and teams spend tens of millions of dollars on research and development in the field each year. The aerodynamic designer has two primary concerns: the creation of downforce, to help push the car's tyres onto the track and improve cornering forces; and minimising the drag that gets caused by turbulence and acts to slow the car down. Several teams started to experiment with the now familiar wings in the late 1960s. Race car wings operate on exactly the same principle as aircraft wings, only in reverse. Air flows at different speeds over the two sides of the wing (by having to travel different distances over its contours) and this creates a difference in pressure, a physical rule known as Bernoulli's Principle. As this pressure tries to balance, the wing tries to move in the direction of the low pressure. Planes use their wings to create lift, race cars use theirs to create downforce. A modern Formula One car is capable of developing 3.5 g lateral cornering force (three and a half times its own weight) thanks to aerodynamic downforce. That means that, theoretically, at high speeds they could drive upside down. Early experiments with movable wings and high mountings led to some spectacular accidents, and for the 1970 season regulations were introduced to limit the size and location of wings. Evolved over time, those rules still hold largely true today. By the mid 1970s 'ground effect' downforce had been discovered. Lotus engineers found out that the entire car could be made to act like a wing by the creation of a giant wing on its underside which would help to suck it to the road. The ultimate example of this thinking was the Brabham BT46B, designed by Gordon Murray, which actually used a cooling fan to extract air from the skirted area under the car, creating enormous downforce. After technical challenges from other teams it was withdrawn after a single race. And rule changes followed to limit the benefits of 'ground effects' - firstly a ban on the skirts used to contain the low pressure area, later a requirement for a 'stepped floor'. Despite the full-sized wind tunnels and vast computing power used by the aerodynamic departments of most teams, the fundamental principles of Formula One aerodynamics still apply: to create the maximum amount of downforce for the minimal amount of drag. The primary wings giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 121
  • 122. mounted front and rear are fitted with different profiles depending on the downforce requirements of a particular track. Tight, slow circuits like Monaco require very aggressive wing profiles - you will see that cars run two separate 'blades' of 'elements' on the rear wings (two is the maximum permitted). In contrast, high-speed circuits like Monza see the cars stripped of as much wing as possible, to reduce drag and increase speed on the long straights. Every single surface of a modern Formula One car, from the shape of the suspension links to that of the driver's helmet - has its aerodynamic effects considered. Disrupted air, where the flow 'separates' from the body, creates turbulence which creates drag - which slows the car down. Look at a recent car and you will see that almost as much effort has been spent reducing drag as increasing downforce - from the vertical end-plates fitted to wings to prevent vortices forming to the diffuser plates mounted low at the back, which help to re-equalise pressure of the faster- flowing air that has passed under the car and would otherwise create a low-pressure 'balloon' dragging at the back. Despite this, designers can't make their cars too 'slippery', as a good supply of airflow has to be ensured to help dissipate the vast amounts of heat produced by a modern Formula One engine. In recent years most Formula One teams have tried to emulate Ferrari's 'narrow waist' design, where the rear of the car is made as narrow and low as possible. This reduces drag and maximises the amount of air available to the rear wing. The 'barge boards' fitted to the sides of cars also helped to shape the flow of the air and minimise the amount of turbulence. Revised regulations introduced in 2005 forced the aerodynamicists to be even more ingenious. In a bid to cut speeds, the FIA robbed the cars of a chunk of downforce by raising the front wing, bringing the rear wing forward and modifying the rear diffuser profile. The designers quickly clawed back much of the loss, with a variety of intricate and novel solutions such as the ‘horn’ winglets first seen on the McLaren MP4-20. Most of those innovations were effectively outlawed under even more stringent aero regulations imposed by the FIA for 2009. The changes were designed to promote overtaking by making it easier for a car to closely follow another. The new rules took the cars into another new era, with lower and wider front wings, taller and narrower rear wings, and generally much ‘cleaner’ bodywork. Perhaps the most interesting change, however, was the introduction of ‘moveable aerodynamics’, with the driver able to make limited adjustments to the front wing from the cockpit during a race. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 122
  • 123. Brakes When it comes to the business of slowing down, Formula One cars are surprisingly closely related to their road-going cousins. Indeed as ABS anti-skid systems have been banned from Formula One racing, most modern road cars can lay claim to having considerably cleverer retardation. The principle of braking is simple: slowing an object by removing kinetic energy from it. Formula One cars have disc brakes (like most road-cars) with rotating discs (attached to the wheels) being squeezed between two brake pads by the action of a hydraulic calliper. This turns a car's momentum into large amounts of heat and light - note the way Formula One brake discs glow yellow hot. In the same way that too much power applied through a wheel will cause it to spin, too much braking will cause it to lock as the brakes overpower the available levels of grip from the tyre. Formula One previously allowed anti-skid braking systems (which would reduce the brake pressure to allow the wheel to turn again and then continue to slow it at the maximum possible rate) but these were banned in the 1990s. Braking therefore remains one of the sternest tests of a Formula One driver's skill. The technical regulations also require that each car has a twin-circuit hydraulic braking system with two separate reservoirs for the front and rear wheels. This ensures that, even in the event of one complete circuit failure, braking should still be available through the second circuit. The amount of braking power going to the front and rear circuits can be 'biased' by a control in the cockpit, allowing a driver to stabilise handling or take account of falling fuel load. Under normal operation about 60 percent of braking power goes to the front wheels which, because of load transfer under deceleration, take the brunt of the retardation duties. (Think of what would happen if you tried to slow down a skateboard with a tennis ball on it). In one area F1 brakes are empirically more advanced than road-car systems: materials. All the cars on the grid now use carbon fibre composite brake discs which save weight and are able to operate at higher temperatures than steel discs. A typical Formula One brake disc weighs about 1.5 kg (versus 3.0 kg for the similar sized steel discs used in the American CART series). These are gripped by special compound brake pads and are capable of running at vast temperatures - anything up to 750 degrees Celsius. Previously different sized discs would be used for qualifying and racing, but the 2003 changes to the rules means that all cars enter parc ferme after qualifying - and so therefore set their one-lap time on their race brakes. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 123
  • 124. Formula One brakes are remarkably efficient. In combination with the modern advanced tyre compounds they have dramatically reduced braking distances. It takes a Formula One car considerably less distance to stop from 160 km/h than a road car uses to stop from 100 km/h. So good are the brakes that the regulations deliberately discourage development through restrictions on materials or design, to prevent even shorter braking distances rendering overtaking all but impossible. Since 2009 teams have had the option of harnessing the waste energy generated by the car’s braking process and reusing it via a Kinetic Energy Recovery System (KERS) to provide additional engine power, which can be made available to a driver in short bursts to help facilitate overtaking. Cornering Cornering is vital to the business of racing cars, and Formula One is no exception. On straights the battle tends to be determined by the power of engine and brakes, but come the corners and the driver's skill becomes more immediately apparent. It's the area where an ace pilot can extract the tiny advantage that makes the difference between winning and losing. The fundamental principle of efficient cornering is the 'traction circle.' The tyres of a racing car have only a finite amount of grip to deliver. This can be the longitudinal grip of braking and acceleration, the lateral grip of cornering or - most likely in bends - a combination of the two. Racing drivers overlap the different phases of braking, turning and applying power to try and make the tyre work as hard as possible for as long as possible. It's the skilful exploitation of this overlap, releasing the brakes and feeding in the throttle to just the right degree not to overwhelm the available grip, which is making the best use of the 'traction circle'. The very best are those who can extract the maximum amount from the tyres for as long as possible. Oversteer and understeer are vital to understanding the way a car corners. They refer simply to the question of which end of the car runs out of grip first. In an understeer situation the front end breaks free first, the car running wide as centrifugal force takes over. Oversteer is where the back end of the car loses adhesion and tries to overtake the front - think in terms of a road car's 'handbrake skid'. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 124
  • 125. Understeer is inherently stable - once the car reduces speed sufficiently grip will be restored, which is why almost all road cars are set up to understeer at the limit of adhesion. But it also slows a car, which is why Formula One chassis engineers try to avoid it. Oversteer is, by contrast, highly unstable. Unless a driver acts to correct it quickly with skilful use of steering and throttle it can result in a spin. But an 'oversteery' chassis helps the driver to turn into a corner and, at the limit of adhesion, enables a skilled driver to carry far more speed through a corner than understeer. Which is why, to a greater or lesser extent, all F1 cars are set up with an oversteer characteristic. A racing car takes a corner in three stages - turn-in, apex and exit. Turn-in is, like it sounds, the broad term given to pointing the car into the corner. Weight transfer under braking, moving the effective mass of the car from the back axle to the front, encourages oversteer during this phase, which the driver will use to help make the turn. The apex or 'clipping' point is the corner's neutral point, the place where the transition between entry and exit is made. Different corners may have different natural apexes, whether early or late (before or after the mid-point of the corner), and individual drivers may also use different apexes according to their personal technique. (A late apex can allow power to be applied earlier and can help to 'straighten out' the corner). And the exit phase is where the driver will blend the throttle back in as the steering is progressively wound off: ideally keeping the car right on the edge of the traction circle through an acute sense of balance. The traction circle is also affected by grip levels (dramatically reduced on a wet or dirty track), and even the subtle changes in the camber of the road (its side-on gradient). The most successful drivers are consistently those who are best at judging the limits they can take their cars to under cornering - and go there as often as possible. Driver fitness Formula One drivers are some of the most highly conditioned athletes on earth, their bodies specifically adapted to the very exacting requirements of top-flight single-seater motor racing. All drivers who enter Formula One need to undergo a period of conditioning to the physical demands of the sport: no other race series on earth requires so much of its drivers in terms of stamina and endurance. The vast loadings that Formula One cars are capable of creating, anything up to a sustained 3.5 g of cornering force, for example, means drivers have to be enormously strong to be able to last for full race distances. The extreme heat found in a Formula One cockpit, especially at the hotter rounds of the giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 125
  • 126. championship, also puts vast strain on the body: drivers can sweat off anything up to 3kg of their body weight during the course of a race. Physical endurance is created through intensive cardio-vascular training: usually running or swimming, although some drivers prefer cycling or even roller-blading! But the unusual loadings experienced by neck and chest muscles cannot be easily replicated by conventional gym equipment, so many drivers use specially designed 'rigs' that enable them to specifically develop the muscles they will need to withstand cornering forces. Strength here is especially important, as the neck must support the weight of both the driver's head and helmet under these intense loadings. Powerful arm muscles are also required to enable the car to be controlled during longer races. In terms of nutrition, most F1 drivers control their diets in much the same way as track and field athletes, carefully regulating the amount of carbohydrate and protein they absorb. During race weekends most drivers will be seen eating pasta or other carbohydrate-rich foods to provide energy and give the all-important stamina for the race itself. It is also vitally important that drivers take in large amounts of water before the race, even if they do not feel thirsty. Failure to do so could bring on dehydration through sweating - not surprising given that the physical endurance required to drive a Formula One race is not dissimilar to that required to run a marathon. Engine / gearbox The engine and transmission of a modern Formula One car are some of the most highly stressed pieces of machinery on the planet, and the competition to have the most power on the grid is still intense. Traditionally, the development of racing engines has always held to the dictum of the great automotive engineer Ferdinand Porsche that the perfect race car crosses the finish line in first place and then falls to pieces. Although this is no longer strictly true - regulations now require engines to last more than one race weekend - designing modern Formula One engines remains a balancing act between the power that can be extracted and the need for just enough durability. Engine power outputs in Formula One racing are also a fascinating insight into how far the sport has moved on. In the 1950s Formula One cars were managing specific power outputs of around 100 bhp / litre (about what a modern 'performance' road car can manage now). That figure rose steadily until the arrival of the 'turbo age' of 1.5 litre turbo engines, some of which were producing anything up to 750 bhp / litre. Then, once the sport returned to giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 126
  • 127. normal aspiration in 1989 that figure fell back, before steadily rising again. The 'power battle' of the last few years saw outputs creep back towards the 1000 bhp barrier, some teams producing more than 300 bhp / litre in 2005, the final year of 3 litre V10 engines. Since 2006, the regulations have required the use of 2.4 litre V8 engines, with power outputs falling around 20 percent. Revving to a limited 18,000 RPM, a modern Formula One engine will consume a phenomenal 650 litres of air every second, with race fuel consumption typically around the 75 l/100 km (4 mpg) mark. Revving at such massive speeds equates to an accelerative force on the pistons of nearly 9000 times gravity. Unsurprisingly, engine-related failures remain one of the most common causes of retirements in races. Modern Formula One engines owe little except their fundamental design of cylinders, pistons and valves to road-car engines. The engine is a stressed component within the car, bolting to the carbon fibre 'tub' and having the transmission and rear suspension bolted to it in turn. Therefore it has to be enormously strong. A conflicting demand is that it should be light, compact and with its mass in as low a position as possible, to help lower the car's centre of gravity and to enable the height of rear bodywork to be minimised. The gearboxes of modern Formula One cars are now highly automated with drivers selecting gears via paddles fitted behind the steering wheel. The 'sequential' gearboxes used are very similar in principle to those of motorbikes, allowing gear changes to be made far faster than with the traditional ‘H’ gate selector, with the gearbox selectors operated electrically. Despite such high levels of technology, fully automatic transmission systems, and gearbox-related wizardry such as launch control, are illegal - a measure designed to keep costs down and place more emphasis on driver skill. Transmissions - most teams run seven-speed units - bolt directly to the back of the engine. Mindful of the massive cost of these ultra high-tech powertrains, the FIA introduced new regulations in 2005 limiting each car to one engine per two Grand Prix weekends, with 10-place grid penalties for those breaking the rule. From 2008, a similar policy was applied to gearboxes, each having to last four race weekends. 2009 saw the introduction of even more stringent engine rules, with drivers limited to eight engines per season. On top of these measures, a freeze on engine development imposed at the end of the 2006 season means teams are unable to alter the fundamentals of their engines’ design. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 127
  • 128. Flags Marshals at various points around the circuit are issued with a number of standard flags, all used to communicate vital messages to the drivers as they race around the track. A special display in each driver’s cockpit - known as a GPS marshalling system - also lights up with the relevant flag colour, as the driver passes the affected section of track. Travelling at such high speeds, it may be hard for a driver to spot a marshal’s flag and this system helps them identify messages from race control more effectively. Chequered flag Indicates to drivers that the session has ended. During practice and qualifying sessions it is waved at the allotted time, during the race it is shown first to the winner and then to every car that crosses the line behind him. Yellow flag Indicates danger, such as a stranded car, ahead. A single waved yellow flag warns drivers to slow down, while two waved yellow flags at the same post means that drivers must slow down and be prepared to stop if necessary. Overtaking is prohibited. Green flag All clear. The driver has passed the potential danger point and prohibitions imposed by yellow flags have been lifted. Red flag The session has been stopped, usually due to an accident or poor track conditions. Blue flag Warns a driver that he is about to be lapped and to let the faster car overtake. Pass three blue flags without complying and the driver risks being penalised. Blue lights are also displayed at the end of the pit lane when the pit exit is open and a car on track is approaching. Yellow and red striped flag Warns drivers of a slippery track surface, usually due to oil or water. Black with orange circle flag Accompanied by a car number, it warns a driver that he has a mechanical problem and must return to his pit. Half black, half white flag Accompanied by a car number, it warns of unsporting behaviour. May be followed by a black flag if the driver does not heed the warning. Black flag Accompanied by a car number, it directs a driver to return to his pit and is most often used to signal to the driver that he has been excluded from the race. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 128
  • 129. White flag Warns of a slow moving vehicle on track. Fuel Surprising but true, despite the vast amounts of technical effort spent developing a Formula One car, the fuel it runs on is surprisingly close to the composition of ordinary, commercially available petrol. It was not always so. Early Grand Prix cars ran on a fierce mixture of powerful chemicals and additives, often featuring large quantities of benzene, alcohol and aviation fuel. Indeed some early fuels were so potent that the car's engine had to be disassembled and washed in ordinary petrol at the end of the race to prevent the mixture from corroding it! Over the years more and more regulations have been introduced regarding the composition of fuel, a move driven in part by the oil companies' desire to have demonstrable links between race and road fuel. The modern fuel is only allowed tiny quantities of 'non hydrocarbon' compounds, effectively banning the most volatile power-boosting additives. Each fuel blend must be submitted to the sport’s governing body, the FIA, for prior approval of its composition and physical properties. A 'fingerprint' of the approved fuel is then taken, which will be compared to the actual fuel being used at the event by the FIA's mobile testing laboratory. During a typical season a Formula One team will use over 200,000 litres of fuel for testing and racing, and these can be of anything up to 50 slightly different blends, tuned for the demands of different circuits - or even different weather conditions. More potent fuels will give noticeably more power but may result in increased consumption or engine wear. All of Formula One's fuel suppliers engage in extensive testing programmes to optimise the fuel's performance, in the same way any other component in the car will be tuned to give maximum benefit. This will likely involve computer modelling, static engine running and moving tests. Pit-stop refuelling is once again a vital part of Formula One, and an integral part of modern race strategy. The fuel rigs are designed to operate as quickly and safely as possible, two-stage giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 129
  • 130. location and double sealing ensuring the best possible fit. The rigs pass fuel at the rate of about 12 litres a second. The hose itself operates as a 'sealed system', requiring air and vapour to be extracted as fuel is added. It is very heavy and requires one mechanic to hold its weight while another engages and disengages the nozzle. Another mechanic will stand by a fuel cut-off switch next to the pump itself. Leakages are extremely rare, although accidents have happened, for example to Michael Schumacher at the 2003 Austrian Grand Prix. The car's engine oil is also worth a mention. It helps to perform a vital diagnostic role, being closely analysed after each race or test for traces of metals to help monitor the engine's wear rate. Logistics For Formula One racing teams one of the biggest battles of a race weekend or testing session will be over before a car even turns a wheel: the vast logistical effort required to get all of the team's equipment to the circuit - so vast, in fact, that the sport has its very own Official Logistics Partner, DHL. Indeed each team competing in the FIA Formula One World Championship now travels something like 160,000 kilometres (100,000 miles) a year between races and test sessions. Nor is the logistical effort as simple as merely getting people and equipment in place. Hotel accommodation must also be found and booked (a team can require anything up to 100 rooms), hire cars must be sourced and the team's facilities at the circuit - from the pit garage equipment to the drivers' motorhomes and the paddock corporate hospitality units must all be in place. Almost equally important, in this digital age, are the secure data links that connect the team to its base, enabling telemetry and other data to be sent directly back (which in turn allows engineers to study any potential problems, even while the race is running.) All-in-all, an enormous task. For the European rounds of the championship most of a team's equipment will travel by road, in the liveried articulated lorries so familiar from race paddocks across the continent. All of the race equipment required for the weekend will be loaded in these: cars, spare parts and tools. Most teams will 'pack' three cars, one spare chassis and several spare engines plus a full kit of other spares. Tyres, fuel and certain other equipment are brought separately by technical partners and local contractors. For the non-European 'flyaway' races the logistical effort is considerably more complicated (all Formula One teams being resident in Europe at the moment) as equipment has to be flown out on transport planes. Rather than use conventional aircraft containers, teams have created their own specially designed cargo crates, designed to fill all available space in the planes' holds. At present most of the teams use cargo planes chartered by Formula One Management (FOM) which fly from giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 130
  • 131. London and Munich to wherever the race is being held. In the case of successive flyaway races there is insufficient time between them to allow the teams' equipment to be brought 'home', meaning direct transit between the two races. This means that considerably more components have to be packed. As the number of races outside Europe continues to expand, so the logistical effort required to transport the teams and their equipment will expand alongside it. Already the amount of transport required for a season of Formula One racing has been described, only half-jokingly, as being not dissimilar to that needed for a medium-sized military campaign. Overtaking As only one driver can ever sit on pole position for a race, and the entire grid wants to finish on the top step of the podium, overtaking is of vital importance to the business of racing. Simplified to its most basic form overtaking is nothing more than gaining track position to get past an opponent. This can be done at the very start of the grand prix, during the dash towards the first corner - or during the race itself. Although you will often hear talk of cars ‘overtaking in the pitlane’ (meaning a car gaining track position through a better pit stop compared to a rival) this is a matter of race strategy. Most people regard overtaking as meaning cars passing each other on the track, during the race. This sort of overtaking is brought about by a speed difference: the car behind going sufficiently faster than the car in front to make a pass. The higher the speed difference, the easier the overtake. As Formula One cars are typically very closely matched on performance, certainly those likely to be in direct competition with each other, overtaking must be carried out with a very small difference in speed - requiring skill, commitment and courage. One of the most important factors in Formula One overtaking is that of aerodynamic efficiency. As a car gets progressively closer to the rear of an opponent's car it moves into the 'bubble' of turbulent air being created. This has two effects, one positive and one negative. On straights this bubble gives what is known as a 'tow', slightly reducing the air resistance of the car behind and (all else being even) allowing it a slight performance advantage - hence the reason cars are often seen very close together just before an overtaking attempt. The problem comes with the second aerodynamic effect, found in corners, where the reduced airflow acting on the wings of the second car will dramatically decrease aerodynamic downforce, giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 131
  • 132. and hence grip - meaning that the car behind will typically be forced to drop back, or to pick a different cornering line in 'clean air'. Overtaking is not just about power, though. Often successful passing moves are made under braking - either at the culmination of a 'tow' into a corner, or simply because the car and driver behind have more braking power to call on. Similarly, if a driver has more grip to call on (or more confidence, in low-grip situations) then he may be able to overtake mid-corner by taking a radically different line to the car in front - often heading 'around the outside'. In overtaking battles the driver in front's best defence is his ability to pick braking points and cornering lines. A skilful driver can hold off an opponent by adopting a 'defensive' driving style. Typically this means reducing the angle available for the car behind to use going into corners where there is a substantial risk of being passed. Providing that the driver ahead only changes his line once going into a corner (not deliberately attempting to block the car behind) this is a perfectly justifiable form of racing, and with it a driver in an inferior car can successfully hold off a faster rival. Narrowing the car behind's angle through corners can also force it to take a later apex and even run wide, even if it has successfully made the pass - and this can result in the slower car getting back in front again! A side-effect of this defensive driving is that it tends to slow both drivers down, which is why you often see these close battles dropping away from cars ahead. How easy overtaking should be, and how much of it is required to make for competitive and exciting racing, is a topic of endless debate in Formula One circles. Recent consensus is that it is too difficult and that there should be more - hence moves by the FIA to introduce KERS-powered ‘boost buttons,’ giving drivers additional bursts of power for short periods, and moveable front wings, allowing them to follow the car in front more closely without significant downforce loss. Great overtaking moves represent F1 racing at its very best - poor ones can bring the sport into disrepute. It's a tribute to the incredible skill of modern drivers that they are normally able to race extremely closely and fairly without making contact, but officials are always monitoring overtaking attempts, and any dangerous driving, whether attacking or defensive, will see the driver called before the stewards and penalised giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 132
  • 133. Pit stops Drivers get most of the attention, but Formula One racing remains a team sport even during the race itself. The precisely timed, millimetre perfect choreography of a modern pit stop is vital to help teams to turn their race strategy into success - changing a car’s tyres, replacing damaged parts and adjusting front wings in a matter of seconds. It was not always so. Pit stops tended to be disorganised, long and often chaotic as late as the 1970s - especially when (in the absence of car-to-pit communication) a driver came in to make an unscheduled stop. The age of the modern pit stop arrived when changes were made to the sporting regulations for the 1994 season to allow fuelling during the race. By the time refuelling was banned again at the end of 2009, a driver’s visit to the pits had become breathtaking in its speed and efficiency. The car is guided into its pit by the ‘lollypop man’, named for the distinctive shape of the long ‘stop/ first gear’ sign he holds in front of the car. The car stops in a precise position and is immediately jacked up front and rear. Three mechanics are involved in changing a wheel, one removing and refitting the nut with a high-speed airgun, one removing the old wheel and one fitting the new one. Other mechanics may make other adjustments during the stop. Some changes can be carried out very quickly - such as altering the angle of the wings front and rear, to increase or decrease downforce levels. Other tasks, such as the replacement of damaged bodywork, will typically take longer - although front nose cones, the most frequently broken components, are designed with quick changes in mind. On tracks with debris or rubbish you often see mechanics removing this from the car’s air intakes during a stop, ensuring radiator efficiency is not compromised. And there is always a mechanic on stand-by at the back of the car with a power-operated engine starter, ready for instant use if the car stalls. When they have finished their work the mechanics step back and raise their hands. It is the responsibility of the ‘lollypop man’ to control the car’s departure from the pit, ensuring no other cars are passing in the pit lane, though some teams now use semi-automated traffic light systems instead of the lollipop. Such is the skill of mechanics that routine tyre stops can be over in well under five seconds. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 133
  • 134. Race control During a Grand Prix weekend, race control lies at the very heart of Formula One, responsible for monitoring and supervising all stages of the practice, qualifying and race sessions. Facilities vary between different circuits, but all will have several key features essential to allowing the FIA Race Director and his staff to make the right decisions to keep things safe, legal and to schedule. Screens will provide images from every part of the circuit with a dedicated Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) system. This enables the location of problems to be detected quickly - and the appropriate action taken. Timing data will also be provided with the same information feed given to the teams (and similar to the information available on Formula1.com’s 'Live Timing' section during race sessions). However, in addition the Race Director will have access to a plethora of additional information, such as the pit lane speed trap, allowing him to ensure that all sessions are run safely and within the regulations. There is also telephone and radio contact with the principal marshals' posts, safety car, medical response car and the medical centre, so that in the event of any major problem the Race Director can remain in full contact with the relevant people. It is the responsibility of Race Control to order the deployment of the safety car when necessary and - equally importantly - to bring it back in at the right time. The Race Director will be assisted by other FIA personnel, and also staff from the local circuit itself. A vital part of the race control’s responsibility is that of referring to the race stewards incidents in which drivers may have transgressed rules or broken the sporting code that governs racing. The most common penalty given in such incidents is the 'drive-through' where a driver will have to make an unscheduled trip through the pit lane without stopping. For more complicated disciplinary issues, such as who was to blame in an accident or for contact between cars, may be assessed at the conclusion of the race, rather than during it, as this gives teams a chance to defend their driver’s conduct. In the event of a very serious incident - or if track conditions become dangerous (for example, due to very heavy rain) - the race director is also responsible for deciding if the race should be stopped. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 134
  • 135. It is a tribute to the unruffled professionalism typical of the men and women who staff Race Control at Grands Prix that races typically progress as smoothly as they do - and problems are pounced upon and contained very quickly. Race strategy Part science, part magic - a decent strategy is essential to the business of winning races. Or, indeed, losing them. The basic variables of the equation are simple enough: fuel load and tyre wear. But from then on, it gets vastly more complicated. The black art of race strategy is constantly evolving, but goes through particularly marked transitions when major rule changes are introduced. Shortly after the reintroduction of refuelling stops in 1994, the teams' race strategists worked out that at some circuits benefit could be gained from making two or three stops, rather than just one. This was because the car could run substantially quicker on a lower fuel load (with less weight to carry around) and using the grippier, but less durable, soft tyre compounds. The difference in performance was such that it could be sufficient to offset the effect of the 30 or so seconds lost making a pit stop. That led to teams carefully working out just where in the order their driver would re-emerge after a stop. This allowed a car being baulked by a slower but hard to overtake runner to pit early, return to clear track and then put in faster laps that would ensure emerging ahead once the slower car made its stop - ‘overtaking in the pit lane’ as it has become known. This called on rigid pit stop timetables to be abandoned and replaced by a looser system of pit stop ‘windows’, with a number of laps on which a car can make its stop to gain best strategic advantage. The move to a single tyre supplier in 2007 forced teams to once again re- evaluate their race strategies, in light of all their rivals running on the same rubber and the requirement for all drivers to use both the supplied specifications of dry tyres during a race. That was followed by the ban on refuelling for the 2010 season, obliging teams to once again reconsider how they plan their race. Regardless of rule changes, there are certain factors that must always be considered. Data such as weather forecasts, the likelihood of overtaking at a particular track, the length of the pit lane giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 135
  • 136. and even the chances of an accident likely to require the use of the safety car all come into play when deciding strategy. And, of course, one of the largest ingredients remains, as always, luck Steering wheel Formula One drivers have no spare concentration for operating fiddly controls, or trying to look at small, hidden gauges. Hence the controls and instrumentation for modern Formula One cars have almost entirely migrated to the steering wheel itself - the critical interface between the driver and the car. Early Formula One cars used steering wheels taken directly from road cars. They were normally made from wood (necessitating the use of driving gloves), and in the absence of packaging constraints they tended to be made as large a diameter as possible, to reduce the effort needed to turn. As cars grew progressively lower and cockpits narrower throughout the 1960s and 1970s, steering wheels became smaller, so as to fit into the more compact space available. The introduction of semi-automatic gearchanges via the now familiar 'paddles' marked the beginning of the move to concentrate controls as close to the driver's fingers as possible. The first buttons to appear on the face of the steering wheel were the 'neutral' button (vital for taking the car out of gear in the event of a spin), and the on-board radio system's push-to-talk button. As time went on the trend continued. Excepting the throttle and brake pedals, few Formula One cars have any controls other than those on the face of the wheel. Buttons tend to be used for 'on/off' functions, such as engaging the pit-lane speed limiter system, while rotary controls govern functions with multiple settings, such as the traction control programme, fuel mixture and even the car's front-to-rear brake bias - all functions the driver might wish to alter to take account of changing conditions during the race. Among the most recent additions are the ‘boost button,’ used to call on the temporary additional power available in cars equipped with a KERS system, and controls for the moveable front wing. The steering wheel is also used to house instrumentation, normally via a multi-function LCD display screen and - more visibly - the ultra-bright 'change up' lights that tell the driver the perfect time for the optimum gearshift. Race control can also communicate with the driver via a compulsory, steering-wheel mounted GPS marshalling system. This displays warning lights, with giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 136
  • 137. colours corresponding to the marshals’ flags, to alert drivers to approaching hazards, such as an accident, on the track ahead. The steering wheels are not designed to make more than three quarters of a turn of lock in total, so there is no need for a continuous rim, instead there are just two 'cut outs' for the driver's hands. One of the most technically complicated parts of the whole Formula One car is the snap-on connector that joins the wheel to the steering column. This has to be tough enough to take the steering forces, but it also provides the electrical connections between the controls and the car itself. The FIA technical regulations state that the driver must be able to get out of the car within five seconds, removing nothing except the steering wheel - so rapid release is vitally important. Formula One cars now run with power assisted steering, reducing the forces that must be transmitted by the steering wheel. This has enabled designers to continue with the trend of reducing the steering wheel size, with the typical item now being about half the diameter of that of a normal road car Suspension The suspension of a modern Formula One car forms the critical interface between the different elements that work together to produce its performance. Suspension is what harnesses the power of the engine, the downforce created by the wings and aerodynamic pack and the grip of the tyres, and allows them all to be combined effectively and translated into a fast on-track package. Unlike road cars, occupant comfort does not enter the equation - spring and damper rates are very firm to ensure the impact of hitting bumps and kerbs is defused as quickly as possible. The spring absorbs the energy of the impact, the shock absorber releases it on the return stroke, and prevents an oscillating force from building up. Think in terms of catching a ball rather than letting it bounce. Following the ban on computer-controlled 'active' suspension in the 1990s, all of the Formula One car's suspension functions must be carried out without electronic intervention. The cars feature 'multi-link' suspension front and rear, broadly equivalent to the double wishbone layout of some road cars, with unequal length suspension arms top and bottom to allow the best possible control of the camber angle the wheel takes during cornering. As centrifugal force causes the body to roll, giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 137
  • 138. the longer effective radius of the lower suspension arms means that the bottom of the tyre (viewed from ahead) slants out further than the top, vital for maximising the grip yielded by the tyre. Unlike road cars, Formula One springs are no longer mounted directly to the suspension arms, instead being operated remotely via push-rods and bell cranks which (like the lobes of a camshaft) allow for variable rate springing - softer initial compliance becoming stronger as the spring is compressed further. The suspension links themselves are now made out of carbon fibre to add strength and save weight. This is vital to reduce 'unsprung mass' - the weight of components between the springs and the surface of the track. Modern Formula One suspension is minutely adjustable. Initial set-up for a track will be made according to weather conditions (wet weather settings are far softer) and experience from previous years, which will determine basic spring and damper settings. These rates can then be altered according to driver preference and tyre performance, as can the suspension geometry under specific circumstances. Set-up depends on the aerodynamic requirements of the track, weather conditions and driver preference for understeer or oversteer - this being nothing more complicated than whether the front or back of the car loses grip first at the limits of adhesion The race start The start of a Grand Prix is among the most exciting of all sporting moments. A desperate struggle for immediate advantage as a grid full of vastly powerful cars, and vastly skilled drivers, all try to arrive first at the first corner. This is entirely rational, of course, as the start of any race is one of the best opportunities to gain position. Indeed at races like Monaco, it's one of the very few opportunities to overtake. A good start can make a driver's race; a bad one can all too often finish it. Drivers try to prepare for the beginning of a race by creating a mental image of the start that they want to make, taking into account different factors of position and track condition. The team will normally try to protect its drivers from intrusive media attention on the grid if they fear this could interfere with his concentration. During this period before a race, as cars are formed up and the final alterations allowed by the regulations are carried out, the grid will often look like a scene of chaos, although all the mechanics, team members and even media will be working to very precise plans. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 138
  • 139. Once a Formula One car's engine is started its need to move becomes very urgent. As they are designed to operate at high speed (where there is a good supply of cooling air flowing over surfaces) modern Formula One cars have very little in the way of cooling - and the heat created by running engines while stationary puts enormous strain on the mechanical parts of the car, especially at hot races. Once the mechanics have cleared the grid, the cars will be waved away for a single formation lap. For the driver in pole position, this is quite a challenging test, as he has to carefully control the pace of the formation lap to ensure both that he has the best opportunity to work some heat into his car's tyres (through hard acceleration, braking and cornering), while also making sure that he does not complete the lap so quickly as to be left sitting on the grid for a long period as other cars take their places behind him - as this could damage the car. Once all the cars have come to a halt on the grid, and the course car and medical cars are also in position further back, the start sequence is initiated by the race controller. Green lights are no longer used to indicate the start of a race, instead once the red lights are extinguished (there is a pre-determined random time delay of between 4 and 14 seconds - over which the race controller has no control - between the lights coming on and the last one going out) the race is underway. As he accelerates towards the first corner, a driver will adapt his strategy to be either offensive or defensive depending on how good a start he has made. The conflicting demands are those of gaining position on one hand, and defending your current one on the other. Extremely close racing is usual at the start of a race, with the sight of cars four or even five abreast across the width of the track being far from unusual. The situation is made more challenging for drivers as many of them will be approaching the first corner off line, and possibly in areas of relatively low adhesion. It is fortunate that the extremely high standards of professionalism among modern drivers, in combination with a willingness by the FIA to take stern disciplinary measures when warranted, have dramatically reduced the tendency for first-corner accidents of a few seasons ago. Tyres A modern Formula One car is a technical masterpiece. But considering the development effort invested in aerodynamics, composite construction and engines it is easy to forget that tyres are still a race car’s biggest single performance variable. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 139
  • 140. Traditionally, an average car with good tyres could do well, even very well, but with bad tyres even the very best car did not stand a chance. The move to a single tyre supplier in 2007 altered that equation somewhat, but, even now, optimizing the car-tyre balance is something of a black art. Despite some genuine technical crossover, race tyres and road tyres are - at best - distant cousins. An ordinary car tyre is made with heavy steel-belted radial plies and designed for durability - typically a life of 16,000 kilometres or more (10,000 miles). A Formula One tyre is designed to last for, at most, 200 kilometres and - like everything else on a the car - is constructed to be as light and strong as possible. That means an underlying nylon and polyester structure in a complicated weave pattern designed to withstand far larger forces than road car tyres. In Formula One racing that means anything up to a tonne of downforce, 4g lateral loadings and 5g longitudinal loadings. The racing tyre is constructed from very soft rubber compounds which offer the best possible grip against the texture of the racetrack, but wear very quickly in the process. If you look at a typical track you will see that, just off the racing line, a large amount of rubber debris gathers (known to the drivers as 'marbles'). All racing tyres work best at relatively high temperatures. For example, the dry 'grooved' tyres used up until very recently were typically designed to function at between 90 degrees Celsius and 110 degrees Celsius. The development of the racing tyre came of age with the appearance of 'slick' tyres in the 1960s. Teams and tyre makers realised that, by omitting a tread pattern on dry weather tyres, the surface area of rubber in contact with the road could be maximised. Formula One cars ran with slicks until the 1998 rule changes came into effect, and new tyre standards were introduced in an attempt to improve the spectacle of Formula One racing by reducing cornering speeds. This led to the familiar sight of 'grooved' tyres, the regulations specifying that all tyres had to have four continuous longitudinal grooves at least 2.5 mm deep and spaced 50mm apart. These changes created several new challenges for the tyre manufacturers - most notably ensuring the grooves' integrity, which in turn limited the softness of rubber compounds that could be used. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 140
  • 141. Coming up to date, the 2009 season brought the much-welcomed return to slick tyres, following the FIA’s decision to limit aerodynamics rather than rubber as a way of keeping cornering speeds under control. The 'softness' or 'hardness' of rubber compounds is varied for each race according to the known characteristics of the track. Two different compounds are available to each team at every Grand Prix weekend, and every driver must make use of both specifications during the race. The actual softness of the tyre rubber is varied by changes in the proportions of ingredients added to the rubber, of which the three main ones are carbon, sulphur and oil. Generally speaking, the more oil in a tyre, the softer it will be. Intermediate and wet-weather tyres have full tread patterns, necessary to expel standing water when racing in the wet. One of the worst possible situations for a race driver remains 'aquaplaning' - the condition when a film of water builds up between the tyre and the road, meaning that the car is effectively floating. This leads to vastly reduced levels of grip. The tread patterns of modern racing tyres are mathematically designed to scrub the maximum amount of water possible from the track surface to ensure the best possible contact between the rubber and the track. Formula One tyres are normally filled with a special, nitrogen-rich air mixture, designed to minimise variations in tyre pressure with temperature. The mixture also retains the pressure longer than normal air would. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 141
  • 142. Statistics World Champion Drivers Year Driver Nationality Constructor Wins Poles Won By Margin 1950 Nino Farina ITA Alfa Romeo 3 2 Race 7 of 7 3 1951 Juan Manuel Fangio ARG Alfa Romeo 3 4 Race 8 of 8 6 1952 Alberto Ascari ITA Ferrari 6 5 Race 6 of 8 12 1953 Alberto Ascari ITA Ferrari 5 6 Race 8 of 9 6.5 1954 Juan Manuel Fangio ITA ITA Maserati 6 5 Race 7 of 9 16.86 1955 Juan Manuel Fangio ARG Mercedes 4 3 Race 6 of 7 16.5 1956 Juan Manuel Fangio ARG Ferrari 3 6 Race 8 of 8 3 1957 Juan Manuel Fangio ARG ITA Maserati 4 4 Race 6 of 8 15 1958 Mike Hawthorn GBR Ferrari 1 4 Race 11 of 11 1 1959 Jack Brabham AUS Cooper 2 1 Race 9 of 9 4 1960 Jack Brabham AUS Cooper 5 3 Race 8 of 10 9 1961 Phil Hill USA Ferrari 2 5 Race 7 of 8 1 1962 Graham Hill GBR BRM 4 1 Race 9 of 9 12 1963 Jim Clark GBR Lotus 7 7 Race 7 of 10 21 1964 John Surtees GBR Ferrari 2 2 Race 10 of 10 1 1965 Jim Clark GBR Lotus 6 6 Race 7 of 10 14 1966 Jack Brabham AUS Brabham 4 3 Race 7 of 9 14 1967 Denny Hulme NZL Brabham 2 0 Race 11 of 11 5 1968 Graham Hill GBR Lotus 3 2 Race 12 of 12 12 1969 Jackie Stewart GBR Matra 6 2 Race 8 of 11 26 1970 Jochen Rindt AUT Lotus 5 3 Race 12 of 13 5 1971 Jackie Stewart GBR Tyrrell 6 6 Race 8 of 11 29 1972 Emerson Fittipaldi BRA Lotus 5 3 Race 10 of 12 16 1973 Jackie Stewart GBR Tyrrell 5 3 Race 13 of 15 16 1974 Emerson Fittipaldi BRA McLaren 3 2 Race 15 of 15 3 1975 Niki Lauda AUT Ferrari 5 9 Race 13 of 14 19.5 1976 James Hunt GBR McLaren 6 8 Race 16 of 16 1 1977 Niki Lauda AUT Ferrari 3 2 Race 15 of 17 17 1978 Mario Andretti USA Lotus 6 8 Race 14 of 16 13 1979 Jody Scheckter RSA Ferrari 3 1 Race 13 of 15 4 1980 Alan Jones AUS Williams 5 3 Race 13 of 14 13 1981 Nelson Piquet BRA Brabham 3 4 Race 15 of 15 1 giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 142
  • 143. Year Driver Nationality Constructor Wins Poles Won By Margin 1982 Keke Rosberg FIN Williams 1 1 Race 16 of 16 5 1983 Nelson Piquet BRA Brabham 3 1 Race 15 of 15 2 1984 Niki Lauda AUT McLaren 5 0 Race 16 of 16 0.5 1985 Alain Prost FRA McLaren 5 2 Race 14 of 16 20 1986 Alain Prost FRA McLaren 4 1 Race 16 of 16 2 1987 Nelson Piquet BRA Williams 3 4 Race 15 of 16 12 1988 Ayrton Senna BRA McLaren 8 13 Race 15 of 16 3 1989 Alain Prost FRA McLaren 4 2 Race 15 of 16 16 1990 Ayrton Senna BRA McLaren 6 10 Race 15 of 16 7 1991 Ayrton Senna BRA McLaren 7 8 Race 15 of 16 24 1992 Nigel Mansell GBR Williams 9 14 Race 11 of 16 52 1993 Alain Prost FRA Williams 7 13 Race 14 of 16 26 1994 Michael Schumacher GER Benetton 8 6 Race 16 of 16 1 1995 Michael Schumacher GER Benetton 9 4 Race 15 of 17 33 1996 Damon Hill GBR Williams 8 9 Race 16 of 16 19 1997 Jacques Villeneuve Canada Williams 7 10 Race 17 of 17 39 1998 Mika Häkkinen FIN McLaren 8 9 Race 16 of 16 14 1999 Mika Häkkinen FIN McLaren 5 11 Race 16 of 16 2 2000 Michael Schumacher GER Ferrari 9 9 Race 16 of 17 19 2001 Michael Schumacher GER Ferrari 9 11 Race 13 of 17 58 2002 Michael Schumacher GER Ferrari 11 7 Race 11 of 17 67 2003 Michael Schumacher GER Ferrari 6 5 Race 16 of 16 2 2004 Michael Schumacher GER Ferrari 13 8 Race 14 of 18 34 2005 Fernando Alonso Spain Renault 7 6 Race 17 of 19 21 2006 Fernando Alonso Spain Renault 7 6 Race 18 of 18 13 2007 Kimi Räikkönen FIN Ferrari 6 3 Race 17 of 17 1 2008 Lewis Hamilton GBR McLaren 5 7 Race 18 of 18 1 2009 Jenson Button GBR Brawn 6 4 Race 16 of 17 11 giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 143
  • 144. World Champion Constructors Year Constructor Drivers Wins Poles Points Margin 1958 Vanwall Stirling Moss 6 5 48 8 Tony Brooks 1959 Cooper Jack Brabham 5 5 40 8 Stirling Moss Bruce McLaren 1960 Cooper Jack Brabham 6 4 48 14 Bruce McLaren 1961 Ferrari Phil Hill 5 6 45 10 Wolfgang von Trips 1962 BRM Graham Hill 4 1 42 6 1963 Lotus Jim Clark 7 7 54 18 1964 Ferrari John Surtees 3 2 45 3 Lorenzo Bandini 1965 Lotus Jim Clark 6 6 54 9 1966 Brabham Jack Brabham 4 3 42 11 1967 Brabham Denny Hulme 4 2 63 19 Jack Brabham 1968 Lotus Graham Hill 5 5 62 13 Jo Siffert Jim Clark Jackie Oliver 1969 Matra Jackie Stewart 6 2 66 17 Jean-Pierre Beltoise 1970 Lotus Jochen Rindt 6 3 59 7 Emerson Fittipaldi Graham Hill John Miles 1971 Tyrrell Jackie Stewart 7 6 73 37 François Cevert 1972 Lotus Emerson Fittipaldi 5 3 61 10 1973 Lotus 1. Emerson Fittipaldi 7 10 92 10 2. Ronnie Peterson 1974 McLaren 5. Emerson Fittipaldi 4 2 73 8 6. Denny Hulme 33. Mike Hailwood giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 144
  • 145. Year Constructor Drivers Wins Poles Points Margin (33). David Hobbs (33). Jochen Mass 1975 Ferrari 11. Clay Regazzoni 6 9 72.5 18.5 12. Niki Lauda 1976 Ferrari 1. Niki Lauda 6 4 83 9 2. Clay Regazzoni 1977 Ferrari 11. Niki Lauda 4 2 95 33 12. Carlos Reutemann 1978 Lotus 5. Mario Andretti 8 12 86 28 6. Ronnie Peterson 1979 Ferrari 11. Jody Scheckter 6 2 113 38 12. Gilles Villeneuve 1980 Williams 27. Alan Jones 6 3 120 54 28. Carlos Reutemann 1981 Williams 1. Alan Jones 4 2 95 34 2. Carlos Reutemann 1982 Ferrari 27. Gilles Villeneuve 3 3 74 5 28. Didier Pironi (27). Patrick Tambay (28). Mario Andretti 1983 Ferrari 27. Patrick Tambay 4 8 89 10 28. René Arnoux 1984 McLaren 7. Alain Prost 12 3 143.5 86 8. Niki Lauda 1985 McLaren 1. Niki Lauda 6 2 90 8 2. Alain Prost (1). John Watson 1986 Williams 5. Nigel Mansell 9 4 141 45 6. Nelson Piquet 1987 Williams 5. Nigel Mansell 9 12 137 61 6. Nelson Piquet 1988 McLaren 11. Alain Prost 15 15 199 134 12. Ayrton Senna 1989 McLaren 1. Ayrton Senna 10 15 141 64 2. Alain Prost 1990 McLaren 27. Ayrton Senna 6 12 121 11 28. Gerhard Berger giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 145
  • 146. Year Constructor Drivers Wins Poles Points Margin 1991 McLaren 1. Ayrton Senna 8 10 139 14 2. Gerhard Berger 1992 Williams 5. Nigel Mansell 10 15 164 65 6. Riccardo Patrese 1993 Williams 0. Damon Hill 10 15 168 84 2. Alain Prost 1994 Williams 0. Damon Hill 7 6 118 15 2. Ayrton Senna (2). David Coulthard (2). Nigel Mansell 1995 Benetton 1. Michael Schumacher 11 4 137 25 2. Johnny Herbert 1996 Williams 5. Damon Hill 12 12 175 105 6. Jacques Villeneuve 1997 Williams 3. Jacques Villeneuve 8 10 123 21 4. Heinz-Harald Frentzen 1998 McLaren 7. David Coulthard 9 12 156 23 8. Mika Häkkinen 1999 Ferrari 3. Michael Schumacher 6 3 128 4 4. Eddie Irvine (3). Mika Salo 2000 Ferrari 3. Michael Schumacher 10 10 170 18 4. Rubens Barrichello 2001 Ferrari 1. Michael Schumacher 9 11 179 77 2. Rubens Barrichello 2002 Ferrari 1. Michael Schumacher 15 10 221 129 2. Rubens Barrichello 2003 Ferrari 1. Michael Schumacher 8 8 158 14 2. Rubens Barrichello 2004 Ferrari 1. Michael Schumacher 15 12 262 143 2. Rubens Barrichello 2005 Renault 5. Fernando Alonso 8 7 191 9 6. Giancarlo Fisichella 2006 Renault 1. Fernando Alonso 8 7 206 5 2. Giancarlo Fisichella 2007 Ferrari 5. Felipe Massa 9 11 204 103[3] 6. Kimi Räikkönen giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 146
  • 147. Year Constructor Drivers Wins Poles Points Margin 2008 Ferrari 1. Kimi Räikkönen 8 8 172 21 2. Felipe Massa 2009 Brawn 22. Jenson Button 8 5 172 18.5 23. Rubens Barrichello giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 147
  • 148. # DRIVERS POINTS C RACES WON POLES FL POD ENTR CLASS % 1 Michael Schumacher 1301.0 (1369.0) 7 91 67 76 154 251 197 (78.5%) 2 Alain Prost 768.5 (798.5) 4 51 32 40 106 202 143 (70.8%) 3 Ayrton Senna 610.0 (614.0) 3 41 65 20 80 162 108 (66.7%) 4 Rubens Barrichello 607.0 11 14 15 68 289 196 (67.8%) 5 Kimi Räikkonen 579.0 1 18 17 34 62 157 114 (72.6%) 6 Fernando Alonso 577.0 (359.0) 2 21 19 11 53 141 111 (78.7%) 7 David Coulthard 535.0 13 12 18 62 247 169 (68.4%) 8 Nélson Piquet 481.5 (485.5) 3 23 24 22 60 207 124 (59.9%) 9 Nigel Mansell 480.0 (482.0) 1 31 32 30 59 191 98 (51.3%) 10 Mika Häkkinen 424.0 2 20 26 25 51 165 102 (61.8%) 11 Niki Lauda 420.5 3 25 24 24 54 177 90 (50.8%) 12 Gerhard Berger 384.0 (385.0) 10 12 21 48 210 124 (59.0%) 13 Damon Hill 360.0 1 22 20 19 42 122 77 (63.1%) 14 Jackie Stewart 359.0 (360.0) 3 27 15 15 43 100 63 (63.0%) 15 Ralf Schumacher 329.0 6 6 8 27 181 121 (66.9%) 16 Jenson Button 327.0 1 7 7 0 24 173 127 (73.4%) 17 Felipe Massa 320.0 11 15 12 28 117 93 (79.5%) Juan 18 Montoya 307.0 7 12 12 30 95 62 (65.3%) Pablo 19 Carlos Reutemann 298.0 (310.0) 12 6 6 45 146 97 (66.4%) 20 Emerson Fittipaldi 281.0 2 14 6 6 35 149 96 (64.4%) Riccardo Patrese 281.0 6 8 13 37 257 126 (49.0%) 22 Giancarlo Fisichella 275.0 3 4 2 18 231 161 (69.7%) 23 Graham Hill 270.0 (289.0) 2 14 13 10 36 179 102 (57.0%) 24 Lewis Hamilton 256.0 (38.0) 1 11 16 3 27 53 45 (84.9%) giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 148
  • 149. # DRIVERS POINTS C RACES WON POLES FL POD ENTR CLASS % 25 Jim Clark 255.0 (274.0) 2 25 29 28 32 73 49 (67.1%) 26 Jack Brabham 253.0 (261.0) 3 14 11 11 31 128 73 (57.0%) 27 Denny Hulme 248.0 1 8 1 8 33 112 78 (69.6%) 28 Jody Scheckter 246.0 (255.0) 1 10 3 5 33 113 77 (68.1%) Juan 29 Fangio 244.5 (277.1) 5 24 25 22 35 51 41 (80.4%) Manuel 30 Jarno Trulli 243.5 1 4 0 11 220 143 (65.0%) 31 Jean Alesi 241.0 1 2 4 32 202 119 (58.9%) 32 Jacques Villeneuve 234.0 1 11 13 9 23 165 108 (65.5%) 33 Jacques Laffite 228.0 6 7 6 32 180 94 (52.2%) 34 Nick Heidfeld 219.0 0 1 2 12 169 126 (74.6%) 35 Clay Regazzoni 209.0 (212.0) 5 5 14 28 139 83 (59.7%) 36 Ronnie Peterson 206.0 10 14 9 26 123 71 (57.7%) 37 Alan Jones 199.0 (206.0) 1 12 6 13 24 117 68 (58.1%) 38 Eddie Irvine 191.0 4 0 1 26 148 86 (58.1%) 39 Bruce McLaren 188.5 (196.5) 4 0 2 27 104 63 (60.6%) 40 Michele Alboreto 186.5 5 2 5 23 215 102 (47.4%) 41 Stirling Moss 185.7 (186.7) 16 13 16 23 67 36 (53.7%) 42 Jacky Ickx 181.0 8 13 14 25 122 66 (54.1%) René Arnoux 181.0 7 18 12 22 165 82 (49.7%) 44 John Surtees 180.0 1 6 8 10 24 113 55 (48.7%) Mario Andretti 180.0 1 12 18 10 19 131 62 (47.3%) 46 James Hunt 179.0 1 10 14 8 23 93 46 (49.5%) Heinz- 47 Frentzen 173.0 3 2 6 18 161 96 (59.6%) Harald giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 149
  • 150. # DRIVERS POINTS C RACES WON POLES FL POD ENTR CLASS % 48 Mark Webber 169.5 2 1 0 10 141 91 (64.5%) 49 John Watson 169.0 5 2 5 20 154 89 (57.8%) 50 Keke Rosberg 159.5 1 5 5 3 17 128 59 (46.1%) 51 Patrick Depailler 139.0 (141.0) 2 1 4 19 95 54 (56.8%) Robert Kubica 139.0 1 1 0 9 58 48 (82.8%) 53 Dan Gurney 133.0 4 3 6 19 87 45 (51.7%) 54 Thierry Boutsen 132.0 3 1 1 15 164 97 (59.1%) 55 Sebastian Vettel 125.0 5 6 0 9 44 30 (68.2%) 56 Elio de Angelis 122.0 2 3 0 9 109 59 (54.1%) 57 Nino Farina 115.3 (127.3) 1 5 5 5 19 35 26 (74.3%) 58 Mike Hawthorn 112.7 (127.7) 1 3 4 5 18 47 33 (70.2%) 59 Alberto Ascari 107.7 (140.7) 2 13 14 11 17 34 23 (67.6%) 60 Jochen Rindt 107.0 (109.0) 1 6 10 3 13 62 25 (40.3%) 61 Heikki Kovalainen 105.0 1 1 2 4 53 43 (81.1%) 62 Patrick Tambay 103.0 2 5 2 11 123 57 (46.3%) 63 Richie Ginther 102.0 (107.0) 1 0 3 14 54 39 (72.2%) 64 Gilles Villeneuve 101.0 (107.0) 6 2 8 13 68 40 (58.8%) Didier Pironi 101.0 3 4 5 13 72 44 (61.1%) 66 Martin Brundle 98.0 0 0 0 9 165 83 (50.3%) 67 Johnny Herbert 97.0 3 0 0 7 165 90 (54.5%) 68 Phil Hill 94.0 (98.0) 1 3 6 5 16 52 33 (63.5%) 69 François Cévert 89.0 1 0 2 13 48 29 (60.4%) 70 Stefan Johansson 88.0 0 0 0 12 103 44 (42.7%) 71 Chris Amon 83.0 0 5 3 11 108 51 (47.2%) giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 150
  • 151. # DRIVERS POINTS C RACES WON POLES FL POD ENTR CLASS % Jean 72 Beltoise 77.0 1 0 4 8 88 50 (56.8%) Pierre 73 Olivier Panis 76.0 1 0 0 5 158 98 (62.0%) 74 Nico Rosberg 75.5 0 0 1 2 71 55 (77.5%) 75 Tony Brooks 75.0 6 3 3 10 39 22 (56.4%) 76 Maurice Trintignant 72.3 2 0 1 9 85 43 (50.6%) 77 Oscar Gonzalez 72.2 (77.7) 2 3 4 15 26 20 (76.9%) 78 Pedro Rodriguez 71.0 2 0 1 7 55 29 (52.7%) Jochen Mass 71.0 1 0 2 8 114 64 (56.1%) Derek Warwick 71.0 0 0 2 4 162 67 (41.4%) 81 Eddie Cheever 70.0 0 0 0 9 143 55 (38.5%) 82 Jo Siffert 68.0 2 2 4 6 100 52 (52.0%) 83 Alessandro Nannini 65.0 1 0 2 9 78 31 (39.7%) 84 Peter Revson 61.0 2 1 0 8 33 21 (63.6%) 85 Andrea de Cesaris 59.0 0 1 1 5 214 69 (32.2%) 86 Lorenzo Bandini 58.0 1 1 2 8 42 28 (66.7%) Carlos Pace 58.0 1 1 5 6 73 37 (50.7%) 88 Wolfgang von Trips 56.0 2 1 0 6 29 20 (69.0%) 89 Jean Behra 53.1 0 0 0 9 54 25 (46.3%) 90 Timo Glock 51.0 0 0 0 3 38 31 (81.6%) giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 151
  • 152. # COMPANY POINTS C RACES WON POLES FL POD ENTR QUAL % CLASS % 1 Ferrari 4785.3 (4941.8) 22 210 199 216 630 1731 1703 (98.4%) 1177 (68.0%) 2 McLaren 3519.5 (3115.5) 9 157 143 132 416 1306 1278 (97.9%) 850 (65.1%) 3 Williams 2616.0 (2638.0) 9 113 124 130 298 1192 1162 (97.5%) 753 (63.2%) 4 Lotus 1386.0 (1410.0) 3 73 98 65 164 1031 967 (93.8%) 529 (51.3%) 5 Renault 1082.0 1 35 51 27 94 514 509 (99.0%) 312 (60.7%) 6 Benetton 870.5 (871.5) 1 27 14 36 103 584 582 (99.7%) 357 (61.1%) 7 Tyrrell 739.0 2 24 15 20 81 896 848 (94.6%) 463 (51.7%) 8 Brabham 583.0 (588.0) 2 24 19 25 77 320 308 (96.3%) 162 (50.6%) 9 Ligier 387.0 (389.0) 9 9 9 50 626 587 (93.8%) 316 (50.5%) 10 Arthur Owen 386.0 (411.0) 3 13 9 12 53 266 247 (92.9%) 135 (50.8%) 11 Cooper Car Co 348.5 (361.5) 1 12 5 9 46 237 226 (95.4%) 139 (58.6%) 12 BMW 310.0 1 1 2 17 145 142 (97.9%) 121 (83.4%) 13 Jordan 288.0 4 2 2 19 501 492 (98.2%) 275 (54.9%) 14 Toyota 278.5 0 3 1 13 280 280 (100.0%) 200 (71.4%) 15 Red Bull 253.5 6 6 0 19 180 180 (100.0%) 127 (70.6%) 16 Maserati 250.3 (259.8) 1 9 9 11 37 166 160 (96.4%) 95 (57.2%) 17 MRD 241.0 9 17 12 29 403 369 (91.6%) 170 (42.2%) 18 BAR 227.0 0 2 0 15 236 234 (99.2%) 140 (59.3%) 19 Sauber 194.0 0 0 0 6 436 431 (98.9%) 264 (60.6%) 20 Alfa Romeo 190.0 (203.0) 1 11 11 14 27 174 171 (98.3%) 78 (44.8%) 21 Matra 184.0 1 9 4 12 21 117 112 (95.7%) 78 (66.7%) 22 Brawn 172.0 8 5 0 15 35 35 (100.0%) 33 (94.3%) 23 Walker 158.0 9 8 7 16 154 137 (89.0%) 77 (50.0%) 24 Honda 154.0 3 2 2 9 151 151 (100.0%) 101 (66.9%) giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 152
  • 153. # COMPANY POINTS C RACES WON POLES FL POD ENTR QUAL % CLASS % 25 Arrows 142.0 0 1 0 8 595 550 (92.4%) 279 (46.9%) 26 Marlboro Team Texaco 140.0 7 2 3 19 58 56 (96.6%) 41 (70.7%) 27 March 131.0 2 2 4 14 411 352 (85.6%) 159 (38.7%) 28 Mercedes 123.0 (139.2) 1 9 8 8 17 42 41 (97.6%) 27 (64.3%) 29 G A Vandervell 111.0 10 6 6 14 69 67 (97.1%) 29 (42.0%) 30 BRM 106.0 4 2 2 8 234 209 (89.3%) 102 (43.6%) 31 Martini Racing 100.0 2 2 3 13 118 108 (91.5%) 51 (43.2%) 32 Walter Wolf Racing 79.0 3 1 2 13 71 52 (73.2%) 29 (40.8%) 33 Shadow 68.5 1 3 2 7 226 199 (88.1%) 99 (43.8%) 34 Hesketh Racing 62.0 1 0 3 9 86 63 (73.3%) 36 (41.9%) 35 Team Surtees 55.0 0 0 3 2 248 217 (87.5%) 116 (46.8%) Toro Rosso 55.0 1 1 0 1 145 145 (100.0%) 92 (63.4%) giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 153
  • 154. Glossary Aerodynamics The study of airflow over and around an object and an intrinsic part of Formula One car design. Apex The middle point of the inside line around a corner at which drivers aim their cars. Appeal An action that a team takes on its drivers' behalf if it feels that they have been unfairly penalised by the race officials. Ballast Weights fixed around the car to maximise its balance and bring it up to the minimum weight limit. Bargeboard The piece of bodywork mounted vertically between the front wheels and the start of the sidepods to help smooth the airflow around the sides of the car. Blistering The consequence of a tyre, or part of a tyre, overheating. Excess heat can cause rubber to soften and break away in chunks from the body of the tyre. Blistering can be caused by the selection of an inappropriate tyre compound (for example, one that is too soft for circuit conditions), too high tyre pressure, or an improperly set up car. Bodywork The carbon fibre sections fitted onto the monocoque before the cars leave the pits, such as the engine cover, the cockpit top and the nosecone. Bottoming When a car's chassis hits the track surface as it runs through a sharp compression and reaches the bottom of its suspension travel. Brake balance A switch in the cockpit to alter the split of the car's braking power between the front and the rear wheels according to a driver's wishes. Chassis The main part of a racing car to which the engine and suspension are attached is called the chassis. Chicane A tight sequence of corners in alternate directions. Usually inserted into a circuit to slow the cars, often just before what had been a high-speed corner. Clean air Air that isn't turbulent, and thus offers optimum aerodynamic conditions, as experienced by a car at the head of the field. Cockpit The section of the chassis in which the driver sits. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 154
  • 155. Compound Tread compound is the part of any tyre in contact with the road and therefore one of the major factors in deciding tyre performance. The ideal compound is one with maximum grip but which still maintains durability and heat resistance. A typical Formula One race compound will have more than ten ingredients such as rubbers, polymers, sulphur, carbon black, oil and other curatives. Each of these includes a vast number of derivatives any of which can be used to a greater or lesser degree. Very small changes to the mix can change compound performance. Diffuser The rear section of the car's floor or undertray where the air flowing under the car exits. The design of the diffuser is crucial as it controls the speed at which the air exits. The faster its exit, the lower the air pressure beneath the car, and hence the more downforce the car generates. Downforce The aerodynamic force that is applied in a downwards direction as a car travels forwards. This is harnessed to improve a car's traction and its handling through corners. Drag The aerodynamic resistance experienced as a car travels forwards. Drive-through penalty One of two penalties that can be handed out at the discretion of the Stewards whilst the race is still running. Drivers must enter the pit lane, drive through it complying with the speed limit, and re-join the race without stopping. Flat spot The term given to the area of a tyre that is worn heavily on one spot after a moment of extreme braking or in the course of a spin. This ruins its handling, often causing severe vibration, and may force a driver to pit for a replacement set of tyres. Formation lap The lap before the start of the race when the cars are driven round from the grid to form up on the grid again for the start of the race. Sometimes referred to as the warm-up lap or parade lap. G-force A physical force equivalent to one unit of gravity that is multiplied during rapid changes of direction or velocity. Drivers experience severe G-forces as they corner, accelerate and brake. Graining When a car slides, it can cause little bits or rubber ('grains') to break away from the tyre's grooves. These then stick to the tread of the tyre, effectively separating the tyre from the track surface very slightly. For the driver, the effect is like driving on ball bearings. Careful driving can clear the graining within a few laps, but will obviously have an effect on the driver's pace. Driving style, track conditions, car set-up, fuel load and the tyre itself all play a role in graining. In essence, the more the tyre moves about on the track surface (ie slides), the more likely graining is. Gravel trap A bed of gravel on the outside of corners designed with the aim of bringing cars that fall off the circuit to a halt. Grip giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 155
  • 156. The amount of traction a car has at any given point, affecting how easy it is for the driver to keep control through corners. Installation lap A lap done on arrival at a circuit, testing functions such as throttle, brakes and steering before heading back to the pits without crossing the finish line. Jump start When a driver moves off his grid position before the five red lights have been switched off to signal the start. Sensors detect premature movement and a jump start earns a driver a penalty. KERS Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems, or KERS, are legal from 2009 onwards. KERS recover waste kinetic energy from the car during braking, store that energy and then make it available to propel the car. The driver has access to the additional power for limited periods per lap, via a 'boost button' on the steering wheel. Left-foot braking A style of braking made popular in the 1990s following the arrival of hand clutches so that drivers could keep their right foot on the throttle and dedicate their left to braking. Lollipop The sign on a stick held in front of the car during a pit stop to inform the driver to apply the brakes and then to engage first gear prior to the car being lowered from its jacks. Marshal A course official who oversees the safe running of the race. Marshals have several roles to fill, including observing the spectators to ensure they do not endanger themselves or the competitors, acting as fire wardens, helping to remove stranded cars/drivers from the track and using waving flags to signal the condition of the track to drivers. Monocoque The single-piece tub in which the cockpit is located, with the engine fixed behind it and the front suspension on either side at the front. Oversteer When a car's rear end doesn't want to go around a corner and tries to overtake the front end as the driver turns in towards the apex. This often requires opposite-lock to correct, whereby the driver turns the front wheels into the skid. Paddles Levers on either side of the back of a steering wheel with which a driver changes up and down the gearbox. Paddock An enclosed area behind the pits in which the teams keep their transporters and motor homes. There is no admission to the public. Parc ferme giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 156
  • 157. A fenced-off area into which cars are driven after qualifying and the race, where no team members are allowed to touch them except under the strict supervision of race stewards. Pit board A board held out on the pit wall to inform a driver of his race position, the time interval to the car ahead or the one behind, plus the number of laps of the race remaining. Pit wall Where the team owner, managers and engineers spend the race, usually under an awning to keep sun and rain off their monitors. Pits An area of track separated from the start/finish straight by a wall, where the cars are brought for new tyres and fuel during the race, or for set-up changes in practice, each stopping at their respective pit garages. Plank A hard wooden strip (also known as a skid block) that is fitted front-to-back down the middle of the underside of all cars to check that they are not being run too close to the track surface, something that is apparent if the wood is excessively worn. Pole position The first place on the starting grid, as awarded to the driver who recorded the fastest lap time in qualifying. Practice The periods on Friday and on Saturday morning at a Grand Prix meeting when the drivers are out on the track working on the set-up of their cars in preparation for qualifying and the race. Protest An action lodged by a team when it considers that another team or competitor has transgressed the rules. Qualifying The knock-out session on Saturday in which the drivers compete to set the best time they can in order to determine the starting grid for the race. Reconnaissance lap A lap completed when drivers leave the pits to assemble on the grid for the start. If a driver decides to do several, they must divert through the pit lane as the grid will be crowded with team personnel. Retirement When a car has to drop out of the race because of an accident or mechanical failure. Ride height The height between the track's surface and the floor of the car. Safety Car The course vehicle that is called from the pits to run in front of the leading car in the race in the event of a problem that requires the cars to be slowed. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 157
  • 158. Scrutineering The technical checking of cars by the officials to ensure that none are outside the regulations. Sectors For timing purposes the lap is split into three sections, each of which is roughly a third of the lap. These sections are officially known as Sector 1, Sector 2 and Sector 3. Shakedown A brief test when a team is trying a different car part for the first time before going back out to drive at 100 percent to set a fast time. Sidepod The part of the car that flanks the sides of the monocoque alongside the driver and runs back to the rear wing, housing the radiators. Slipstreaming A driving tactic when a driver is able to catch the car ahead and duck in behind its rear wing to benefit from a reduction in drag over its body and hopefully be able to achieve a superior maximum speed to slingshot past before the next corner. 'Splash and dash' A pit stop in the closing laps of the race when a driver calls in for just a few litres of fuel to be sure of making it to the finish. Steward One of three high-ranking officials at each Grand Prix appointed to make decisions. Stop-go penalty A penalty given that involves the driver calling at his pit and stopping for 10 seconds - with no refuelling or tyre-changing allowed. Tear-off strips See-through plastic strips that drivers fit to their helmet's visor before the start of the race and then remove as they become dirty. Telemetry A system that beams data related to the engine and chassis to computers in the pit garage so that engineers can monitor that car's behaviour. Torque Literally, the turning or twisting force of an engine, torque is generally used as a measure of an engine's flexibility. An engine may be very powerful, but if it has little torque then that power may only be available over a limited rev range, making it of limited use to the driver. An engine with more torque - even if it has less power - may actually prove quicker on many tracks, as the power is available over a far wider rev range and hence more accessible. Good torque is particularly vital on circuits with a number of mid- to slow-speed turns, where acceleration out of the corners is essential to a good lap time. Traction The degree to which a car is able to transfer its power onto the track surface for forward progress. giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 158
  • 159. Traction control A computerised system that detects if either of a car's driven (rear) wheels is losing traction - ie spinning - and transfers more drive to the wheel with more traction, thus using its more power efficiently. Outlawed from the 2008 season onwards. Turbulence The result of the disruption of airflow caused by an interruption to its passage, such as when it hits a rear wing and its horizontal flow is spoiled. Tyre compound The type of rubber mix used in the construction of a tyre, ranging from soft through medium to hard, with each offering a different performance and wear characteristic. Tyre warmer An electric blanket that is wrapped around the tyres before they are fitted to the car so that they will start closer to their optimum operating temperature. Understeer Where the front end of the car doesn't want to turn into a corner and slides wide as the driver tries to turn in towards the apex. Undertray A separate floor to the car that is bolted onto the underside of the monocoque giorgio.cannizzaro@hotmail.com Pagina 159