Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 2Reading• Is a developmental task. this means thatthe child learns to read in a series ofinterrelated stages, each stage being aprerequisite for the next. His acquisitionand development of reading skillsproceed sequentially and in an upwardmanner, starting with the simplest skillsand gradually moving on to the higherlevels of complexity and difficulty.
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 3DevelopmentalStages of ReadingGrowth• Reading ReadinessStage• Beginning ReadingStage• Rapid Growth and
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 4Reading Readiness StageFocuses on the pre-reading skills thatare pre-requisites to learning to read.Include the acquisition of oral languageskills, visual and auditory discriminationskills, and development of concept .Inother words the child is getting ready tolearn to read.
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 5Reading readiness- defined as thegeneral stage of developmentalmaturity and preparedness atwhich child can learn to read easilyand proficiently in a regularclassroom setting when exposedto good teaching. Involves thewhole child mental, emotional,social, and physical welfare.
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 6Factors that affect readingreadiness• Mental factors• Emotional and Social factors• Physical factors• Educational factors• Others
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 7Mental factors• Reaches level of maturity where he is ableto remember, to think, to use his ideas tosolve simple problem, to concentrate, tofollow directions, to create a simple storyand to attend to a task.• Mental age of six years and six monthswas found necessary for success inbeginning readers base on the results ofintelligence studies in the 1930s.
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 8• Recent studies contradict thisview, today believe that thenecessary mental age varies withthe materials, the teachingmethods, the size of the class, theskill of the teacher, the availabilityof personnel.
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 9Emotional and SocialMaturity• Children vary in their emotional and socialmaturity. Six or six in a half, some aremature enough to begin formal readinginstruction because they developed self-esteem and self confidence as a result ofearly success experiences and adultapproval. Others are not yet emotionallyand socially mature so that formal readinginstruction has to be delayed.
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 11Social immaturity• Temper tantrums• Selfishness• Intolerance• Crying• Baby talk• Over-dependence on adult• Discomfort in a small group situations
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 12Physical factors• General health• Vision• Hearing• Motor control• Speech• Ability to attend to a task• Neurological disorder
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 13General health• Healthy children are usually happychildren. A child who is well nourishedand who has enough rest feels good andhas stamina to concentrate and work forprolonged period of times. If a child comesto school sleepy and tired from havingwatched a late television show the nightbefore or hungry because he skippedbreakfast, he will be irritable , inattentivelow in vitality, and unable to learn as heshould.
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 14Vision• Reading is visual act. Through vision thewords and ideas are perceived by themind. If the child’s vision is impaired, theimage he sees is blurred and distorted anddifficult to remember. Poor visual acuityprevents a child from developing thenecessary visual discrimination skillsbecause he will be unable to detectlikenesses and differences in objects,shapes, letters and words.
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 15Hearing• Auditory acuity increases the child’sopportunities to gain new ideas, learn newwords, and imitate the correct speechsounds. Loss of hearing that goesunnoticed no matter how slight, isdetrimental to a child’s educationalprogress as this cause him to miss muchof what goes him. It will prevent him fromdeveloping auditory discrimination skillsthat are necessary in phonics instructionand spelling.
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 16Motor control• Lack of motor control among disabledreaders is manifested by the presence ofpoor motor coordination in their waling,running, jumping, hopping, skipping, andother physical coordination activities. Thiscondition will hinder or prevent the childfrom developing eye- hand coordinationwhich essential for following a line of print,coloring, pasting, printing, tracing, anddrawing.
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 17Ability to attend a task• A child’s ability to attend a task forprolonged periods of time is essential tocomplete the many required group andindividual activities assigned to beginningreaders. In a classroom, the teacher has25 or more pupils to attend to and cannotbe with all them all the time. Each childshould have perseverance and patience tocomplete his learning tasks or he will lagbehind the others.
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 18Educational Factors• A broad background of experiencesenriches the life of a child. It provides himwith concepts through which he views hisworld.• The most important years of his life is thefirst five years during which he learnsmore than he will ever learn in any otherperiod.• Words are the tools with which we think.
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 19Age• Chronological age is not always a reliablefactor in predicting reading readiness.However, the age factor of six years andsix months or seven years is an indicatorof readiness to read for an average child.
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 20Sex• Girls usually mature earlier than boys andare more oriented to quiet activities whichenhance readiness for reading. Naturally,they are often ready for reading earlierthen boys. Furthermore, they are morepatient and can work longer. They usuallyfinish the work they have started.
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 21Interest and Desire• The extent of the child’s interest anddesire to learn to read determines to alarge extent the amount of effort he exertsin learning to read.• The child must be helped to develop astrong desire to learn to read, especiallyduring the pre-reading stage.
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 22General Pattern of Growth andDevelopment• Each child’s overall general growth andmaturity, his experiences, anxieties,feelings, and attitudes that he brings intothe classroom are among the bases bywhich the teacher determines whether ornot the child id ready for formal readinginstruction.
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 23Beginning Reading Stage• The focus is on word recognition andcomprehension. The attainment of thesegoals depends, to a large extent, on thechild’s use of the alphabet, his knowledgeof the sounds of the letters, his ability torecognize words and put them together incorrect sequence in their spoken andwritten forms, and the use of these wordsin relation to what they mean in context.
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 24• The skill in word recognition andidentification is dual in nature as there aretwo separate and distinct learning taskinvolved in developing fluency in this area:– Instant Recognition refers to the child’s abilityto recognize immediately and pronounce thewords at sight.– Mediated Recognition refers to the child’sability to recognize an unfamiliar word usingphonetic analysis.
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 25• Reading is one mode of expression of thelanguage which affects and, in turn, isaffected by the three other modes.– Listening Skills– Speaking Skills– Reading Skills– Writing Skills
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 26Auditory Discrimination• The skills that the child should learn andmaster during the beginning reading stageare:– Noting and distinguishing specific sounds inthe environment– Distinguishing similar from dissimilar sounds– Distinguishing letter sounds heard in shortutterance and their positions
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 27– Identify consonant clusters, vowel sounds anddiphthongs– Distinguish between stressed and unstressedsyllables– Recognize pauses and stops that signalmeanings in utterances
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 28Listening Comprehension• The skills taught to children at this stage oftheir formal reading instruction are:– Ability to note details in selections listened to– who, what, when and where questions– Ability to follow directions– Distinguishing between what is real and whatis fancy– Distinguishing between a part and a whole– Identifying cause and effects – why questions
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 29Word-Study Skills• While listening to instructions given orally,the children should be able to classifyobjects or pictures according to initial orfinal sounds of their names. They do thisby grouping objects according to the initialof final sounds in their names, or thevowels present.
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 30Literary Appreciation Skills• The skills taught to the children at theinitial stage of formal reading instruction:– Brief and simple retelling of stories listened to– Reciting of short poems– Empathizing with characters in the storiesheard– Completing unfinished lines of rhymes,poems, and stories heard
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 31Speaking Skills• Children at the initial stage of formalreading instruction are taught speakingskills that will enable them to communicateorally what they hear and what they read.
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 32Word Recognition• Children are taught to recognize at sightthe 220 words in the Dolch Basic SightVocabulary and /or more than 700 wordsin the Cohen Basic Word List.• They are also taught to recognizeunfamiliar words with the use of wordconfiguration clues, phonetic analysis,picture clues, and structural clues.
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 33Comprehension1. Reading labels and signs.2. Associating spoken with printed words,phrases, and sentences.3. Noting details.4. Following simple printed directions.5. Getting the main idea.
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 35Oral Readinga) Reading with correct pronunciation andphrasing.b) Pausing at commas and stopping atperiods.c) Reading in clear well-modulated voice.d) Reading with expression.e) Holding the book properly.f) Looking at the audience once in a while.
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 36Work-Study Skills• A child during his initial formal readinginstruction should be trained in the work-study skills that are vital to theperformance of his reading tasks in thenext stage of development.– Using the table of contents– Interpret simple pictographs– Arranging words in alphabetical order
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 37Literary Appreciationa) Acting out their best-liked partsb) Drawing pictures of favorite charactersc) Playing the role of these charactersd) Pantomiming or acting out incidents inthe storye) Retelling the story in their own wordsf) Singing a poem to the tune of a familiarmelody.
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 38Writing Skillsa) Using upper and lower case letters in: Full name Grade, section, and school Address and parents’ names Days of the week and months of the year Names of school subjects and materialsneeded in each subject
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 39b) Copying correctly words, phrases, andsentences learned, and names of places,persons, streets, towns, cities, etc.c) Writing missing letters in a word.d) Writing common abbreviations correctlye) Writing three or four-sentence stories.
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 40Rapid Growth and Development• The focus is on refining skills anddeveloping new ones as needed.• The child is now reading to learn and isexpected to be able to apply the skills hehas internalized to content and recreation.• Duffy, Shermman and Roehler (1977) giveways to help children transfer learnedreading skills to reading content andrecreation – guided and independentapplication.
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 41The Acquisition of Reading Power• Developed a high degree of confidence inthe basic reading skills and has becomeproficient in applying the learned readingskills• Ready for the acquisition of the finer andmore sophisticated reading skills e.g.speed reading, critical and creativereading, advanced study skills, reading ofspecialized materials, and literaryinterpretation
Free Powerpoint TemplatesPage 42The End.Meludy C. BinaluyoRamona L. CequenaCandice Camille A. Santiago