Basic Search Training Staff Training Session Slides prepared by C. Yip
Overview II. Searching forI. Locating Resources Known Items By By Matt Sally IV. Finding information on a topic in III. Searching for Journal indexes/ Unknown items databases By By Michelle Candy
I. Locating ResourcesWhere and how to find what? Full-text journal articles Peer-reviewed articles (also called refereed journal articles)
How to Find the Full Text of an ArticleOnline? Start by checking to see if you are searching a full text database. If you have searched a full text database, use the Get It! Button to find full text sources. Look for the “Full Text” or PDF buttons in your search results. Look up the journal in the library catalogue.
Does my Database have Full Text? You can find out if a database provides full-text articles before you choose it by clicking on “Read More” after the database name, or by consulting the database “help”. The next image shows you the Scholars Portal link with the “Read More” link highlighted. Click on the Image to see the “Read More” page for Scholars Portal.
If you have searched a full textdatabase, use the to findfull text sources. “Get it U of T Libraries” is a library service which links database citations to full-text articles when available. This menu of options will provide links to the full-text of the article if the library has a subscription. It will provide a link to search the library catalogue to see if the library has the journal or book.
Searching Databases and Indexesfor Full Text Articles When searching any database, your search results will lead you to a list of articles on your topic or subject.
In the example below, the citation from the Scholars Portal database informs you that the “Full-Text PDF” file of the article is available. If there is no Full-Text link in your search results look for the Get-It! button. You may still be able to find the full text of the article.
What If the Full Text is Still NotAvailable? If you have a journal citation, and need a quick way to see if the journal is owned by the University of Toronto Libraries, click on the article finder link located at the bottom of the Library catalogue homepage.
How Do I Know If My Article IsPeer-Reviewed? Go to the library catalogue Go to E-Resources Click Article Databases & Indexes Type in “Ulrich’s Periodical Directory”.
What is a Peer-Reviewed Article? The main purpose of a scholarly journal is to report on original research or experimentation in order to make such information available to the rest of the scholarly world. Articles are documented using foot notes and/or a bibliography or a works cited list of sources used. Articles are written by a scholar in the field or by someone who has done research in the field. The affiliations of the authors are listed, usually at the bottom of the first page or at the end of the article--universities, research institutions, think tanks, and the like.
A student came in and asked the following: “Computer in Industry” “ISSN 0166-3615”
II. Searching Library Catalogue forknown items What is a citation?
What is a citation?Definition: Information which fully identifies a publication. A complete citation usually includes author, title, name of journal (if the citation is to an article) or publisher (if to a book), and date. Often pages, volumes and other information will be included in a citation.
Book citation vs. Journal citationExamples – Printed bibliography/works cited list:
Different types of citationsA book:Damasio, A. R. (1994). Descartes’ error. New York: Grosste/Putnam.A chapter/an article in a book:Bless, H. (2000). The interplay of affect and cognition: The mediating role of general knowledge structures. In J. P. Forgas (Ed.), Feeling and thinking: The role of affect in social cognition (pp. 201-222). New York: Cambridge University Press.Journal:Argyle, M. (1985). Social skills training. Bulletin of the British Psychological Society, 38, 340-341.
Reading Journal citations(a) From an online index:
Online Journal citationTI: How self-reliant imagination affects memory for behaviourAU: Thomas, Ayana K; Hannula, Deborah E; Loftus, ElizabethSO: Applied Cognitive Psychology. Vol 21(1), Jan 2007, pp. 69-86* The title of the journal is (Applied CognitivePsychology), volume (21), issue (1), pages (69-86), andthe date of publication (January 2007).
Reading Journal citations(b) From a printed bibliography/works cited list:Thomas, Ayanna K; Hannula, Deborah E; Loftus, Elizabeth F. (2007) How Self-Relevant Imagination Affects Memory for Behaviour. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 21(1), 69-86*Author. (year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal. Volume, pages.
Keyword search: Use when you are not sure of the correct subject heading Results more relevant as you master more advanced techniques such as boolean and truncation
Truncation Truncation: $ (U of T library catalogue) Used to find variations in spelling and tenses, words with similar roots but different suffixes Rules: - any number of letters (0-100) in or at the end of word. behavio$r will find “behavior”, “behaviour”; - can set an upper limit. behav$3 will find “behavioral”, “behavior”, “behaving” - must precede by at least three letters. employ$ will retrieve “employ”, “employs”, “employee”, “employment”, “employer”, “employed”
Wildcard Wildcard: ? (U of T library catalogue) Used when you are unsure of the spelling. One letter in or at the end of search word. Multiple wildcards can be used to substitute for an equal number of characters. Examples: wom?n will find “woman”, “women” economi?? will find “economies”, “economist”, economics (can use truncation to replace wildcard in this case: economi$2) 196? Finds all dates in the 1960’s
Truncation vs. WildcardTips: Different databases use different truncation and wildcard symbols. For example, U of T library catalogue uses “$” for truncation, Proquest database uses “*” Truncation can replace any number of letters in or at the end of a word, though a limit can be set; wildcard replaces only one letter. Note where to put the truncation symbol: too soon in the word, get lots of irrelevant results. Example: “eco$” may retrieve “ecology”, “ecologist” etc. instead of “economy”, “economist” etc.
When using truncation or wildcard, you must be aware of what field you are searching in, because the results will vary drastically.
What is an index or a database?What is an index? any organized collection of information. store information about people, books, products, or anything else. Most, but not all, databases are computerized.Examples: Telephone directory Yahoo subject directory Library catalogue
Telephone Directory- Organized collection of information about people
Yahoo Subject Directory- A subject directory contains an overview of subjects, subdivided into often quite broad categories such as art, recreation, science.
Library Catalogue- an organized database of books and other collections inthe library
Types of databasesMain types of databases:• Bibliographic: library catalogues, article indexes• Full-text: Jstor, Project Muse• Numeric databases: CANSIM (Canadian Socio- economic Information Management System)Journal database/index is a searchable database of citations to articles published in a field.
Database consists of……RecordsEach record represents one item in the database.Example: Library catalogue This is a record. This is a record. These are records too!
Each record consists of……FieldsEach field provides a particular piece of information aboutthe item, e.g., author, title, publication year etc.Example: Library catalogue Author Title Publication information Subject ISBN
Searching Journal Indexes/Databases• Analyze the topic Research = Analysis + Synthesis• Concept map Concept maps are diagrams that can be used to organize ideas relating to a particular topic.
Concept Map Related Issue Example Example ExampleExample Related Issue Topic/Main Idea Related IssueExample Example Example Related Issue Example Example
Concept Map Discuss the benefits of exercise to reduce stress. Advantages Good for Of Anytime, health exercises anywhere Tennis RelaxedSwimming Outcomes Sleep Exercises can well Exercises of reduce stress exercises Gym Sense of well-being Running Results of Nervous stress Sleepless Feeling -ness sick
How to find journal articles on atopic?Step 1: Summarize your topicState your topic in one or two sentences. Example: I want to find information on how television affects children’s aggressive behaviour.
Step 2: Identify Concepts Underline or circle the main concepts/ideas represented in your topic statement. Most topics can be broken down into 2 or 3 main concepts. Example: I want to find how television affects children’s aggressive behaviour.
It will look like this: Concept 1 Concept 2 Concept 3 television children aggressive behaviour
Step 3: Select concept words/phrases Create a list of words/phrases which describes each of your underlined/circled concepts identified in step 2. Think of synonyms, various forms of spelling, and/or related words Keywords 1 Keywords 2 Keywords 3 television children aggression tv child aggressive media teens behaviour youth violence adolescence violent adolescent
Step 4: Connect words and conceptsUse boolean operators – OR, AND, NOT Boolean logic takes its name from British mathematician George Boole (1815-1864) A system of logic designed to produce better search results by formulating precise queries.
OR operatorStep A: Connect words/phrases with the OR operator withinEACH conceptOR broadens a search. Any of the listed words can appear inthe same concept or article. Records here contain keyword “aged” or “seniors” or both as shown by the area shaded in green Aged Seniors Broadens the search for alternate terms, synonyms, and related concepts Get more results
Step B: Connect different concepts with the AND or NOT operator. AND operator Records here contain keyword Stress AND health “stress” and “health” as shown by Results: 72 citations the area shaded in green Stress Health Results: Results: 255 citations 780 citations Narrowing your search to records with keywords you have chosen
NOT narrows a search by specifying that a word or concept must not appear in the same article.Example: To find articles on the Jurassic era, but exclude anything on the novel, "Jurassic Park." jurassic not park NOT operator Records of these two areas will be eliminated. Results only include the shaded green area. Jurassic Park Narrowing your search by exclusion
It will look like this:Concept 1 Concept 2 Concept 3 media children aggression OR OR OR AND ANDtelevision child aggressive OR OR behaviour tv teens
How to find journal articles on atopic? Select appropriate index
How to find journal articles on atopic?Steps: Go to the U of T Library home page Click on “Let us recommend the best database for your topic” link (Alternatively, go through the UTM library home page >Students >Article Databases) Choose one of the subject areas listed on the page. For example: Social Sciences, then, click on the “Go” button Select one of the databases listed on the page under the heading “Best Article Databases”. Now, you can start your search using keywords on your topic.
Overview: Analyze the topic Identify concepts Select keywords and appropriate use of search strategies Select appropriate search tools Search the article
How to find journal articles on atopic?Tips: In developing keyword lists, consider possible hierarchical relationships Example: Broader term vs. narrower term: Handicraft vs. miniature craft Country vs. particular geographical location: Canada vs. Ontario vs. Toronto Use Boolean operators “and” to combine multiple concepts, “or” to combine multiple terms for each concepts and put them in sets of brackets. Example: (children or child or kids) and (television or tv or mass media) and (violence or violent)
How to find journal articles on atopic? Use truncation (“$” or “*” etc.) (depends on database) to broaden your search and for various spellings Example in Proquest: (child* or kid*) and (television or tv or mass media) and (violen*) Consider using proximity operators, for example, NEAR, to retrieve relevant results Limit searches to field, language, year, publication type if necessary Critically evaluate the results Revise search strategy and repeat the search in the same database or other databases.
Application of search strategies in Library CatalogueTips: Beware of different symbols use : Truncation, wildcard U of T library Scholars Portal, catalogue: Proquest: Truncation: $ Truncation: *
Example Searches –U of T Library CatalogueFind books on the effects of televisionviolence on children(tv or television) and violen$ and (child$ or teen$ or youth$ or adolescen$)
Example Searches –Scholars PortalFind articles on the effects of televisionviolence on children(tv or television) and violen* and (child* orteen* or youth* or adolescen*)
THANK YOU!Thank you all for your participation in the workshop!