Crash course on claim drafting (with exercises)
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Crash course on claim drafting (with exercises)

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Workshop for the Intellectual Property Department of the Sapalo Velez Bundang & Bulilan Law Offices, Marikina East Lake View Farm (MELF) Morong, Rizal (Philippines), 13 January 2012

Workshop for the Intellectual Property Department of the Sapalo Velez Bundang & Bulilan Law Offices, Marikina East Lake View Farm (MELF) Morong, Rizal (Philippines), 13 January 2012

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  • © 2012 by Caezar Angelito E. Arceo
  • © 2012 by Caezar Angelito E. Arceo
  • © 2012 by Caezar Angelito E. Arceo
  • © 2012 by Caezar Angelito E. Arceo
  • © 2012 by Caezar Angelito E. Arceo
  • © 2012 by Caezar Angelito E. Arceo
  • © 2012 by Caezar Angelito E. Arceo
  • © 2012 by Caezar Angelito E. Arceo
  • © 2012 by Caezar Angelito E. Arceo
  • © 2012 by Caezar Angelito E. Arceo
  • © 2012 by Caezar Angelito E. Arceo
  • © 2012 by Caezar Angelito E. Arceo
  • © 2012 by Caezar Angelito E. Arceo
  • © 2012 by Caezar Angelito E. Arceo
  • © 2012 by Caezar Angelito E. Arceo
  • © 2012 by Caezar Angelito E. Arceo
  • © 2012 by Caezar Angelito E. Arceo
  • © 2012 by Caezar Angelito E. Arceo
  • © 2012 by Caezar Angelito E. Arceo
  • © 2012 by Caezar Angelito E. Arceo
  • © 2012 by Caezar Angelito E. Arceo
  • © 2012 by Caezar Angelito E. Arceo
  • © 2012 by Caezar Angelito E. Arceo
  • © 2012 by Caezar Angelito E. Arceo
  • © 2012 by Caezar Angelito E. Arceo
  • © 2012 by Caezar Angelito E. Arceo
  • © 2012 by Caezar Angelito E. Arceo
  • © 2012 by Caezar Angelito E. Arceo
  • © 2012 by Caezar Angelito E. Arceo
  • © 2012 by Caezar Angelito E. Arceo
  • © 2012 by Caezar Angelito E. Arceo
  • © 2012 by Caezar Angelito E. Arceo
  • © 2012 by Caezar Angelito E. Arceo
  • © 2012 by Caezar Angelito E. Arceo
  • © 2012 by Caezar Angelito E. Arceo
  • © 2012 by Caezar Angelito E. Arceo
  • © 2012 by Caezar Angelito E. Arceo
  • © 2012 by Caezar Angelito E. Arceo
  • © 2012 by Caezar Angelito E. Arceo
  • © 2012 by Caezar Angelito E. Arceo
  • © 2012 by Caezar Angelito E. Arceo
  • © 2012 by Caezar Angelito E. Arceo
  • © 2012 by Caezar Angelito E. Arceo
  • © 2012 by Caezar Angelito E. Arceo
  • © 2012 by Caezar Angelito E. Arceo
  • © 2012 by Caezar Angelito E. Arceo
  • © 2012 by Caezar Angelito E. Arceo
  • © 2012 by Caezar Angelito E. Arceo
  • © 2012 by Caezar Angelito E. Arceo
  • © 2012 by Caezar Angelito E. Arceo
  • © 2012 by Caezar Angelito E. Arceo

Crash course on claim drafting (with exercises) Crash course on claim drafting (with exercises) Presentation Transcript

  • Crash course on claim draftingfor patent paralegals and aspiring patent agentsWorkshop for the Intellectual Property Department of theSapalo Velez Bundang & Bulilan Law OfficesCaezar Angelito E. ArceoRegistered Patent Agent in the Philippines(Non-chemical field, 2006; Chemical field, 2007)Mentor, Patent Agent Qualifying ExaminationsMarikina East Lake View Farm (MELF)Morong, Rizal (Philippines)13 January 2012
  • “[T]he name of the gameis the claim.” In re Hiniker Co., 150 F.3d 1362, 1369 (Fed.Cir.1998)
  • Special notes(1) My assumption: As patent paralegals for several years already (least experienced: 4 years), you are deemed very familiar with patent documents and office actions from the Intellectual Property Office. The preliminary part of this presentation should only be a review, and the exercises should be very handy to you.(2) For technical peeps: May this serve as an invitation to take the Patent Agent Qualifying Examinations (PAQE).(3) Enjoy!
  • Outline1.0 Patenting quick review 10 min2.0 Claims 20 min3.0 Basic prior art exercises 30 min4.0 Actual claim drafting exercises Remaining hours
  • 1.0 Patenting quick reviewOur questions:1.1 What is a patent?1.2 What can be patented?1.3 What are the requirements of a patent?1.4 What are the parts of a patent document?
  • 1.1 What is a patent? “A Patent is a grant issued by thegovernment through the IntellectualProperty Office of the Philippines (IPPhilippines).” “It is an exclusive right granted for a product, process or an improvement of a product or process which is new, inventive and useful.” “A patent has a term of protection of twenty (20) years providing an inventor significant commercial gain.”Source: http://ipophil.gov.ph/ “A patent is a contract between the government and the inventor.” - Dr. Karl Rackette
  • 1.2 What can be patented? EXCLUSIONS: Any technical solution of a (1) Discoveries, scientific theories and problem in any field of human mathematical methods; activity which is new, involves an (2) Schemes, rules and methods of inventive step and is industrially performing mental acts, playing applicable shall be Patentable. games or doing business, and programs for computers; (3) Methods for treatment of the humanIt may be, or may relate to, a or animal body by surgery or therapyproduct, or process, or an and diagnostic methods practiced onimprovement of any of the the human or animal body. Thisforegoing. provision shall not apply to products and composition for use in any of - Sec. 21, RA 8293 these methods; (4) Plant varieties or animal breeds or essentially biological process for the production of plants or animals. (5) Aesthetic creations; and (6) Anything which is contrary to public order or morality. - Sec. 22, RA 8293
  • 1.3 What are the requirements of a patent? Novelty 1 An invention shall not be Inventive step considered new if it forms part of a prior art. 2 An invention involves an - Sec. 23, RA 8293 inventive step if, having regard to prior art, it is not obvious to a person skilled in3 Industrial the art at the time of the filing date or priority date of the application claiming the applicability invention - Sec. 26, RA 8293An invention that can be produced andused in any industry shall be industriallyapplicable. - Sec. 27, RA 8293
  • 1.4 What are the parts of a patent document? 4 Abstract 3 Claims 2 Specifications 1 Request for Grant of Patent (Application form) 5 Drawings
  • 2.0 Patent claimsOur questions:2.1 What is a claim?2.2 Why claim?2.3 How to draft claims?
  • 2.1 What is a claim? “Patent claims are the part of a patent or patent application that defines the scope of protection granted by the patent. The claims define, in technical terms, the extent of the protection conferred by a patent, or the protection sought in a patent application.” - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Claim_patent “...the extent of the protection conferred by a patent shall be determined by the claims...” Sec. 75, RA 8293
  • 2.2 Why claim?(1) It is required by our practice. 1.1 The application must contain “one of more claims”. 1.2 These must: (i) “define the matter for which protection is sought”; (ii) “be clear and concise”; (iii) “be supported by the description”. - p. 18, Ch. III, Manual of Substantive Examination Practice(2) It provides the protection of the invention. “The extent of protection conferred by the patent shall be determined by the claims, which are to be interpreted in the light of the description and drawings.” Sec. 75.1, RA 8293
  • 2.3 How to draft claims?(1) Requisites of good patent claims Sufficiently supported by the disclosures. Sufficiently identifying the invention vs. the closest prior art.Shortcut: Identify the closest prior art. For a process invention, the closest prior art is usually a similar process. For a method of use invention, the closest prior art is usually a disclosure of a similar use of the same product, or the same use of a structurally similar product. For a product invention, the closest prior art is usually another product having the same intended use or purpose. This product will normally also have the greatest number of technical features in common with the invention. - p. 78, Annex 2 to Ch IV, 9, Manual of Substantive Examination Practice
  • 2.3 How to draft claims?(2) Types of patent claimsType/format Brief description Applicable in the Philippines?Jepson claims Basic two-part claim type YesBeauregard claims Generally used to circumvent Yes unpatentability of softwareMarkush claims Generally applicable in chemical Yes inventionsMeans-plus-function Generally used in mechanical fields Conditional (i.e., electronic)Product-by-process Generally used in chemical inventions YesSwiss type Generally used in medical inventions YesOmnibus claims A lazy patent claim  No
  • 2.3 How to draft claims?(2) Types of patent claimsType/format Brief description Applicable in the Philippines?Jepson claims Basic two-part claim type YesBeauregard claims Generally used to circumvent Yes unpatentability of software About Jepson claims:Markush claims Generally applicable in chemical Yes (1) Basic claim construction acceptable in the Philippines. inventions (2) Rule 416(a) and (b) on Patents define the two-part formMeans-plus-function which a claim should adopt “wherever appropriate.” Generally used in mechanical fields Conditional (i.e., electronic)Product-by-process Generally used in chemical inventions Example: YesSwiss type Generally used in medical inventions Yes “1. A continuous on-line steam purity monitoring system for A lazy patent claim Omnibus claims geothermal power generation plants comprising the steps of No xxx, whereby the sodium concentration in the steam is used as an indication of purity.” (Philippine Pat. No. 1-2007-000448)
  • About Beauregard-style claims:2.3 How to draft claims? (1) Based on a US case that held “that computer(2) Types of patent claims embodied in a tangible medium, such as programs floppy diskettes, are patentable subject matter.” Type/format BriefTries to circumvent unpatentability issues of a in the (2) description Applicable software. Philippines? Jepson claims Basic two-part claim type re: shift from computer-readable (3) With ongoing issues Yes Beauregard claims media to electronic distribution, based on current Generally used to circumvent Yes legal trends on this subject. unpatentability of softwareMarkush claims Generally applicable in chemical Examples: Yes inventionsMeans-plus-function Generally used of manufacturefields “1. An article in mechanical comprising: a computer Conditional (i.e., electronic) having computer readable program code usable mediumProduct-by-process Generally used in chemicalfor...” (US Pat. No. 5,710,578) means embodied therein inventions YesSwiss type Generally used inreadable inventions “2. A computer medical medium containing program YesOmnibus claims lazy patent claim  Ainstructions for detecting fraud in a credit card No transaction between a consumer and a merchant over the Internet, wherein...” (US Pat. No. 6,029,154)* * Cancelled by US Court of Appeals
  • 2.3 How to draft Markush claims: About claims? (1) Usually used in chemical patents although also(2) Types of patent claims applicable in other fields. (2) A "Markush claim" can be considered as a shortened Type/format formulation of a claim. (Rule 605, Rules on Patents) in the Brief description Applicable Philippines? (3) Markush grouping is allowable only if all alternatives Jepson claims have atwo-part claim type or activity AND a common Basic common property Yes Beauregard claims structure isused to circumvent Rules on Patents)Yes Generally present. (Rule 605, unpatentability of softwareMarkush claims Generally applicable in chemical Yes inventionsMeans-plus-function Generally used in mechanical fields Conditional Examples: (i.e., electronic)Product-by-process Generallycomposition comprising a copper compound “1. A used in chemical inventions YesSwiss type and a dimerised thiourea derivative of Formula Generally used in medical inventions YesOmnibus claims A lazy patent claim  No wherein the two substituents R, which may... (Manual of Substantive Examination and Practice)
  • 2.3 How toMeans-Plus-Function claims: About draft claims? (1) In our practice, claims containing functional(2) Types features can be allowed provided the conditions of patent claims of clarity are satisfied. Type/formatSuch claims can only be characterized by (2) Brief description Applicable in the functional features only if no other more precise Philippines? manner ofBasic two-part claim type exists. Jepson claims defining the claimed matter YesBeauregard claims Generally used to circumvent Yes Examples: unpatentability of softwareMarkush claims Generally applicable in chemical Yes “1. A selective weed-killing composition comprising inventions herbicidal compound H1 and herbicidal compound H2Means-plus-function Generally used in mechanical fields Conditional characterized in that the compounds H1 and H2 are (i.e., electronic) present in quantities that generate a synergesticProduct-by-process Generally used in chemical inventions 7, Manual Yes herbicidal effect.” (Example 25, Ch. of Substantive Examination Practice)Swiss type Generally used in medical inventions YesOmnibus claims A lazyApparatus for “1. patent claim receiving a credit card and reading No it, comprising a housing for insertion in a recess in a wall and having a front opening having a size for receiving the card, the front wall blah blah...” (p. 127, Ch. 7, Manual of Substantive Examination Practice)
  • 2.3 How to draft claims? About Product-by-Process claims:(2) Types of patent claims in medical inventions, as a chemical (1) Usually used product can be characterized as the product of aType/format Brief description Applicable in the process. Acceptable if compound is new. Philippines? (2) Application #1: Only when a process used isJepson claims Basic two-part as in the case of microorganisms. Yes repeatable, claim typeBeauregard claims (3) Application #2: A recombinant vector, being a chemical Generally used to circumvent Yes product, may be characterized by (i) its formula, (ii) as unpatentability of software the product of a process, (iii) a combination ofMarkush claims Generally applicable in chemical of sub-parts. (p. 161, Yes parameters, or (iv) composition inventions Ch. 7, Manual of Substantive Examination Practice)Means-plus-function Generally used in mechanical fields Conditional (i.e., electronic)Product-by-process Generally used in chemical inventions YesSwiss type Generally used in medical inventions YesExample: claimsOmnibus A lazy patent claim  No“1. Product prepared by reacting the reaction product of A and B with substances X and Y.” (p. 137, Ch. 7, Manual of Substantive Examination Practice)
  • 2.3 How to draft Swiss-type claims: About claims? (1) Equivalent of “second medical use” claim format in the(2) Types of patent claims Philippines. (2) Allowed even if the compound is already known and the Type/format Brief description Applicable in the medical use is also known, but a second medical use was not disclosed before. Philippines? Jepson claims (3) Some two-part claim type Basic acceptable formats: Yes Beauregard claims Generally used to circumvent as a medicament Yes (a) compound X for use unpatentability of software as an analgesic (b) compound X for use (c) compound X for use in curing disease Y Markush claims Generally applicable in chemical the compound XYes (d) medicament containing inventions of X for preparing a medicament (e) use Means-plus-function Generally used in mechanical fields Conditional Example: (i.e., electronic)Product-by-process Generally used in chemical inventions Yes “1. Use of an oculosurface selective glucocorticoid for theSwiss type preparation of used in medical inventions Generally a topical ophthalmic composition for treating Yes A lazy patent claim Omnibus claims chronic dry eye conditions, xxx wherein the oculosurfaceNo selective glucocorticoid comprises rimexolone and wherein the composition contains rimexolone at a concentration of 0.001 to less than 0.1 w/v%.” (Phil. Pat. 1-2005-501206)
  • 2.3 How to draft claims?(2) Types of patent claims About Omnibus claims:Type/format Brief description (1) Rule 415(d) specifically discourages the use of the the Applicable in Philippines? following, which are typical of omnibus claim format:Jepson claims Basic two-part claim type in part...” “...as described Yes “...of the description...”Beauregard claims Generally “...as illustrated in Figure 2 of the drawings" used to circumvent Yes unpatentability of software designs, but not in patents. (2) Acceptable in industrialMarkush claims Generally applicable in chemical Yes inventions Examples:Means-plus-function Generally used in mechanical fields Conditional (i.e., A toy substantially described in the accompanying “1. electronic) drawings.”Product-by-process Generally used in chemical inventions YesSwiss type Generally used in medical inventions YesOmnibus claims A lazy patent claim  No
  • 2.3 How to draft claims?(3) Parts of allowable claims (Philippine practice) Two-part Remember the Jepson claim? claiming style1. A seed treating machine for applying chemical treatment toseeds, comprising:(a) a seed delivery assembly, where seeds are contained and collected from source prior to a seed treating process;(b) a cone assembly, where seeds from the said seed delivery assembly are allowed to pass through by gravity; and(c) a spinning disk assembly, which distributes a chemical treatment to the seeds while being dropped from the said seed delivery assembly and through the said cone assembly, said spinning disk assembly is rigidly fixed to the said seed delivery assembly;characterized in that the said seed delivery assembly and thesaid cone assembly are detachably coupled to each other. - Philippine Patent No. 1-2004-000586
  • 2.3 How to draft claims?(3) Parts of allowable claims (Philippine practice) Two-part Remember the Jepson claim? claiming style1. A seed treating machine for applying chemical treatment toseeds, comprising: Preamble(a) a seed delivery assembly, where seeds are contained and collected from source prior to a seed treating process;(b) a cone assembly, where seeds from the said seed delivery assembly are allowed to pass through by gravity; and(c) a spinning disk assembly, which distributes a chemical treatment to the seeds while being dropped from the said seed delivery assembly and through the said cone assembly, said spinning disk assembly is rigidly fixed to the said seed delivery assembly;characterized in that the said seed delivery assembly and the Characterizingsaid cone assembly are detachably coupled to each other. portion - Philippine Patent No. 1-2004-000586
  • 2.3 How to draft claims?(3) Parts of allowable claims (Philippine practice)1. A seed treating machine for applying chemical treatment toseeds, comprising:(a) a seed delivery assembly, where seeds are contained and Preamble  Should contain a collected from source prior to a seed treating process; statement indicating(b) a cone assembly, where seeds from the said seed delivery assembly are allowed to pass through by gravity; and “the designation of(c) a spinning disk assembly, which distributes a chemical the subject matter of treatment to the seeds while being dropped from the said seed delivery assembly and through the said cone the invention” and assembly, said spinning disk assembly is rigidly fixed to the “technical the said seed delivery assembly; features of the priorcharacterized in that the said seed delivery assembly and thesaid cone assembly are detachably coupled to each other. art” (Rule 416)  Basically: Recites theThe “switch’. Characterizing portion prior art.Also can be used:  Should state the technicalwhereby features it is desired towherein protect (Rule 416)  In short: The invention.
  • 2.3 How to draft claims?(4) Independent claims vs. dependent claims1. A seed treating machine for applying chemical treatment toseeds, comprising:(a) a seed delivery assembly, where seeds are contained and Independent claim collected from source prior to a seed treating process;(b) a cone assembly, where seeds from the said seed delivery assembly are allowed to pass through by gravity; and(c) a spinning disk assembly, which distributes a chemical  Also known as (1) main claim; treatment to the seeds while being dropped from the said (2) mother claim. seed delivery assembly and through the said cone assembly, said spinning disk assembly is rigidly fixed to  The most important claim in the the said seed delivery assembly; set.characterized in that the said seed delivery assembly and thesaid cone assembly are detachably coupled to each other.2. The seed treating machine according to claim 1,characterized in that the seed delivery assembly is comprising Dependent claimsa cylinder whose upper end is provided with a means forcoupling it to an existing hopper.  Include all the features of any3. The seed treating machine according to claim 2,characterized in that said delivery assembly further comprising: other claim(s).(a) a horizontal tube bisecting the circumference of the said  Must contain at the beginning a cylinder and which is rigidly attached thereo; and(b) a stationary tube that is rigidly attached to the said reference to the other claim. horizontal tube. (i.e., “according to claim 1”; “as in claim 1”; etc)
  • 3.0 Basic prior art exercisesProcedure/Goals:(1) Identify the closest prior art.(2) Spot the invention.(3) Enjoy the questions.
  • Before we proceed, what is a prior art?According to the IP Code, prior art shall consist of: (1) Everything which has been made available to the public anywhere in the world, before the filing date or the priority date of the application claiming the invention (Sec. 24.1, RA 8293) (2) Patent application itself! (Sec. 24.2, RA 8293) In short, a prior art is: (1) Anything that is already available anywhere in the world before the patent application; (2) Anything the inventor will disclose to the Patent Office after the patent application.
  • How prior arts workA mouse trap PRIOR ART? Tacky glue trap PRESENT INVENTION FUTUREPRIOR ART Sandtail sentinel Mouse trebuchet
  • Exercise 1 1 2 INVENTION PRIOR ART
  • Exercise 2 1 2 PRIOR ARTS 3 4
  • Exercise 3 1 2 PRIOR ARTS 3INVENTION 5 4
  • Exercise 4 1 2 3INVENTION 4 PRIOR ARTS
  • Exercise 5 1 2 3 4 5 INVENTION PRIOR ARTS
  • Exercise 6 1 2 PRIOR ARTS INVENTION 5 3 4
  • Exercise 6 CHOSEN PRIOR ART 1 Preamble? 1. A means of transportation... INVENTION Characterizing portion? ...characterized in that the movement is accomplished by a wheel. ...whereas said transportation is powered by an engine.
  • Exercise 6 CHOSEN PRIOR ART 2 Preamble? 1. A means of transportation comprising a suitable carriage body, INVENTION wheel...[etc etc] Characterizing portion? ...characterized in that the said carriage body further comprising a steering mechanism. ...whereas said transportation is powered by an engine.
  • Exercise 6 CHOSEN PRIOR ART 3 X INVENTION Preamble? Characterizing portion? X  Not a prior art!
  • CHOSEN PRIOR ARTExercise 6 4 Preamble? 1. A means of transportation... 1. A non-animal means of transportation... 1. A locomotive... ...comprising an engine, a propelling INVENTION wheel, a suitable carriage body, steering mechanism [etc etc] Characterizing portion? ...characterized in that liquid gas enables the operation of the said engine.
  • Exercise 6: Actual Patent
  • 4.0 Actual claim drafting exercisesProcedure/Goals:(1) Pair yourselves and discuss the slide based on the allotted time.(2) Identify the closest prior art.(3) Spot the invention.(4) Draft at least one claim (main claim).(5) Draft at least one dependent claim (OPTIONAL).(6) Prepare for presentation using the Manila paper provided to you.
  • Goal 20 minutesExercise 7 Closest prior art: ??? What to draft: One (1) main claim What to claim: ??? 1 2 INVENTION PRIOR ARTS 3
  • Goal 20 minutesExercise 7 solution Closest prior art: Pen What to draft: One (1) main claim What to claim: See claim 1
  • Goal 30 minutesExercise 8 Closest prior art: ??? What to draft: One (1) main claim What to claim: ??? 1 2 3 Alternative embodiments: 4 5 INVENTION PRIOR ARTS
  • Goal 30 minutesExercise 8 solution Closest prior art: Umbrella What to draft: One (1) main claim What to claim: See claim 1
  • Goal 30 minutesExercise 9 Closest prior art: ??? What to draft: One (1) main claim What to claim: ??? 1 2 3 4 INVENTION PRIOR ARTS 5
  • Goal 30 minutesExercise 9 solution Closest prior art: Umbrella and leash What to draft: One (1) main claim What to claim: See claim 1
  • Goal 45 minutes to 1 hourExercise 10 Closest prior art: ??? What to draft: One (1) main claim What to claim: See claim 1 1 Advertised in Book-keeper, Aug 1894, p.6; unpatented Brosnan Patent (1900), US648,841 2 3 Wright Patent (1901), US674,290 INVENTION PRIOR ARTS
  • Goal 45 minutes to 1 hourExercise 10 solution Closest prior art: Pins 2 or 3 What to draft: One (1) main claim What to claim: See claim 1
  • Exercise 11General instructions:(1) Check the handouts provided to you.(2) You are given one (1) week to prepare the claims.(3) Basic output required: Claim set. You may also prepare the full specification and abstract, and letter to the IPO if you feel lucky.(4) Submit your outputs to NLB and discuss how you can improve them.(5) This is an individual work. Please try not to cheat!Background of the material:(1) Actual Paper A (claim drafting) exam  European Qualifying Examinations (EQE) for 2011(2) It is recommended to turn off your specialist knowledge and rely solely on the documents provided.(3) Actual duration to take the exam is four (4) hours. But don’t pressure yourself. Take your time and enjoy the feeling of the exam.
  • 5.0 Any questions?And...thank you! © 2012 by Caezar Angelito Estioko Arceo cangear@yahoo.com http://www.youtube.com/cangear http://www.twitter.com/cangear http://www.slideshare.net/cangear http://www.scribd.com/cangear
  • AcknowledgmentSlide Item SourceExercise: Automobile Carabao http://www.localphilippines.com/events/864/carabao-carroza- race “Sky lab”, a common http://www,youtube.com/cangear transportation in Mindanao, Philippines (Must see. :D) Horse-driven carriage http://texaninthephilippines.com/2011/06/19/saturday-18-jun- 2011/horse-carriage-laoag/ Steam train http://swiftline50.com/category/steam-train-trips-new-zealand/Prior art and claim drafting Patent documents http://www.espacenet.comexercises http://www.uspto.gov http://www.freepatentsonline.com1.1 What is a patent? Man with bulb http://www.economist.com/node/15479680 Paper clip http://www.officemuseum.com/paper_clips.htmPrior art exercise: Pen Quill http://thesilverquill.webs.com/ Pencil http://oregonbusinessbrokers.org/2010/07/02/i-pencil-a-story- about-the-miracle-of-capitalism/ Caveman writing http://www.mchumor.com/cavemen2_bframe.html Pilot pen http://www.pilotpen.co.uk/5.0 slide Money inventor http://www.toonpool.com/cartoons/caveman%20wife%20money %20invention_113801
  • AcknowledgmentSlide Item SourceExercise on stapler-pen Stapler http://www.graphicshunt.com Pen http://www.the-gadgeteer.comExercise on beerbrella San Miguel Beer http://www.sanmiguel.com.ph/businesses/core/beverages/ Drunkard http://hapiblogging.blogspot.com/2009/01/no-fear-drunkard-in- agdao.html Umbrella by the http://wallpapers.free- beach review.net/42__Coastal_Holiday,_Sand_Beach.htmExercise on dog-brella Beautiful woman with http://cutcaster.com/photo/100612708-Woman-with-umbrella- umbrella and-light-rain/ Beautiful woman with http://www.pitbulllovers.com/pitbullgazette/dec2011.html pitbull Beautiful woman http://cutcaster.com/photo/100221713-Young-female-pulling-to- pulling a man man/#S115354 Belt http://www.kustomkultureclothingco.com/accessories.htm Thinking man http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/images/ Woman with a cane http://www.123rf.com/photo_9355568_young-beauty-woman-in- red-traditional-arabic-costume-dance-with-cane.html Labrador http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Labrador_RetrieverMouse trap exercise Mouse trap http://www.dimensionsguide.com/mouse-trap-dimensions/ Imaginary mouse http://mhwiki.hitgrab.com/wiki/ traps