Au Psy492 E Portfolio Template For Slide Share

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Au Psy492 E Portfolio Template For Slide Share

  1. 1. 1<br />Undergraduate Studies ePortfolio<br />Candice Narrin<br />Psychology, 2010<br />
  2. 2. Personal Statement<br />My name is Candice Narrin. Before I was even old enough to know what psychology was, I knew I wanted to “study people” when I got older. Immediately after graduation I plan to volunteer at organizations that work with children and in the human services area. Eventually, I hope to work with child protective services or an adoption agency.<br />Me and my youngest daughter Serenity<br />2<br />
  3. 3. Resume<br />Candice Narrin<br />candydesignz@aol.com<br />Please email for phone numbers or address<br />CAREER OBJECTIVE  <br /><ul><li>Entry level position in human services field. Specifically, working with Child Protective Services or a similar organization.</li></ul>EDUCATION  <br /><ul><li>Argosy University, Phoenix, AZ
  4. 4. Expected graduation date: December 2010
  5. 5. B.A., Psychology
  6. 6. Current GPA: 4.0</li></ul>SKILLS <br /><ul><li>Proficient writing skills
  7. 7. Great at working under pressure and meeting deadlines</li></ul> <br /> <br />3<br />
  8. 8. Resume<br />SKILLS - CONTINUED<br /><ul><li>Excellent communication skills
  9. 9. Excellent interpersonal skills
  10. 10. relate well to children
  11. 11. Highly organized, able to multi-task, and accomplish multiple objectives.
  12. 12. Professional demeanor and attentive to detail.</li></ul>RELATED COURSEWORK  <br /><ul><li>Substance abuse and the family
  13. 13. General psychology
  14. 14. Advanced general psychology
  15. 15. Counseling theories
  16. 16. Developmental psychology
  17. 17. Physiological psychology
  18. 18. Personality theory
  19. 19. Children and violence</li></ul>RELATED EXPERIENCE<br /><ul><li>volunteered in classrooms and school activities
  20. 20. cubmaster for cubscouts 2000-2002
  21. 21. currently involved in two girl scout troops</li></ul>4<br />
  22. 22. 5<br />Reflections<br />
  23. 23. Reflection<br />I have learned a lot during my academic tenure here at Argosy University. When starting, I did not know how to communicate well with others and I was shy and quiet. From interacting on a daily basis with my peers, I learned how to effectively communicate with others, became more self confident with every post and every assignment, and learned how to convey ideas that were in my mind in writing.<br />6<br />
  24. 24. Reflection<br />In addition to learning how to communicate with others and becoming more confident in myself, I also developed other skills here at Argosy University. I am Able to recognize and describe a wide range of psychological perspectives and theories. I have also gained an understanding of a given topic from multiple perspectives which indicates moderate development in Critical thinking.<br />7<br />
  25. 25. Reflection<br />Also, I have learned how to access information from a variety of sources when researching a question related to psychology and arrange and integrate the information meaningfully into a research project.<br /> <br />8<br />
  26. 26. Reflection<br />I understand a lot about research methods now. I have now had significant exposure to articles that include research findings, and I am able to identify the research design used, the statistical tools used, and I can locate the final findings of the article.  <br />9<br />
  27. 27. Reflection<br />Here at Argosy, I have developed extensive written communication skills. I am able to take psychological information, questions, and discussions, and present the information in writing using software and a style that is appropriate for the audience. While writing, I demonstrate extensive conciseness and clarity in content, language use, grammar, and APA formatting. I am also able to write a defense for a particular stance on different psychological concepts. <br />10<br />
  28. 28. Reflection<br />I have also had many classes that deal with ethics and diversity here at Argosy. I understand the importance of ethical guidelines and I display ethical decision making in my writing about psychological issues as well as in my daily life. <br />11<br />
  29. 29. Reflection<br />I have developed skills that allow me to effectively communicate with others , developed appreciation and respect for others, and became aware of my impact on other people. <br />I have sharpened my verbal, nonverbal, and listening skills which improves my interpersonal relationships.<br />12<br />
  30. 30. Weaknesses<br />Despite developing superior communication and interpersonal skills, I have not had the opportunity to develop good oral presentation skills. I did have the opportunity to do interviews, but did not have the opportunity to orally present any of my work.  <br />13<br />
  31. 31. 14<br />Work samples<br />
  32. 32. Table of Contents<br />Cognitive Abilities: Critical Thinking and Information Literacy<br />Research Skills<br />Communication Skills: Oral and Written<br />Ethics and Diversity Awareness<br />Foundations of Psychology<br />Applied Psychology<br />Interpersonal Effectiveness<br />**Include work samples and projects with a Title Page and organized accordingly to demonstrate each of the Program Outcomes above<br />15<br />
  33. 33. Weaknesses<br />In addition to lacking oral presentation skills, I also lack relevant experience in the human services field. What little experience I do have with helping others is from my living experience through family and friends.<br />16<br />
  34. 34. Critical Thinking<br />Work that demonstrates cognitive abilities<br />This section includes assignments and papers that demonstrate problem solving, analysis, synthesis, or appropriate use of informational resources.<br />Psychological statistics problem solving<br />Variables and data collection<br />17<br />
  35. 35. Psychological statistics problem solving <br />1a. Descriptive-an average just describes some of the data<br /> B. Inferential- draws a conclusion that students who have been away 10 years anticipate a lower grade.<br /> C. inferential<br /> D. Descriptive<br /> E. Descriptive<br />2a. the null hypothesis is that home schooled children will score the same as or lower than non home schooled children on a standardized achievement test.<br /> B. The alternative hypothesis is that home schooled children will perform higher on the standardized test than non home schooled children.<br /> C. This is a one tailed test. It is testing for higher scores which would make this a right tailed test.<br /> D. Home schooled children will perform higher on the standardized test than non home schooled children. This is written as a one tailed test.<br /> E. Home schooled and non home schooled children will perform the same on a standardized achievement test.<br />18<br />
  36. 36. Psychological statistics problem solving <br />3a. the null hypothesis is that her new medication will make no difference in the amount of violence criminals’ exhibit <br /> The alternative hypothesis is that criminals who receive her medicine will show a difference in the amount of violence they exhibit.<br /> She rejects the null hypothesis when she should not; this is a type 1 error<br /> B. She could increase the sample size to gain more support for her hypothesis, use clearer statistical tests, and lower her level of significance (alpha) to ensure the error does not happen again.<br /> C. Type 11 error: She reports that statistically there was no difference in the amount of violence criminals exhibited after issuing them her medicine when there actually was a difference.<br /> 4a. two tailed<br /> B. two tailed<br /> C. two tailed<br /> D. one tailed<br /> E. one tailed<br />19<br />
  37. 37. Psychological statistics problem solving <br />5. For a one tailed test the critical value for alpha = .01 could be 2.33 or -2.33. It would be 2.33 in a right tailed test and -2.33 in a left tailed test. For alpha = .001 the critical value on a one tailed test would be 3; if it was a right tailed test it would be +3 and if it was a left tailed test it would be -3. For a two tailed test, the critical value for alpha = .01 would be + 2.58 and the critical value for alpha = .001 would be + 3.50. For the one tailed tests the value is just looked up, for the two tailed test we divide .001/2 = .0005 which corresponds to the percentage in the tail in the back of our textbook = .05 (.0005 * 100 since the area is given in percentages). The closest z score to .05 is 3.50.<br />One tailed: CV @ alpha = .01 = 2.33 for right tailed and – 2.33 for left tailed test.<br />One tailed: CV @ alpha = .001 = 3 for a right tailed test and -3 for a left tailed test.<br />Two tailed test: CV @ alpha = .01 = + 2.58<br />Two tailed test: CV @ alpha = .001 = + 3.50<br />20<br />
  38. 38. Variables and data collectionIn the research design<br />There are many variables in a research study. Independent variables are variables that are changed by the researcher to have an affect on the dependent variable (Riggio, 2008). The dependent variable is the variable that depends on the independent variable (Riggio, 2008). There are still other variables in a study that are extraneous variables or variables other than the independent ones that might have an influence on the dependant variables (Riggio, 2008). Variables, including extraneous ones, are unavoidable in research but they can be controlled to increase the validity of the survey (Argosy, 2010; Riggio, 2008).<br />The independent variables regarding the study on the correlation between employee absenteeism and employee satisfaction is employee satisfaction since it varies and employee absenteeism depends on how satisfied someone is at work. For example, if someone is highly satisfied with their job then they may be less likely to call in or miss work, and if someone is not that satisfied with their job then they might be more apt to call in and miss work. When determining the extraneous variables, it is important to note what other things besides employee satisfaction might impact how often someone misses work (Riggio, 2008). In this particular study, some extraneous variables might be the employee’s age, the type of job, the health of the employee, number and health of the children, or how long someone has to commute to get to work. I would try to keep the extraneous variables constant in order to control them (Houghton University, n.d.; Riggio, 2008). I would use a survey where each participant answered a few questions about their age, health, family life, and the length of their commute. Then, I would categorize each survey dependent on these answers to get samples of similarity. <br />I would choose an empirical study to research this study so that legitimate conclusions about the relationship might be made (Argosy University, 2010). The empirical study is based more on data that is measured on numbers making it more reliable and valid than observational <br />21<br />
  39. 39. Variables and data collectionIn the research design<br />studies (Argosy University, 2010; Riggio, 2008). There are five steps involved in the empirical research design (Argosy University, 2010, Research terminology). The first step is the statement of the problem. This does not necessarily have to be a problem, but may also describe a correlation or relationship between two variables (Argosy University, 2010, Research terminology; Riggio, 2008). The second step would be to design the research study; in this step, the researcher decides what environment the study will take place in, if information from other studies will be included, and what tools will be used to collect the data (Argosy University, 2010, Research terminology). The next step is to measure the variables, which deals with how the researcher will obtain and capture the specific variables that are being tested (Argosy University, 2010, Research terminology). Then the data would be analyzed using statistical techniques (descriptive techniques) such as measuring the central tendency, the mean, median, and mode, and the correlation co-efficient (Argosy University, 2010, statistics; Riggio, 2008). The final step in this design would be to discuss the findings (Argosy University, 2010, Research terminology). This is the section were a summary would be made and any conclusions regarding the variables would be stated (Argosy University, 2010, Research terminology). The importance from doing this study would also be included in this section of the research (Argosy University, 2010, Research terminology; Riggio, 2008). Regarding this particular study, we would determine if there was any relationship between employee job satisfaction and employee absenteeism, along with a discussion about it’s importance and how this study might be used to better other companies by providing extra incentives to employees to keep them happy so that employee absenteeism within the future and other companies would be low (Riggio, 2008).<br />I would use more than one means of data collection. One of these methods would be archival research. With this method, I would be able to use data that already existed; maybe to <br />22<br />
  40. 40. Variables and data collectionIn the research design<br />pair along with the data that was categorized as a means to control the extraneous variables (Argosy University, 2010; Riggio, 2008). My main tool would be the self-administered questionnaire. It is a highly effective means to collect data because they can address a wide array of issues, can be distributed easily at work, are an effective way to learn people’s opinions, and can provide privacy regarding questions that might be about the workers health or family life (Argosy University, 2010, Data collection).<br />The correlation co-efficient, .7 in this example, can signify the direction and strength of the relationship of the variables (Argosy University, 2010, Statistics). This number is usually between -1 and 1 with .4 or .5 being a strong correlation; usually, correlation co-efficient’s do not go over .7. The sign of the co-efficient signifies the relationship between the variables; a negative co-efficient means they are inversely related (one goes up, the other goes down or vice versa) and a positive co-efficient means that when one goes up so does the other (Argosy University, 2010, Statistics). In regards to the correlation co-efficient .7, this is a very strong relationship where the dependent variable, employee absenteeism, will increase when the independent variable (employee satisfaction) increases (Argosy University, 2010, Statistics). This is not exactly the relationship that might have been predicted, but this is the explanation of a correlation co-efficient with a positive number.<br />There could be some problems with this specific research design. They might include confusion regarding the concept of employee satisfaction level and good health. I would minimize this problem by having the participant choose characteristics that signify job satisfaction and good health (Argosy University, 2010). Some other things might be the employees health, the number of children at home and the number, if any, children with chronic health conditions, the return of survey’s/questionnaires, participant honesty, and gaining consent<br />23<br />
  41. 41. Variables and data collectionIn the research design<br />(Argosy University, 2010; Riggio, 2008). I would address all of these issues within the questionnaire. All of the definitions would be addressed on there as well as the major circumstances in their life that might contribute to missed work. To promote the return of the surveys I would offer a small incentive to those employees who submitted their questionnaire into a designated spot. To promote honesty I would re-inforce that by being honest on the questionnaire they are providing a chance to better their company, which will also better them by making them even happier at work. To gain consent I would include the clause (in letters the same size as the text on the survey/questionnaire itself) stating that they do not have to disclose their name but that they consent to willingly take place in the survey.<br />In conclusion, every research project is subject to some problems. The goal should not be to eliminate them, as this may be impossible, but to control them. Once data has been obtained and evaluated, we analyze it by using scientific methods and obtain a correlation co-efficient which describes the relationship between the variables. The empirical study is desirable because it uses tools and numbers to analyze the data which makes the data more accurate (Argosy University, 2010). The data for this particular study can be obtained through self-questionnaires and surveys. Every research project has variables; independent variables, dependent variables, and extraneous variables that all have an effect on the outcome of the study.<br /> <br />24<br />
  42. 42. Variables and data collectionIn the research design<br /> <br />References:<br />Argosy University. (2010). Psy320: Industrial organizational psychology: module 2: Research technology, Data collection, Statistics, Research terminology. Retrieved January 21, 2009 from http://myeclassonline.com<br />Houghton University. (n.d.). Controlling extraneous variables: slide 3. Microsoft power-point presentation. Retrieved January 21, 2010, from http://74.125.93.132/search?q=cache:MXfvhm9ZG5IJ:campus.houghton.edu/orgs/psychology/Exp7.ppt+controlling+extraneous+variables&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us<br />Riggio, Ronald E. (2008). Introduction to industrial/organizational psychology (5th ed.). [DX reader version]. Upper saddle river, NJ: Pearson-Prentice hall . Retrieved from http://online.vitalsource.com/books/<br />25<br />
  43. 43. Research skills<br />Works that demonstrate research skills<br />This section includes at least one research proposal or a developed survey<br />A quantitative research question<br />Trauma focused cognitive behavior therapy to treat intrusive memories<br />26<br />
  44. 44. A quantitative research question<br />I would like to do research on abandoned/neglected children. In particular, I would like to see how their environment growing up affects the type of adult they will become. For example, some neglected and/or abused children are put back and allowed to stay in the custody of their parents, while some are placed with adoptive families. The part that interests me is whether or not the placement with the adoptive family is enough to encourage the child to become a contributing member of society, and an overall happy adult. Taking the child away from the natural parents must put psychological stress on the child, not to mention getting abused or neglected. How much neglect/abuse did the child endure before they were prohibited to live with the parent’s and is the damage from this abuse too much for children to overcome? All of this interest leads me to form the following research question: is there a difference between the number of abused/neglected children who stay with their abusive parents and grow up to be dissatisfied with life and the number of abused/neglected children who get placed with adoptive/foster parents and grow up to be dissatisfied with life?<br />There are some things that I know about this topic. I know that there are many different factors that contribute to how a child handles neglect and/or abuse over the course of their lifetime. On the child welfare website, they describe different factors that can contribute to the overall life satisfaction someone has as an adult when they were a child in this situation. Some of these other factors include how long the child was abused before help stepped in, the overall attitude and personality of the child, and the nature of the abuse (Child welfare information gateway, n.d.). Even after a child has been removed from an abusive situation, they may experience psychological, behavioral, and societal consequences for a long period of time afterward, possibly even over the course of their whole life (Child welfare information<br />27<br />
  45. 45. A quantitative research question<br />gateway, n.d.). Often times children of these circumstances repeat the pattern of violence in their adult life (Child welfare information gateway, n.d.).<br />I am interested in these questions because they are not discussed as much as the topic of the abuse itself. For example, cases of abused or neglected children often make the headlines in the news, but after just a short time, the cases are not discussed. We, the public, learn about the abuse through the media but it seems like we never learn about the outcome. I am interested in learning about this outcome. How many children from abusive homes follow the same pattern or lifestyle? How many children that remained in abusive homes for the duration of their childhood overcame this pattern and live a better life as an adult? How many children who were removed from abusive families grew up to repeat that pattern of abusive behavior and how many of them overcame it? These questions are all of interest me and would assist me in finding out the statistics on the earlier research question. I am also interested in these questions because I am interested in helping children in bad situations someday. I want to make a difference in their lives and perhaps if I knew the statistics of how many end up in a repetitive abusive pattern I might work a little bit harder to make that number go down, or if it turns out that getting them out of that environment is beneficial then I will know that the hard work is worth it.<br />A quantitative approach would be more appropriate then a qualitative approach because the number of how many children who are removed from that type of environment and end up one way or another is more useful than a study that looks at something qualitative. It would be more beneficial to say x amount of children repeat abusive behavior when subjected to abuse throughout their childhood and x amount of children overcome that pattern when someone intercedes and removes them from an abusive situations rather than say children of abuse act<br />28<br />
  46. 46. A quantitative research question<br />abusive. By using a quantitative approach rather than a qualitative approach, the scientific element is added to the study since science deals with numbers and figures. <br />Reference<br />Child welfare information gateway. (n.d.). Impact. Retrieved January 15, 2010 from http://www.childwelfare.gov/can/impact<br />29<br />
  47. 47. Trauma focused cognitive behavior therapy to treat intrusive memories<br />Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a serious condition affecting many people. According to the National Institute of Mental Health, an estimated 7.7 million American adults ages 18 to 54 have PTSD (National institute of mental health, 2009). Information has been discovered as a result from experiments that support the benefits of cognitive behavior therapy in treating post traumatic stress disorder, however, not a lot of research has been conducted on the treatment for the individual symptoms of the condition or on trauma focused cognitive behavior therapy (TF-CBT). A pilot study by Feather and Ronan (2006) was conducted that tested therapy in the form of trauma focused cognitive behavior therapy on the symptoms of PTSD and found this therapy to be useful in treating the condition as a whole. Past research has focused on the symptoms of PTSD as a whole and on CBT while less research has been performed regarding the individual symptoms of PTSD or TF-CBT.<br />PTSD occurs when something upsetting has happened and causes someone to be afraid and is upsetting to them at some point later in time; in some cases it can be weeks, months, or even years later (National institute of mental health, 2009). Not only can it stem from personal injury of some nature (physical or mental harm) but it can also stem from witnessing injury to another person. Some of the symptoms of PTSD include spontaneous uncontrollable flashbacks, uncontrollable thoughts about scary things or harming oneself or others, anger, sleep problems, avoiding people places and things, and depression (NIMH, 2009). PTSD can affect anyone at any age. Millions of Americans are diagnosed with PTSD every year and women are diagnosed more frequently than men (NIMH, 2009). PTSD affects many people in many different ways for a number of different reasons.<br />30<br />
  48. 48. Trauma focused cognitive behavior therapy to treat intrusive memories<br />There is a great amount of research being done to determine effective treatment programs for PTSD. Experiments that administer therapy in the form of CBT has been performed to determine if it is an effective treatment and concluded that there is a positive correlation between CBT and the reduction of the collective symptoms of PTSD (Feather and Ronan, 2006; Hackmann, Ehlers, Speckens, & Clark, 2004; Kraftcheck, Muller, & Wright, 2007; vanEmmerik, Kamphuis, & Emmelkamp, 2008). It has also been discovered that CBT is effective in treating the individual symptoms of hopelessness and depression in people who have been classified with PTSD (Kraftcheck et. al., 2007). However, according to the study by vanEmmerik et. al. (2008), no other forms of therapy or treatment has been extensively studied including FT-CBT. It has also been discovered through a pilot study that TF-CBT has decreased the symptoms of PTSD, so it leads to the question whether TF-CBT could be effective in treating individual symptoms of PTSD (Feather & Ronan, 2006). <br />Intrusive memories are a specific symptom of PTSD. When a person has intrusive memories the memory of a traumatic event comes up in their mind uncontrollably (Hackmann et. al., 2004). These memories vary in terms of frequency, vividness, and duration; they are also the most reported symptom of PTSD (Hackmann et. al., 2004). In the study by Hackmann et. al., (2004), it is determined that CBT is effective in treating the frequency, vividness, and duration of the intrusive memories and reducing all three of these aspects. This leads a researcher to contemplate the idea that perhaps TF-CBT may also be effective.<br />It is hypothesized that instead of treating PTSD as a whole with CBT, it could also be effective to treat specific individual symptoms of PTSD. It can also be <br />31<br />
  49. 49. Trauma focused cognitive behavior therapy to treat intrusive memories<br />hypothesized that TF-CBT may be effective at treating PTSD and specific symptoms of PTSD including intrusive memories. Since Hackmann et. al. (2004) report intrusive memories as the most prominent factor of PTSD, it is hoped that a treatment can be discovered for this symptom alone. There is much that can be determined from studying TF-CBT and its effect on intrusive memories as a symptom of PTSD.<br />Method<br />Participants and Sample<br /> The participants in this study will be composed of males and females who are of middle age (20-65). It is desired to have at least 100 participants for this study. They should be chosen by recruiting them from psychological clinics, treatment centers, and counseling centers in the surrounding area. In order to participate in this study, they need to be diagnosed with PTSD according to the DSM-IV and report that the most prominent symptom of PTSD they encounter is intrusive memories. The participants should not have any other psychological conditions which would interfere with their ability to participate in this study (such as severe depression or suicidal tendencies) and will refrain from taking medication while receiving treatment to ensure that the result obtained is truly from the TF-CBT and not medication. This participants section was adapted to resemble the study done by Hackmann et. al. (2004).age range?<br /> <br />Design<br />This research study will have a true experimental design because it will have a control group and the participants will be randomly assigned to one group or the other (Argosy University, 2010; Shaugnessy et. al., 2008). It will use a one way Anova test (F-<br />32<br />
  50. 50. Trauma focused cognitive behavior therapy to treat intrusive memories<br />test) to compare the mean of the frequency of the intrusive memories in the group that received the treatment to the mean of the frequency of the intrusive memories in the group that did not (Argosy University, 2010; Shaugnessy et. al., 2008). In addition to the Anova test, a repeat measure design will be needed because the dependent variable (frequency and characteristics of the intrusive memory) will be measured more than once. It will be measured at the beginning of the study, weekly throughout the study, and at the end of the study as in the study by Hackmann et. al. (2004).<br />Variables<br /> The independent variable is the type of treatment that the subjects receive since this will have an effect on the dependent variable (Argosy University, 2010; Shaugnessy et. al., 2008). In this experimental design, the participants will either receive trauma focused cognitive behavior therapy or be put on a waiting list where they receive no treatment at all. Should have an alternative treatment to cover placebo effect The dependent variable is the frequency, vividness, and the duration of the intrusive memory.<br /> <br />Measures<br />There will be one measurement tool in this study. It will be the classification system used in the study by Hackmann et. al. (2004). This measure uses two independent raters to question and rate the participant’s recollection of their intrusive memory and then rate its frequency, vividness, and distress level on a scale of 0-100. 0 is for no recollection, frequency or vividness at all and 100 is the strongest recollection, frequency or vividness (Hackmann et. al., 2004).reliability?<br />33<br />
  51. 51. Trauma focused cognitive behavior therapy to treat intrusive memories<br />Procedure<br />This procedure was adapted by Hackmann et. al. (2004). Participants shall be determined and assigned to either the control or treatment group. All of the participants will be rated using the above scale on the recollection, frequency, and vividness of their intrusive memory. Those in the treatment group will begin a program of trauma focused cognitive behavior therapy. After each week of treatment is complete, both groups will re-evaluate their intrusive memory for number of times of recollection, frequency, and vividness of them using the same test and the results will be compared using an Anova test. The treatment will be given for eight weeks and compared at the end of each week.<br />Results<br />The alternative hypothesis is expected to be confirmed therby rejecting the null hyptohesis. That is that trauma focused cognitive behavior therapy has an effect on the symptoms of intrusive memories in people who have been diagnosed with post traumatic stress disorder. It is expected that the control group who does not receive any therapy in the form of trauma focused behavior therapy will not see any significant change in the frequency, vividness, or duration of their intrusive memory. It is expected that the group that does receive the trauma focused behavior therapy will see a reduction in the frequency, duration, and vividness of their intrusive memory. This results section would be complete with graphs and tables that show the means for the Anova’s that get performed every week. <br />34<br />
  52. 52. Trauma focused cognitive behavior therapy to treat intrusive memories<br />References:<br />Argosy University. (2010). Psy302: Research methods: Module 1- 6. Retrieved March 2, 2010, from http://myeclassonline.com<br />Feather, J., & Ronan, K. (2006). Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy for abused children with posttraumatic stress disorder: A pilot study. New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 35(3), 132-145. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database.<br />Hackmann, A., Ehlers, A., Speckens, A., & Clark, D. (2004). Characteristics and content of intrusive memories in PTSD and their changes with treatment. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 17(3), 231-240. Retrieved from SocINDEX with Full Text database.<br />Kraftcheck, E., Muller, R., & Wright, D. (2007). Treatment of depressive symptoms in adult survivors of childhood trauma. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 15(1), 37. doi::10.1300/J146v15n0103.<br />National institute of mental health. (2009). Post traumatic stress disorder; The numbers count: Mental disorders in America. Retrieved March 2, 2010, from http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/post-traumatic-stress-disorder-easy-to-read/index.shtml<br />Shaughnessy, J.J., Zechmeister, E.B., and Zechmeister, J.S. (2009). Research methods in psychology (8th ed.). [DX reader version]. Retrieved March 2, 2010 from http://online.vitalsource.com/books/007-7376463?page_id=10590001<br />van Emmerik, A., Kamphuis, J., & Emmelkamp, P. (2008). Treating acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder with cognitive behavioral therapy or structured writing therapy: A randomized controlled trial. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 77(2), 93-100. doi:10.1159/000112886.<br />35<br />
  53. 53. Communication skills<br />This section includes a topic paper that demonstrates written and oral communication skills<br />An interview concerning someone’s perception of their personality<br />36<br />
  54. 54. An interview concerning someone’s perception of their personality<br />Many different things contribute to a person’s personality. Most theorists seem to be in agreement that the biggest contributors are biological, environmental, cognitive ability, emotions, and spiritualism (Argosy University, 2010; Feist & Feist, 2008). Different people will focus on different contributors when they describe their own personality. Some people might focus on their appearance or how smart they are, some might focus on the role they play in their environment or on different job’s that they hold, and some might focus on characteristics they think they possess such as kindness, shyness, or honesty (Argosy University, 2010). I chose to interview Ray Boggs an acquaintance who volunteers with my husband on the fire department to analyze his perception of his personality.<br /> From this interview, I was able to gain some insight into some general terms that can be used to define Ray’s personality. I would say he is easygoing, laid back, loyal to his family and friends, and caring. My reason for using these terms is that his answers focused on other people, particularly his family, and his roles in life as opposed to his appearance or intelligence level or other self revolving characteristics.<br /> Specific details can be derived about Ray’s personality from this interview. When asked what word best describes him, he chose to say “father” and when asked about his most important childhood memory, he talked about his family vacations. This signifies a focus on the role that he plays in his family, and his family as being the biggest influence in his life (Argosy University, 2010). From these two answers I determined that he places the most importance on his loved ones and their emotional perceptions of him; he is the loving/caring dad, husband, and brother, son as opposed to the tall, thin smart dad, husband, brother or son. Since his perceptions of himself focus on his relationship with others, I also deduced that he may be eager to please friends or laid back and easy going. It seems that Ray puts a lot of emphasis on pleasing other <br />37<br />
  55. 55. An interview concerning someone’s perception of their personality<br />people and that his family plays a major part in defining who he is. From this interview I can specifically conclude that Ray is not self-centered but more of a family oriented kind of guy. He places great importance on how others feel about him and is laid back, easy going, and might be easily persuaded to act on others wishes in an effort to please them (a follower).<br /> Ray perceives himself to be a loving and caring person. It seems that he perceives that he is failing others or that other people might expect more out of him even though they find him loving and caring. From this interview it is apparent that Ray believes that others (specifically others that are close) view him as not living up to his potential or that he does not contribute all that he is capable of. It is also evident from this interview that Ray believes in the ability to change desired types of behavior. He responded that if he could do one thing over in his life it would be to go to college directly after high school. This statement signifies his acknowledgement that his behavior, his personality, would be different had this occurred. Perhaps he believes that had he gone to college right after high school, he would be able to live up to his potential and contribute all that he is capable of. Ray perceives himself as a good person, thinks others feel the same way although he acknowledges that they might say he needs to help out more, and seems to believe that behaviors can be changed. <br /> In conclusion, Ray has perceptions of himself and ideas on how he thinks others might view him. He puts a lot of emphasis on others, specifically his family, which suggests that he is an easy going person. He seems to also be loyal and describes himself with emotional terms and focuses on his roles in his family when he describes his personality. There are many things that are thought to contribute to personality, and emotional words, roles within a family are only a few of the dimensions used to describe personality.<br />38<br />
  56. 56. An interview concerning someone’s perception of their personality<br />References:<br />Argosy University. (2010). PSY361: Personality theory: Module 1: What is personality. Retrieved May 13, 2010, from http://myeclassonline.com<br />Feist, J., & Feist, G.J. (2008). Theories of personality (7th ed.)[DX reader version]. Retrieved from http://digitalbookshelf.argosy.edu/#/books/007-7376714/pages/10030033?return=/books/007-7376714/outline/3<br />39<br />
  57. 57. Awareness of ethics and diversity<br />This section includes a copy of a paper that demonstrates understanding of ethical and diversity issues in psychology.<br />PTSD and the ethics code<br />Children, violence, and ethical and diversity considerations in helping<br />40<br />
  58. 58. PTSD and the ethics code<br />Sally is a 33 year old woman who comes to a hospital I am employed at seeking help for psychological issues that are troubling her. She reports that she has a large part of her childhood blocked from her memory and that she has taken various antidepressants over the years without any relief. <br /> It seems that perhaps Sally has post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This means that something traumatic has happened to her in her past that has given her anxiety (Carlson, 2010; Mental health America, n.d.). The things that would lead a psychologist/psychiatrist to see that she has a post traumatic stress disorder is that she has blocked most of her childhood out, avoiding thoughts of things that happened to her, she has frequent nightmares (assumingly of whatever trauma she has experienced), she gets startled and frightened easily, and has suicidal thoughts. These symptoms are also in accordance with the symptoms for PTSD described in the DSM-IV-TR (BehaveNet, n.d.). According to the Mental health association in New York State (n.d.), blocking out events as Sally has done with her childhood, is a way for her to cope with the traumatic event; she has blocked it out or forgot it in an attempt to cope with the event and it’s duration.<br />Sally reports that medicine has not worked. All of the medications that Sally has been described are used to treat depression and anxiety. Tricyclics or TCA’s, work by inhibiting or blocking the reabsorption of serotonin by the brain cells (Carlson, 2010; Mayoclinic.com, 2009). SSRI’s are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors which affects the level of serotonin absorbed (Carlson, 2010; Holistic-online.com, 2007). Wellbutrin is an antidepressant that helps balance the levels of dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain (PDR health, 2009), and effexor is an antidepressant which is an SNRI, which <br />41<br />
  59. 59. PTSD and the ethics code<br />balances the levels of serotonin and norepinephrine in the brain (Effexxorxr.com, 2008). These drugs usually work to manage depression and anxiety disorders but one major problem with them is that they do not always work; in fact, according to Carlson (2010), a substantial percentage of patients given these types of antidepressant medications do not respond to medications and exhibit treatment resistant depression. So many patients have this type of depression that it has prompted researchers to try and develop other forms of treatment to alleviate their symptoms (Carlson, 2010). It seems that Sally has treatment resistant depression in addition to post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Good description of the drugs.<br />There are some ethical and diversity considerations involved in my decision to refer Sally to a psychologist. According to the APA code of ethics, I must only refer Sally to someone who is educated adequately in an area that would be beneficial to her. When referring her to someone else it is also my ethical obligation to avoid referring her to someone else that may know her or have a multiple relationship with her; for example, if her aunt worked in the psychological department of the hospital, I would not refer her to her aunt but to a non involved third party (APA online, 2002). I also have an ethical obligation to protect Sally from any potential harm whether it is psychological or physical. Sally also needs to be educated on the credentials of the person that will be taking over her case and helping her. Sally should not be refused treatment based on any form of diversity since APA code specifically stated that all persons should be treated with dignity and respect; this not only includes Sally but the people who will be helping her and treating her as well. I will not refuse to transfer Sally’s case to a psychologist<br />42<br />
  60. 60. PTSD and the ethics code<br />who is qualified to help her because of any diversity that I may not agree with (APA online, 2002; Carlson, 2010).<br />Sensitivity to diversity is an important ethical issue. It is a very important issue discussed throughout the Ethical code and the main goal of psychologists is to help their clients. It is important for counselors, psychologists, and anyone else working on Sally’s case to develop sensitivity to any diversity that she may have. They must take actions to learn about her beliefs and differences and respect these beliefs and differences when treating her instead of trying to push their own beliefs onto Sally (APA online, 2002; Corey, 2009). By developing sensitivity to any diversity that Sally has such as religion, race, culture, disability, socioeconomic status, just to name a few, the people involved in helping her attempt to make interventions that are consistent with the client’s values as opposed to their own. It is up to the people who are helping a client to learn about the diversities of their client (APA online, 2002; Corey, 2009).<br />Informed consent is very important. Consent must be given before a counselor or psychologist can perform as assessment, provide therapy or counseling, or to consult with anyone in any way regarding the client’s information (APA online, 2002). When signing any kind of confidentiality papers, the client must be able to fully understand and comprehend what they are signing. Any discussions between the patient and person providing service to them must be discussed and understood at the onset of the relationship. During this discussion the psychologists need to specify to what degree their information will be kept confidential since clients have the right to know if their information is being discussed with other professionals (APA online, 2002; Corey, 2009). In Sally’s particular case, she has signed an informed consent that specifies that her <br />43<br />
  61. 61. PTSD and the ethics code<br />information may only be discussed among hospital employees who are specifically working on her case. No one who has her information may call another colleague at another hospital or doctor’s office or a colleague at another university for advice or information for example. Informed consent is important because it helps clients become more involved in their therapy and it allows them to make autonomous decisions regarding their therapy which makes them feel empowered; they feel like they still have control over their information as opposed to rendering control to someone else (Corey, 2009). <br />Patients also have the right for their information and cases to be kept confidential. This includes any means by which their information is stored. Files, whether they are kept in an office or on a computer must be maintained and protected by the professional. If a third party is to be involved in the case, the patient has the right to know what specific information will be shared and with whom it will be shared. Confidentiality must be discussed at the beginning of the relationship and must be maintained throughout as new circumstances warrant another party to become involved (APA online, 2002; Corey, 2009). When providing psychological services or medical care to someone, the client and medical care provider must both remain on the same page as to where the information is being stored and any risks involved, who has access to the information, and who is at liberty to discuss the information, and the client should have signed informed consent papers throughout the process, as necessary to signify that they are fully aware of all of the information that the informed consent contains. Reality is that confidentiality is broken on a routine basis, as far as improper handling of records is <br />44<br />
  62. 62. PTSD and the ethics code<br />concerned. Also, third parties like insurance companies don’t need to observe all the confidentiality laws.<br /> However, there are certain circumstances that require a professional to break confidentiality by law (APA online, 2002; Corey, 2009). Some circumstances involved are when a child or elderly person is reported to be subjected to abuse, whether it is the client themselves or the client that imposed the abuse, or if a patient poses a physical threat to themselves or someone else, proper law enforcement should be notified. Some other circumstances include when a child under the age of 16 is involved in a crime, if it is deemed that the client needs hospitalization, a client’s disclosed information is relevant to a court action, or if the client requests the release of their information to themselves or another third party (APA online, 2002; Corey, 2009). <br />45<br />
  63. 63. PTSD and the ethics code<br />References<br />APA online. (2002). Ethical principals of psychologists and code of conduct. Retrieved October 28, 2009, from http://www.apa.org/ethics/code2002.html#3_10<br />BehaveNet. (n.d.). DSM-IV & DSM-IV-TR: post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Retrieved October 27, 2009, from http://www.behavenet.com/capsules/disorders/ptsd.htm<br />Carlson, N.R. (2010). Physiology of behavior (10th ed.). Massachusetts: Allyn & Bacon.<br />Corey, G. (2009). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy (8th ed.). California: Thomson Brooks/Cole.<br />46<br />
  64. 64. Children and Violence <br />Week 8: Final Project <br /> <br />A group of parents decided it was time to change their community. Tired of gang wars, drug peddling, and violence in the area, parents realized no one was going to change the neighborhood for them and they needed to make the effort. They began weekly meetings and invited other parents in the area to attend. A parent suggested that everyone invest a few dollars to invite a community intervention specialist to speak to them about developing a plan to make their neighborhood safe.<br /> <br /> Some communities are a danger to live in and a community intervention is needed to try and make the community safer. When violence occurs within a community on a regular basis, it can leave the members of the community frightened, isolated, and unable to come together to enjoy community activities (Argosy University, 2010). Since community violence includes random acts of violence that might go unreported, it is hard to identify just how prevalent community violence actually is. Witnessing or being exposed to community violence can leave many psychological effects on people (Argosy University, 2010). If people within a community have realized that their community is a dangerous place to live, there may be interventions and changes implemented to make it safer, and gender, ethics, and diversity are important considerations when determining these interventions.<br />47<br />
  65. 65. Children and Violence<br />Interventions for Parents<br />Safety plan<br />One thing that the parents can do is develop a safety plan to help keep their children safe. They need to teach all of the children safe routes to school and other places that they might go such as the park (Argosy University, 2010). Also, it is important that even small children are capable of dialing 911 in case of an emergency. All of the children should be educated about the <br />importance of telling an adult about any crimes that they might see so that it can be reported; children should know that the adults cannot make their neighborhood safer if they don’t know what is going on (Argosy University, 2010). They should also be taught what to do if a stranger or anyone else tries to hurt them, such as yell “no” and run away and tell an adult immediately (Argosy University, 2010). All of the children should be taught not to talk to strangers as well, how to answer the phone correctly, to never open the door for someone they do not know, and to stay away from places where there are people who they do not know or trust (Argosy University, 2010). Parents can develop educational safety plans for their children which teaches them about the dangers of community violence and different ways they can keep themselves safe.<br />48<br />
  66. 66. Children and Violence<br />Strategy for Parents to Improve Community<br />Neighborhood Watch<br />One way parents can come together to improve the safety of the community is to organize a neighborhood watch program. Part of the neighborhood watch program might include designated persons to walk the children to and from school to help make sure they stay safe (Argosy University, 2010). Other members of the community could patrol the neighborhood either on foot or a bike to help keep the community safe (Argosy University, 2010). A neighborhood cleanup can also be effective in helping make the community a nicer more enjoyable place to live; a cleanup would still help keep the neighborhood/community stay safer because the members of the community would be out and about patrolling while they cleaned (Argosy University, 2010). As part of a neighborhood watch program, the people who are involved in it may also want to start fundraisers to earn money to help them advertise their program; the more people who joined the program the more safer the community is likely to be (Argosy University, 2010). A neighborhood watch program would be effective at keeping the community safer.<br />49<br />
  67. 67. Children and Violence<br />Community Jobs<br />Parentscan also come together by performing different tasks and providing input from their specific task that could help make the community safer. For example, the parents in charge of walking the children to and from school might give the group input on areas they observed that need to be cleaned up. The people who are in charge of patrolling might suggest trouble areas and invite the local sheriff to intervene and help the group patrol the troubled areas (Argosy University, 2010). Someone could be in charge of researching different ways to keep the community safer; it might be discovered that after-school programs and mentoring services are a good way to help the children avoid participating in more violent activities (Argosy University, 2010). Another person could be in charge of obtaining grants and funding that might be needed to start the programs; some of these grants match whatever the community raises dollar for dollar (Argosy University, 2010). By parents coming together and delegating responsibilities and taking on smaller responsibilities, the job of keeping the community safer is made easier and more enjoyable for everyone involved.<br />The Children can become Involved Too<br /> There are things that the children can do to help the safety of the neighborhood as well. They can cooperate with the adults that are there to keep them safe. When an adult is in charge of walking them to and from school for example, the children need to seek out that adult and walk with them rather than try to go on by themselves without anyone. Children can also assist the adults with the cleanup efforts. Children can take part of the education programs and after <br />50<br />
  68. 68. Children and Violence<br />Diversity<br />school programs to better the community where they live as well. They can learn things like conflict resolution, violence prevention, anti-bullying, about drug use and the consequences of it, and assertiveness training skills (Argosy University, 2010). The children could also take part in the fundraising efforts (Argosy University, 2010). Another thing that can involve the children is for them to become mentors or part of the mentoring program; they may find it rewarding and useful to mentor other children who are subject to violent environments (Argosy University, 2010). The children can become involved in making the community a better place as well as the adults.<br />Gender, Diversity, and Ethics<br />Gender<br />Some gender considerations may be necessary when developing an intervention program for the adults and children in the community. One concern is that there will likely be both boys and girls who need someone to walk with them to school. It may be more appropriate to have two parents/adults walk the children to school, both a male and a female. This would reduce the chance of any one on one interaction between an adult and a child. If only one adult is available to walk with the children then perhaps an older child or a teenager could accompany the group as well. This technique or regulation rather is enforced in programs such as scouts or other situations where one on one interaction is possible. Another consideration for gender is in the mentoring program. Boys and girls may have a preference for a certain gender over the other. Boys may relate to other boys better and girls may relate to other girls better. Gender is an important consideration in developing an intervention program.<br />51<br />
  69. 69. Children and Violence<br />Diversity is also an important consideration. Neighborhoods and communities are sometimes composed of one ethnicity primarily. It would be important to include as many people as possible from all of the different ethnicities in the area to ensure that each one is represented well. For example, it the area in question is in a predominantly white area but there are some Asian’s in the neighborhood, the coordinators of the program should put an effort into getting the Asian people to join the program so that some of their ideas are represented in the program and so that they feel more involved in the community. Also, it is important to remember that each family and each person involved in the program is different. Some people will work during the day and only be involved at night, but some people may work at night and only able to help out during the day. Different cultures and differences in general should be considered when developing an intervention program.<br />Ethics<br />There are ethics involved when developing an intervention program. Ethically, it would be wrong to make anyone or force them to participate in a community program. Also, it would be wrong to discriminate against anyone based on their gender, race, ethnicity, religion, and so on. It would be necessary to allow people to volunteer for such a program at their own discretion and not make the children suffer if the parents did not or could not become as involved as some of the other parents. For example, if Mrs. X could not participate in the community program very much because she was a single mother working three jobs to support her children, it would be wrong for the parents designated to walk the children to school not to walk children X because of this. Ethics are important when developing an intervention program.<br /> In conclusion, an intervention program that includes the parents as well as the children would be effective at mitigating community violence. There would be certain ways that the<br />52<br />
  70. 70. Children and Violence<br />parents could become involved and certain ways that the children could become involved as well. By everyone participating, the community could be safer and everyone would feel more togetherness. When developing the program, gender, ethics, and diversity are an important consideration. It is hard to know just how prevalent community violence is since many instances of community violence are random acts of violence that do not get reported. Community violence tears apart the fabric of many communities in the United States.<br />Reference<br />Argosy University. (2010). PSY301: Children and violence: Module 8: Community violence. Prevalence of community violence. Psychological effects of community violence. Psychoeducational and intervention strategies. Developing social interest. Retrieved October 27, 2010, from http://myclassonline.com<br />53<br />
  71. 71. Foundations of Psychology<br />This section includes assignments, papers, or projects that demonstrate understanding of basic theories, concepts, in different domains of psychology including biological, cognitive, developmental, personality, and social.<br />The human brain<br />Theories of personality<br />54<br />
  72. 72. Parts of the human brain<br />The brain is complex and made up of many cells. The basic kinds of cells that make up the brain are neurons and glial cells (Carlson, 2010; enchanted learning, n.d.; physorg.com, n.d.). Neurons transport information from the brain to the nervous system; the information is sent and received by electro-chemical signals (Carlson, 2010; enchanted learning, n.d.; physorg.com, n.d.). “Neurons are cells that send and receive electro-chemical signals to and from the brain and nervous system.” (physorg.com, n.d., para.2). Glial cells are cells that help the neurons; they provide nutrition to neurons and digest the parts of neurons that have died (Carlson, 2010; enchanted learning, n.d.; physorg.com, n.d.). These cells are also referred to as glue (Carlson, 2010).<br /> The brain is also protected from physical trauma, infection, and toxins by many layers of structural packaging. The outer most layer is the skin which protects the brain by not allowing foreign viruses and chemicals to enter it and holds the shape of the skull (Carlson, 2010; Condell medical center, n.d.) Next is the skull which protects the brain from physical trauma like falls, hits, and blows to the head (Carlson, 2010). Inside of our skull, our whole nervous system is surrounded by meninges which are three layers of tissue that encases the central nervous system. These three layers separate the brain and the skull; one layer is attached to the skull, there is a middle layer, and one layer is attached to the brain (Condell medical center, n.d.). The blood-brain barrier is between the blood and fluid surrounding the cells in the brain and it acts as a gatekeeper for the brain allowing only certain chemicals to pass through to the brain (Carlson, 2010). <br /> Cerebral spinal fluid also plays a part in protecting our brain; <br />Argosy (2009) states the following:<br />55<br />
  73. 73. Parts of the human brain<br />Cerebrospinal fluid is located between the brain and skull. Cerebrospinal fluid delivers nutrients to the nervous system and removes wastes from the brain and spinal cord. Cerebrospinal fluid also helps to protect the brain and spinal cord from injuries by absorbing the shocks of sudden falls or movements” (p. 2, para. 6). <br />The cerebral spinal fluid also takes harmful substances away from the brain (Condell medical center, n.d.; Carlson, 2010). It allows the brain to float inside the skull (Condell medical center, n.d.; Carlson, 2010).<br /> The brain also has five important divisions made up of different components and locations. “The brain has five divisions: the myelencephalon, the metencephalon, the mesencephalon, the diencephalon, and the telecephalon” (Argosy, 209, Anatomy of the nervous system, p. 3, para. 1). <br />The myelencephalon makes up part of the hindbrain or the back part of the brain and it contains the medulla oblongata which is sometimes shortened and called the medulla (Carlson, 2010). The medulla is located at the very back of the brainstem; the lower edge of the medulla is located at the end of the spinal cord (the end that connects to the brain) on the front of it pointing outward towards the nose (Carlson, 2010). In the medulla is a large object that houses many nuclei that are interconnected like a little net, called the reticular formation (Carlson, 2010). This little net, or reticular formation, helps “control vital functions like regulation of the cardiovascular system, respiration, and skeletal muscle tonus” (Carlson, 2010, p.94). <br /> The metencephalon is the other part of the hindbrain and it consists of the cerebellum and the pons. The cerebellum is like a smaller version of the brain in the sense that it is divided in to two separate halves like the brain (Carlson, 2010). The cerebellum is made up of nuclei <br />56<br />
  74. 74. Parts of the human brain<br />that receive information from the outside covering (cerebellar cortex) and sends information to the other parts of the brain (Carlson, 2010). Each half of the cerebellum is attached to the back of the pons. The cerebellum is responsible for precise coordinated movements like walking, and standing (Carlson, 2010). The pons connects the middle of the brain to the back of the brain (Carlson, 2010). The pons plays a role in sleep and arousal (Carlson, 2010). <br />The mesencephalon is the midbrain and is made up of the tectum and tegmentum (Carlson, 2010). The tectum is also called the roof of the brain because it is located at the top of the midbrain towards the back and it contains the parts of the brain responsible for our auditory and visual systems (Carlson, 2010). The tegmentum is the covering or the rest of the midbrain beneath the tectum; it contains the front side of the reticular formation or netlike connected neurons, nuclei responsible for eye movement, the periaqueductal gray matter, the red nucleus, the substantianigra, and the ventral tegmental area (Carlson, 2010, p.92).<br /> The diencephalon makes up part of the forebrain and it contains the thalamus and the hypothalamus (Carlson, 2010). The thalamus makes up the back part of the diencephalon near the middle of the cerebral hemispheres (two halves of the brain) (Carlson, 2010). The thalamus is responsible for sending and receiving information to the cerebral cortex which is the outer covering over the two hemispheres of the brain (Carlson, 2010). The hypothalamus is located at the base of the brain under the thalamus (Carlson, 2010). The hypothalamus mostly controls the endocrine system through hormones that it produces (Carlson, 2010). According to Carlson (2010), it also “organizes behaviors related to survival of the species-the so-called four F’s: fighting, feeding, fleeing, and mating” (p.90). <br />57<br />
  75. 75. Parts of the human brain<br />The telecephalon makes up the rest of the forebrain and it includes most of both of the cerebral hemispheres and the cerebral cortex which covers them (Carlson, 2010). The cerebral cortex is also known as gray matter because of its grayish brown color (Carlson, 2010). The cerebral hemispheres are responsible for moving skeletal muscles, receiving information from the sensory organs, speech and language, and information processing (Carlson, 2010).<br /> <br /> <br />References:<br />Argosy University. (2009). PSY 350: Physiological Psychology: Module 2: Anatomy of the nervous system. Retrieved September 19, 2009, from, <br />Carlson, N.R. (2010). Physiology of behavior (10th ed.). Massachusetts: Allyn & Bacon.<br />Condell Medical center. (n.d.). Anatomy of the brain. Retrieved September 19, 2009, from, http://www.condell.org/libertyville/neurosurgery/brain-anatomy.php<br />Enchanted learning. (n.d). Brain cells. Retrieved September 19, 2009, from, http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/anatomy/brain/Neuron.shtml<br />Physorg.com. (n.d).Brain cell. Retrieved from http://www.physorg.com/tags/brain+cells/<br />58<br />
  76. 76. Theories of personality<br />I think that it would be nearly impossible (I never say anything is totally impossible) to develop a personality theory that is not influenced by life experiences. According to Argosy University (2010), the impact of a person’s life and their environment is significant and cannot be ignored. <br />The reason that I believe this is because when a person develops a theory to try and explain human behavior or personality they look at things from their own perspective. For example, if I was to try and write a theory on shyness I could not write it without considering why I am shy and incorporating these reasons into my theory. If I was trying to write a theory about aggression, I would most likely think about people who I know (and are part of my life experiences) that are aggressive and take these perceptions, thoughts, and ideas and include them in the theory.<br />According to Argosy University (2010), a common way to view personality is made up of the following components:<br />Biology <br />Environment<br />Cognition/intelligence<br />Emotion<br />Spiritual<br />Biology is what we are born with that is passed down and environment is our surroundings and our experiences. Cognition could be a factor of both; we may be born with the capacity to be very smart but if we are not put in the right environment then it will not get fully developed. Emotion and spirituality are part of our life experiences. Most of these components are linked to our experiences throughout life.<br />59<br />
  77. 77. Theories of personality<br />Feist & Feist (2008) even explained the backgrounds, environments, and histories of each individual theorist in their book because they thought that this information was important in understanding the theorist’s perspective; it gives the readers an idea of what transpired in their life to influence them to have the ideas that they did. <br />A personality theory that is not influenced by life experiences might suggest support for the biological perspective which states that differences in personalities are due to differences in our genes (Argosy University, 2010). While I believe that genetics, or our biological make-up, does influence our personality, I also believe that this influence cannot be separated from our life experiences. <br />My reason for thinking that it is difficult to write a personality theory without considering life experiences is simple, our life experiences are us…they make us who we are and contribute to the way we are, the way we think, and the way we perceive things; our life experiences shape almost everything about us and are what we bring to the table. Even if the theorist was writing a theory which they had no life experiences to compare to, their life experiences would be responsible for how they take in and perceive the data they are using<br />.<br />References:<br />Argosy University. (2010). PSY361: Personality theory: Module 8: The biological perspective. Lecture material module 1. Retrieved June 28, 2010, from http://myeclassonline.com<br />Feist, J., & Feist, G.J. (2008). Theories of personality (7th ed.)[DX reader version]. Retrieved from http://digitalbookshelf.argosy.edu/#/books/007-<br />60<br />
  78. 78. knowledge of applied psychology<br />This section includes assignments, papers, or projects that demonstrate the ability to apply psychology to personal, social, or organizational problems.<br /> <br />Divorce, children, and substance abuse<br />Industrial/Organizational psychology-job performance evaluation<br />61<br />
  79. 79. Divorce, children, and substance abuse<br />What associations are there between divorce and substance abuse that make children from separated or divorced families more likely to use substances? Divorce is hard on children. It is linked to some of the reasons that MSN(2010) lists as being responsible for children drinking and abusing drugs. These reasons include, depression, feeling undervalued in the family system, and a feeling of not being connected to other family members, in this case, parents or the parent who has to leave the home to satisfy arrangements of the divorce. Many children who have parents who get divorced feel depressed. They tend to blame themselves and consistently feel sad about the situation. Also, they may feel undervalued because if they wanted their parents to stay together and they didn’t, they may feel like their wishes, thoughts, etc. are not important. It’s natural that a child that is used to living with both parents would feel disconnected from one if they have to move out. Children may also feel like they can’t fix the problem and look to peers who engage in these behaviors for guidance because the parents are so wrapped up in the divorce, they can’t offer the child guidance (Argosy University, 2010).<br />62<br />
  80. 80. Divorce, children, and substance abuse<br />How can parents help their children reduce this risk? First of all, it is important to tell your children exactly what your take on alcohol and drugs are (MSN, 2010). If you tell your child you disapprove then they might re-think the choice to do so. Another thing that can be done is to keep the child/teen busy and not give them a lot of free time (MSN, 2010). Having rules and being consistent in enforcing them also teaches children to be responsible for their own decisions, including decisions made regarding drugs and alcohol (MSN, 2010). It is important to talk to children, especially teens, and praise them when they are doing something right (MSN, 2010). It is also important to know your child’s friends and who they hang out with. Being around someone, another peer, who drinks, smokes, or does drugs, increases the chance that your child will also (MSN, 2010). In regards to divorce, the child should be told that the divorce was not their fault and counseling might be necessary to help the family, esp. the children, cope to the new living arrangements/family life. <br />References<br />Argosy University. (2010). PSY481: Substance abuse and the family: Module 5:Adolescent substance abuse. Retrieved November 27, 2010, from http://myeclassonline.com<br />Micorsoft network. (2010). Teen alcohol and drug abuse. Retrieved November 27, 2010, from, http://health.msn.com/health-topics/addiction/articlepage.aspx?cp-documentid=100077551<br />63<br />
  81. 81. Job analysis and performance evaluation<br />Everyone has to go through job evaluations at some point in their lifetime. Sometimes it is necessary in order to get a job, sometimes it is necessary to keep a job, and sometimes it is necessary to move up in a job. There are different procedures for evaluation or measuring the tasks involved for a job. A common tool used for measuring and evaluating a specific job is the job evaluation, also known as the job analysis.<br />There is an ultimate criterion that any job evaluation is meant to measure. This ultimate criterion is job performance because job performance defines employee success; a successful employee is one who performs their job well and ultimately gains success and revenue for their organization (Argosy University, 2010, Criterion measurement; Riggio, 2008). The actual criterion is a measure (sometimes a list of questions used to assess job satisfaction) of the ultimate criterion (Argosy University, 2010, Criterion measurement; Riggio, 2008t). The main goal of a job evaluation is to define and measure job performance or the ultimate criterion (Argosy University, 2010, Criterion measurement). <br />Also, there are actual criteria that can be measured by a job evaluation which uses a point system. Dimensions of work that get performed and paid for are considered compensable factors. Once the compensable factors are observed and examined, points are given to each measure or dimension. Jobs which require more of the compensable factor are given a higher number of points for that particular factor, and after the job evaluation of all of the factors are complete, the total number of points is obtained by adding all of them up. These points are used to determine compensation and to assure that a job is being compensated appropriately (Argosy University, 2010, Job evaluation; Riggio, 2008). Some compensable factors or criteria that get points assigned to them are effort, skill, responsibility, and endurance of undesirable working conditions (Argosy University, 2010, Job evaluation; Riggio, 2008). <br />64<br />
  82. 82. Job analysis and performance evaluation<br />In measuring job satisfaction or the ultimate criterion, reliability is a critical dimension of the criteria. Reliability of the criteria refers to how stable and consistent the criteria are (Argosy University, 2010, Criterion measurement). In determining what factors increase the reliability of the actual criteria in the scenario provided with the two school guidance counselors, it is important to determine which actual criteria are consistent between the two jobs to make the job analysis’s get the same result (Argosy University, 2010; Riggio, 2008). In my opinion, some of these criteria are the work environment, the tasks that get performed at the job, and the responsibilities required. The work environment would be the same for both counselors since they work at the same school, they are most likely expected to perform the same tasks and have the same amount of responsibilities since they have the same job. These criteria would increase the reliability of this job analysis since the likelihood that these things are the same is good.<br />In the same way that there was criteria that increased the reliability, there are also criteria that would decrease the reliability; this would be any criteria that was not stable or consistent (Argosy University, 2010, Job evaluation; Riggio, 2008). Criteria that decrease the reliability would be actual criteria which are variable and unpredictable (Argosy University, 2010, Job evaluation; Riggio, 2008). In my opinion, in the above mentioned scenario, some criteria that might not be consistent might be effort, skill, employee satisfaction or compassion. These things are unpredictable and they vary so they would decrease the reliability (Argosy University, 2010, Job evaluation; Riggio, 2008). <br />Criteria that gets measured in the job evaluation or job analysis needs to be sensitive. This means that there has to be some way to distinguish the criterion between individual employees (Argosy University, 2010, Criterion measurement). It is my opinion that a criterion that gets measured in the job evaluation or job analysis using the point system is sensitive. By <br />65<br />
  83. 83. Job analysis and performance evaluation<br />using the point system, a higher value assigned to a criterion distinguishes it from a lower value. For example, if the point system was used to assess employee commitment (the example used in Argosy lecture, 2010, Criterion measurement), a higher number of points would coincide with a higher level of commitment needed for that job. An employee in this job may need to stay late when the job calls for it or come in early or do something extra in the companies behalf without excepting extra pay; it is in their job analysis that their job requires a higher level of commitment so therefore, it is distinguishable from someone who is in a job where none or little commitment is required. For example, a manager at a retail chain would require more commitment to the company than a cashier; their job would have a higher number of points in the category commitment so it would be distinguishable from the cashier who has a lower number of points in that category. It is my opinion that the point system measures criteria that are sensitive.<br />Another consideration when designing a job evaluation or job analysis is to determine if it is practical or not. In order for the measure to be practical it should not be too difficult, time-consuming, or costly to use. (Argosy University, 2010, Criterion measurement, p.3, para.2). It is my opinion that the point system is practical. It should not be that difficult to create or use. It may take a short amount of time to create the system, but by using it, I believe, the evaluation process should be quicker and more organized, it is inexpensive (the cost of a sheet of paper), and it just seems practical. It does not seem like there is anything complicated, time-consuming, expensive, or unpractical.<br />A job analysis can be a very effective tool for measuring job performance. One method of the job analysis is the point system. The point system, in my opinion, is practical; it’s not hard to use, expensive, or time consuming. It is my opinion that this method is also sensitive; it allows one to distinguish the criteria between individual employees. There are some things that <br />66<br />
  84. 84. Job analysis and performance evaluation<br />increase the reliability of the job analysis and some things that decrease the reliability. The ultimate criterion that the job analysis attempts to measure is employee performance; the better an employee performs their job the better the company becomes. Everyone at some point in their life has either had or will have to have, a job evaluation/analysis.<br />References:<br />Argosy University. (2010). Psy320: Industrial/Organizational psychology: Module 3: Criterion measurement, Job-evaluation. Retrieved January 28, 2010, from http://myeclassonline.com<br />Riggio, Ronald E. (2008). Introduction to industrial/organizational psychology (5th ed.). [DX reader version]. Upper saddle river, NJ: Pearson-Prentice hall. Retrieved from http://online.vitalsource.com/books/<br />67<br />
  85. 85. Interpersonal effectiveness<br />This section includes a power point presentation that demonstrates my ability to communicate effectively, appreciate diversity, and my awareness of my impact on others.<br />Me<br />A comparison of who I am and who I want to become<br />68<br />
  86. 86. Me<br />The behavior theory is my favorite theory that I feel best describes the way human nature operates and the concept of behavioral change. This theory states that personality and behavior is strictly the result of environment and has nothing to do with the inner state of people (Argosy University, 2010; Feist & Feist, 2008). I have always felt similar to Watson, a behavioral theorist, who stated that if he was given 12 healthy babies he could train them to be anything (from a lawyer to a thief) that he chose by exposing them to certain environments and using reinforcements (Feist & Feist, 2008). If I had been raised in a different environment, I believe I would be a completely different person. My personality and how it originated can be explained from the behavioral viewpoint as well as how to change a chosen behavior according to this theory (which I learned over the duration of this course as well as some things about my own personality).<br /> There are many different events and things that contribute to my personality and there are certain characteristics that I believe best describe who I am. Although I am more outgoing now then I was while I was growing up, I am a shy person. I often get compared to someone who is stuck up because I don‘t approach people even if I know them out of shyness. I am loving and considerate of others. I am a fair person and I try to resolve issues in a way that benefits everyone involved or at least makes everyone happy. I am compassionate about children and patient. I am also smart and confident in my academic abilities. I am a wife, mother, and a Christian and these roles greatly influence my personality. My perception of my personality is the result of many different things.<br /> Out of these characteristics, the personality characteristics that I feel best describe me are shy and smart and from choosing the behavioral theory as my favorite choice, both of these characteristics originate from my environment (Argosy University, 2010; Feist & Feist, 2008). <br /> <br />69<br />
  87. 87. Me<br />I am shy as the result of being bullied and teased as a child. According to the behavior theory, external influences shape our behavior and being teased influenced me to be shy (Argosy University, 2010; Feist & Feist, 2008). When me and my brothers and sister were teased as young children (because of our living conditions and the appearance of our home) I had no self esteem and thought that I was not worthy to talk to other kids, even those who were not doing the teasing and as I got older, I was just embarrassed to have friends over to my house and just found it easier to not make any friends. Also according to the behavior theory, behavior is repeated if it is rewarded (Argosy University, 2010; Feist & Feist, 2008). The reward for not making friends with other children was that I did not have to explain my living conditions to them or have them see where I lived. I learned that it was easier to be a loner and this reinforced the shyness I already exhibited as the result of being teased. Some people believe that intelligence is heredity, however, in my case my PERCEPTION that I am smart comes from my environment (which coincides with the behavioral theory (Argosy University, 2010; Feist & Feist, 2008). As far back as I can remember, I have always heard that I and my twin sister were as different as night and day. I always did better than her in school and so eventually I perceived myself as being smarter than her. I liked all of the attention that my good grades brought me from my parents, teachers, and so on and so I put forth a lot of effort to keep that reinforcement coming. Eventually, I came to believe that I am pretty smart. This is not out of conceitedness or thinking of myself as above average, whether I am actually smart or not is uncertain, what is important is that I perceive myself to be as the result of my environment and reinforcements I received at a young age. My environment and experiences shaped me into being a smart but shy individual.<br />70<br />
  88. 88. Me<br />If I could change one thing about my personality, I would choose to be more outgoing, and this change could be possible using the behavioral theory. According to this theory, behavior can be changed by using reinforcements and punishments. Reinforcement would make it more likely that the behavior would be repeated and a punishment would make it less likely to be repeated; these are concepts introduced by Skinner and known as a process called operant conditioning (Argosy University, 2010; Feist & Feist, 2008). Since being outgoing would be a desired behavior, it would make sense to use positive reinforcement (a reward for the desired behavior) or negative reinforcement (producing the desired behavior in an attempt to avoid a consequence) to encourage outgoingness. In the case of helping me overcome shyness and be more outgoing, I could get a reward whenever I approached someone to start a conversation, make a suggestion at a meeting, raised my hand to discuss class material in church…any instance where I was in an internal struggle as to whether or not to speak up (as I often find myself contemplating such issues). The reward in each of these cases could be internal like the satisfaction from being able to do it, the friend that I might make if I approach someone or even carry on a conversation with someone who approaches me, the idea that gets heard in a PTA meeting and put into play, or my viewpoint or question being answered and heard in church. It could also be something I could physically give myself whenever I knew I wanted to remain quiet but got the courage to speak up anyway…10 extra minutes of sewing time, my favorite treat, or some other little trinket. A negative reinforcement would entail speaking up or being more outgoing in an attempt to avoid a consequence (Argosy University, 2010; Feist & Feist, 2008). <br />71<br />
  89. 89. Me<br />This part of operant conditioning could be used if I spoke up at meetings or church or approached someone in an attempt to avoid being lonely. I might say I would like more friends but I have to be more outgoing to get them. The consequence would be not having friends which would reinforce me to try and make friends and be more outgoing. It is possible for my shyness to be overcome using the concept of operant conditioning that is part of the behavioral theory.<br />I have learned some things about my personality throughout this course. The first thing that I learned was that I am shy but that I am not an introvert. Although shy, I still seek and desire the company of others and easily open up to others after the initial introduction is over. I am shy because sometimes I am unsure of myself but to be an introvert means not liking the company of other people and this does not describe me. Another important thing that I learned is that I am not the only person who needs to be alone to get their batteries recharged; there is a whole category of people who get their energy this way. This was comforting to me because I somehow thought that this made me an introvert or that something was wrong with me because I frequently need a break even from my own children to feel recharged.<br />72<br />
  90. 90. Me<br />I also learned that while I may be highly creative in my personal life, I prefer to stick to conventional methods that I know work well at work. I also learned that I am more spiritual than I initially perceived myself to be. Most importantly, I learned that I believe that my behavior can be changed if it is undesirable and I believe I learned the ways to do it.<br /> In conclusion, throughout this course I learned things about my own personality and chose the behavioral theory as my theory of choice. I identified the characteristics that I perceive myself to have and chose two (shy and smart) to apply the behavioral theory to. I described where they originated from and what experiences in my environment contributed to these two characteristics. I also chose one trait that I desired to change and described how this would be possible and what it would look like according to the behavioral theory. The behavioral theory states that personality and behavior is the result of learning through experiences and environment and I believe this theory best describes human nature and behavior.<br />References:<br />Argosy University. (2010). PSY361: Personality theory: Module 1: What is personality. Module 5: The behaviorist perspective, Skinners operant conditioning. Retrieved June 29, 2010, from http://myeclassonline.com<br />Feist, J., & Feist, G.J. (2008). Theories of personality (7th ed.)[DX reader version]. Retrieved from http://digitalbookshelf.argosy.edu/#/books/007-7376714/pages/10030033?return=/books/007-7376714/outline/3<br /> <br />73<br />
  91. 91. A comparison of who I am and who I want to become<br />Everyone has an idea of what they would like to become. As children and young adults, people tend to think about what they want to be when they ‘grow up’. As adults, people look for ways to better themselves and enhance characteristics or careers they may already have or even develop new ones altogether. The picture people create in their mind of who they would like to become is referred to by Carl Rogers as their ideal self and the person who they currently perceive themselves to be is referred to by him as their perceived self or their self concept (Argosy University, 2010; Feist & Feist, 2008). According to Rogers, when the ideal self closely resembles the perceived self, he would say the person is congruent, but if the two self’s are not similar, he would say they are incongruent (Argosy University, 2010; Feist & Feist, 2008). I can create a list of statements that I believe actually describe who I am right now and a list that describes who I want to be, examine the two lists for similarities and differences, and come up with at least one area to work on to make more congruency between my actual and ideal self.<br /> There are at least fifteen statements that I believe accurately and honestly describe the person I am right now. I am a loving and caring person; I love not only my family and friends but I also believe that I have the spirit of God in me and therefore love mankind. I am a warm person, I try to extend kindness to everyone I come in contact with, even when everyone else nearby has outcast someone for some reason. I am friendly up to a point; I respond openly to people who approach me but I have a hard time approaching others myself. This leads to my next characteristic, I am shy. I have become more outgoing over the past couple of years and hope to continue to become so, but I still consider myself to be shy. I am aware of patience and how important this quality is, but at the current moment, I get frustrated quickly; I remind myself that I need to develop patience and talk myself out of the frustration, but I am still easily frustrated. I am funny and have a good sense of humor. I<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br />74<br />
  92. 92. A comparison of who I am and who I want to become<br />am hardworking (last to bed and the first to rise) and confident in my abilities. I have medium self esteem; I have high self esteem when it comes to academic and job performance (homemaker, mother) but low esteem when it comes to attractiveness or beauty or anything to do with my physical appearance. I am smart and very creative. I am also a forgiving person (stems from my spirituality) and honest. I put others needs before my own, often times leaving my housework or homework to run an errand for someone or skipping out on a workout for a friend or family member. I am currently a student, trying to secure a career for myself that I will enjoy after my children are more grown and less dependent on me. I have a very realistic perception of my current self or my perceived self.<br /> I can also think of as many statements that describe the person I want to be. The person that I want to be is loving and caring and warm. I want to be able to care for people, and even love, everyone as a child of God. I would also like to be friendly and outgoing; I would like to be able to walk up to people and start a conversation instead of always being the person that is walked up to. My ideal self is humorous. My ideal self is also patient, hardworking and confident. I want to be the kind of person that does not get rattled easily; slow to anger. In hardworking, I mean that I would like to be persistent to the point that I do not quit until a specific job is done. I would also ideally like to have high self esteem; not just in regards to academics and work but also regarding my appearance. I would like to be creative and spontaneous, someone who is able to think up solutions on the spot. My ideal self is to be smart and honest as well as forgiving. Ideally, I want to be an important person in society, someone that others look at and say that I am a good person and have an important job. <br />75<br />
  93. 93. A comparison of who I am and who I want to become<br />I would eventually like that job to be a child advocate or someone who helps children who have been abandoned or neglected; I would like a job to help these children some day. I have a clear vision of the person that I want to be.<br /> In regards to these two perceptions (my real and my ideal self) there are some similarities. I am as loving, caring, and warm as I want to be. I love people, even those that my flesh does not want to love out of the love of God that is within me, and I am warm and friendly with everyone. People often remark that I do not have a mean bone in my body and one of my favorite expressions is to smother my enemies or even just grumpy people with kindness; I have made many friends from my enemies or from people who others avoid because of their temperament this way. I am as funny as I want to be. The only thing that I do not find humorous is jokes or comments that are hurtful to other people or jokes with sexual overtones or lewdness; for example, I do not find jokes about homosexuals, racist jokes, jokes/comments about females funny and that sort of thing. This version of funny is in sync with my ideal self…idealistically I do not want to think that these things are funny because they are not. Idealistically I want to be smart and my perception of my current self is that I am smart. I also do not see any way in which I could be more hard working. I have very little time that I spend on luxuries such as watching TV or other things. I am not willing to sacrifice any of the time that I spend with my family since this time is very sporadic as it is, so for this reason, I am as hardworking as I wish to be. I also know that I am creative, so this characteristic is the same idealistically and realistically. My sense of forgiveness is also similar.<br />76<br />
  94. 94. A comparison of who I am and who I want to become<br />I can and have forgiven many people who have in some way wronged me or my family; again, this is due to my spirituality and the belief that forgiveness is possible out of the spirit of God that dwells in me; forgive others their trespasses as God has forgiven mine is the belief that I hold. My perceptions of my ideal and my real self have many similarities.<br /> My two perceptions of myself also have some differences. One is that I would like to be more patient than I actually am. I tend to get stressed easily which is the result of having very little patience. I have gotten upset over some things rather easily and said some things that I wish I hadn’t. This is my real self. Ideally, I would like to be someone who has a lot of patience, someone who is not frustrated quickly, or someone that can withstand a lot of pressure before they finally break. Also, my ideal self is a lot more confident and has a lot more self esteem than I actually have. I wish that I was more comfortable in my own skin and did not have body image issues. I have struggled in the past with dieting and such and finally found a system that allowed me to lose some weight, but ultimately, I still have a way to go. I just wish I was not so hard on myself and had more confidence and higher self esteem. I would like to be more honest than what I actually am. I do not lie, but I do have a tendency to withhold the truth sometimes if it means I might spare someone’s feelings. For example, realistically, if I were having a telephone conversation with someone and had something else I would rather do (vacuum or go outside and play with my kids) I would withhold that I really did not want to talk at the moment and endure the conversation anyway. Idealistically, I would like to be able to be completely honest and not feel bad for telling people how I truly feel; I wish I didn’t have to be uncomfortable to spare other people’s feelings. The final difference is that I wish I was important in the life of a child other than my own.<br />77<br />
  95. 95. A comparison of who I am and who I want to become<br />Ultimately, I want to be a child protective worker or maybe work for an adoption agency. Right now I am a stay at home mother and although my children have many friends that frequent our home I would like to be able to help children. Realistically, right now, I am not able to offer much help to any children other than my own. There are some differences between my real self and my ideal self, which, according to Carl Rogers, would be an incongruence and he might even go as far as to say I am not self actualized (Argosy University, 2010; Feist & Feist, 2008).<br /> Finally, there is one issue that I am working on that will help my real self be more like my ideal self which would make me a more congruent person (Argosy University, 2010; Feist & Feist, 2008). I am taking classes to get my bachelor’s in psychology (5 classes left) and that will hopefully get my foot in the door at CPS or an adoption agency like I want. I am hard working and persistent so I will eventually get a job doing something that helps children; when I am ready, I will not stop until I have this job. Once I have this job, I will be important in the lives of children and I will be speaking on their behalf and helping them. I honestly think that be accomplishing this task, I may also be more closer to my ideal self in the other areas that I pointed out as different from my real self at the present time. Surely, from working with children who may have behavior issues or trust issues as a result of being abused or abandoned, I will be able to be more patient with them, which in turn, might give me more patience in my daily life as well. By getting the job that I would like to have someday, I can hopefully, become more congruent between my ideal and my realistic self.<br /> In conclusion, previously listed is my perception of my ideal and my real self.<br />78<br />
  96. 96. A comparison of who I am and who I want to become<br />These two ‘self’s’ have similarities as well as differences. By focusing on the differences, I can make the two lists more congruent or alike. By congruent, Rogers believed that when the ideal self and the real self were the same, the person is congruent or self actualized and when they are more different than the same, they are incongruent or not self-actualized (Argosy University, 2010; Feist & Feist, 2008). My self’s are more similar than they are different so Rogers might say that I am congruent and self-actualized. People can use their perceptions of who they are and who they want to become to compare and contrast and use this to become self-actualized. From a very young age, people have hopes and dreams about what they would like to become some day. This may eventually become part of who they want to be…their ideal self.<br />79<br />
  97. 97. A comparison of who I am and who I want to become<br />Ideal and current Self comparisons<br />Ideal self<br />Loving/caring<br />Warm<br />Friendly<br />Outgoing<br />Patient<br />Funny<br />Hard working<br />Confident<br />Someone who has high self esteem<br />Creative<br />Smart<br />Honest<br />Forgiving<br />Important<br />Child advocate-CPS or adoption<br />Current perceived self<br />Loving/caring<br />Warm<br />Friendly only to a point<br />Shy but becoming more outgoing<br />Not very patient<br />Funny<br />Hard working<br />Confident<br />High self esteem in terms of academics/job. Low self esteem regarding body image<br />Very creative<br />Smart<br />Honest but withholding the truth sometimes<br />Forgiving<br />Putting others first<br />Mother and student<br />80<br />
  98. 98. A comparison of who I am and who I want to become<br />References:<br />Argosy University. (2010). PSY361: Personality theory: Module 7: The humanistic perceptive. Rogers client centered therapy. Retrieved June 25, 2010, from http://myeclassonline.com<br />Feist, J., & Feist, G.J. (2008). Theories of personality (7th ed.)[DX reader version]. Retrieved from http://digitalbookshelf.argosy.edu/#/books/007-<br />81<br />
  99. 99. 82<br />My future in learning<br />
  100. 100. My Future in Learning<br />Learning is a lifelong process. In my future, I plan on learning from a variety of sources. I am going to start off volunteering in the human services field. Here I intend to learn as much as I can from my supervisors, fellow volunteers, and from people who use the human services in general <br />Next, I plan on getting a job involving children. My ultimate desire is to work with CPS where I will surely learn from my bosses, co-workers, and from the families that I work with.<br /> Eventually, I will go back to school once again. I plan on getting my masters degree in psychology with a concentration in social work.<br />I strongly believe that everyday is a learning experience. I will continue to learn from my family, my friends, my coworke

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