Instructional materials for sped


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Instructional materials for sped

  1. 1. What are the Instructional Materials for Different Disabilities ?Accommodations for Students with Special NeedsTeacher Checklist to Maximize AccommodationsRarely are there specific lesson plans for special education. Teachers take existing lesson plans and provide either accommodations or modificationsto enable the student with special education to have optimum success. This tip sheet will focus on four areas where one can make specialaccomodations to support students with special needs students in the inclusive classroom. Those four areas include:1.) Instructional Materials2.) Vocabulary2.) Lesson Content4.) AssessmentInstructional Materials: Are the materials you select for the instruction conducive to meeting the child(ren) with special needs? Can they see, hear or touch the materials to maximize learning? Are the instructional materials selected with all of the students in mind? What are your visuals and are they appropriate for all? What will you use to demonstrate or simulate the learning concept? What other hands on materials can you use to ensure that the students with needs will understand learning concepts? If you are using overheads, are there extra copies for students who need to see it closer or have it repeated? Does the student have a peer that will help?Vocabulary Do the students understand the vocabulary necessary for the specific concept you are going to teach? Is there a need to focus first on the vocabulary prior to starting the lesson? How will you introduce the new vocabulary to the students?
  2. 2. What will your overview look like? How will your overview engage the students?Lesson Content Does your lesson focus completely on the content, does what the students do extend or lead them to new learning? (Wordsearch activities rarely lead to any learning) What will ensure that the students are engaged? What type of review will be necessary? How will you ensure that students are understanding? Have you built in time for a breakout or change in activity? Many children have difficulty sustaining attention for lengthy periods of time. Have you maximized assistive technology where appropriate for specific students? Do the students have a element in choice for the learning activities? Have you addressed the multiple learning styles? Do you need to teach the student specific learning skills for the lesson? (How to stay on task, how to keep organized, how to get help when stuck etc). What strategies are in place to help re-focus the child, continue to build self-esteem and prevent the child from being overwhelmed?Assessment Do you have alternate means of assessment for students with special needs (word processors, oral or taped feedback)? Do they have a longer time lines? Have you provided checklists, graphic organizers, or/and outlines? Does the child have reduced quantities?InSummary
  3. 3. Overall, this may seem like a lot of questions to ask yourself to ensure that all students have maximized learning opportunities. However, once youget into the habit of this type of reflection as you plan each learning experience, you will soon be a pro at ensuring the inclusional classroom works asbest as it can to meet your diverse group of students which are found in most classrooms today. Always remember, that no 2 students learn thesame, be patient and continue to differentiate both instruction and assessment as much as possible.About Spelling What to Look For in a Spelling Program The Dos and Donts of Spelling First of all, please note that very little research is available regarding the teaching and acquisition of spelling skills. However, evidence of good practice is. Many teachers have developed the tried and true strategies to help their students become better spellers. Here is what they say and do: Do have a wordwall. Dont forget to change the words. Word walls provide a great strategy for young learners to see and write the words they need, when they need them. Change the words as needed throughout the year to ensure maximum learning. Use it all year, refer to it often and make sure the words are relevant to their learning throughout the year. Wordwalls will benefit students in kindergarten to the 3rd grade. However, they can be used in the inclusional classroom at any grade. Word wall words should be alphabetized to help children locate the word they need quickly. Do provide spelling lists that meet the weekly/monthly needs. Dont use those traditional spelling texts. Students need to be able to spell the words they need to write. Therefore their spelling lists need to be connected to other things that are currently being taught. For instance, if you are teaching transportation, the spelling words should be those that they need to know like: fast, slow, air, ground, fly, train etc. Have your students brainstorm the list of words they need to learn on a regular basis. Everyday words should be included in their word walls. Words that have certain patterns are good to learn as well. These would be the word families and words with similar patterns like through, enough, etc. I cant find any research to indicate that spelling texts lead to improved spelling ability or new learning. Also, note that word searches, alphabetizing words, writing words out rarely leads to new learning or improved spelling ability. Applying words in authentic situations is much more worthwhile. Do focus on the 44 sounds throughout the year. Dont just focus on the long and short vowels and beginning and ending consonants. When you think about ape and apple, long and short come to mind. However, what about the a sound in star and in jaw? Is it long or short? If youre teaching about some of the spelling patterns, be aware of the 44 different sounds.
  4. 4. Do provide strategies to help them spell. Dont bother with weekly spelling tests. Help students recognize spelling patterns, generalizations and some of the basic rules. When students write, have them circle the words theyre uncertain about. This will help them learn them. Spelling tests only support short term memory and dont tend to lead to permanent learning. Help them to notice the patterns and help them to make connections. (If funny has 2 consonants, how do you think bunny and runny would be spelled? Prompt children to identify the patterns) Do use spelling patterns, everyday words and theme based words focused on your specific curricular area. Although some children enjoy the weekly spelling tests, others spend far too much time memorizing words and all too often forget them. The weekly spelling test tends to only be a test of short term memory. Dont over emphasize spelling rules. Remember that thinking is more important than memory and leads to more permanent learning. There are also many exceptions to the spelling rules so choose the rules you teach carefully. The 44 Sounds in SpellingWhen considering a spelling program and how to best help children learn the sounds of the English language. Remember to choose words that helpthem understand all of the 44 sounds. (19 vowel sounds including 5 long vowels, 5 short vowels, 3 dipthongs, 2 oo sounds, 4 r controlled vowelsounds and 25 consonant sounds).The following lists provides you with sample words to teach the sounds in the English language.The 5 Short Vowel Sounds short -a- in and, as, after short -e- in pen, hen, lend short -i- in it, in
  5. 5. short -o- in top, hop short -u- in under, cupThe 6 Long Vowel Sounds long -a- in make, take long -e- in beet, feet long -i- in tie, lie long -o- in coat, toe long -u- (yoo) in rule long -oo- in few, blueThe R-Controlled Vowel Sounds -ur- in her, bird, and hurt -ar- in bark, dark -or- in fork, pork, storkThe 18 Consonant Soundsc, q and x are missing as they are found in other sounds. (The C sound is found in the k sounds and in the s sound in words like cereal, city and cent.The Q sound is found in kw words like backwards and Kwanza. The X sound is also found in ks words like kicks.) -b- in bed, bad -k- in cat and kick -d- in dog -f- in fat -g- in got -h- in has -j- in job -l- in lid -m- in mop -n- in not -p- in pan
  6. 6. -r- in ran -s- in sit -t- in to -v- in van -w- in went -y- in yellow -z- in zipperTheBlendsBlends are 2 or 3 letters combined to form a distinct spellingsound.The blends sounds: -bl- in blue and black -c- in clap and close -fl- in fly and flip -gl- in glue and glove -pl- in play and please -br- in brown and break -cr- in cry and crust -dr- in dry and drag -fr- in fry and freeze -gr- in great and grand -pr- in prize and prank -tr- in tree and try -sk- in skate and sky -sl- in slip and slap -sp- in spot and speed -st- in street and stop -sw- in sweet and sweater -spr- in spray and spring -str- in stripe and strap
  7. 7. The 7 Digraph Sounds -ch- in chin and ouch -sh- in ship and push -th- in thing -th- in this -wh- in when -ng- in ring -nk- in rinkThe Other Special Sounds Including Dipthongs -oi- in foil and toy -ow- in owl and ouch short -oo- in took and pull -aw- in raw and haul -zh- in vision Spelling DiagraphsWord Walls How To Use a Word WallEffective Use of Word Walls and Word CardsFrom Sue Watson, former GuideSee More About homonyms
  8. 8. phonics printing worksheetsFind how how to use word walls or word flash cards. Learning to read is key to a childs future success and when we discover reluctant readers ornon-readers, we are usually quick to assess the methods that will provide success. Although a good early reading program consists of phonics,listening/thinking, letter formation, letter sounds, real reading, and sight words, this article will focus on the importance of phonics using word wallsand or word cards.Phonics is mainly concerned with sounds, learning letter formation, blending sounds and the ability to identify sounds in words. Learning the soundsof letters leads children to the next step - applying the sounds including the blends to hear the words. When main letter sounds are known, the childapplies this knowedge to words. For instance, if the popular sounds are learned first (s, t, m, r, ,c, f) etc. the knowledge is then in place for a child torecognize, cat, fat, mat, sat, rat etc.)Word walls can be used from Kindergarten to the eighth grade.A child needs a set of word cards - or word walls should be in place. Begin with the Dolch words at the appropriate level. Also use the word familycards to extend word knowledge. Again, beginning with the easiest level first.Activities for the use of Word Cards/WallsPut the words in alpha order as each is said aloud.Print a rhyming word for 10 of the word cards or word wall words.Use the cards in a flash game with a partner.Put the cards in piles - those you can add an s to and those you cant.Write a word wall story, see how many of the words you can use.Use a timer to see how fast the words can be read.Change 1 or 2 of the letters of to see if new words can be made.
  9. 9. Write in a journal and underline the word wall/card words.How many different ways can you add or take away a letter to make new words, i.e., ten - tent - then.Children must state 5 facts or ask 5 questions begining with their chosen word cards/wall words.The goals for word wall or word card activities are: being able to read common and word family words accurately and quickly; being able to spell theword card/wall words and self assessing the spelling and reading of the words.Parent connections are extremely valuable in the reading process. Give parents a list of high frequency (Dolch) words and the word families with afew strategies to support reading at home. Printable Word Wall Words Activities for Flash Word Cards and Word Walls List 1 a and away big blue can come down find for funny go help here in is it jump little look make me one play
  10. 10. my not red run said see the three to two up wePhonics, Letters and the Alphabet Phonics Worksheets Print the Letter A
  11. 11. Dolch Cloze WorksheetsName____________________________1. I have a __ __ __ hat. (red, the, fun)2. My __ __ __ has a tail. (arm, let, dog)3. I can __ __ __ fast! (tan, run, let)4. Do you like __ __? (do, hi, me)5. How are __ __ __? (fun, hat, you)6. __ __ __ __ with me. (play, door, look)7. Where is my __ __ __ __? (tall, door, book)8. Can I __ __ __ __? (some, fall, come)
  12. 12. 9. Close the __ __ __ __. (took, door, ball)10. Can you __ __ __ me? (and, fan, see)11. Let me __ __! (hi, go, it)12. __ __ __ __ at the dog. (find, snow, lookRhyming WordsAll word families.ack back, black, crack, pack, quack, rack, sack, snack, stack, tack, track, ad, dad, fad, glad, grad, had, lad, mad, pad, rad, sad, tad.ail fail, hail, jail, mail, nail, pail, rail, sail, snail, tail.ain brain, chain, drain, gain, grain, main, pain, plain rain, stain, strain, train.ake bake, cake, flake, make, rake, take.ale bale, male, pale, scale, tale, whale.all ball, call, fall, hall, mall, small, tall, am, ham, jam, slam, spam, yam.ame blame, came, flame, frame, game, lame, name, same, an, ban, can, fan, man, pan, plan, ran, tan, van.
  13. 13. ank bank, blank, crank, drank, plan, sank, spank, tank, thank, yank.ap cap, clap, flap, gap, lap, map, nap, rap, sap, slap, scrap, are, bar, char, car, far, jar, par, scar, cigar, guitar.ash ash, bash, cash, crash, dash, flash, gash, hash, mash, rash, sash, slash, smash, splash, at, bat, brat, cat, fat, hat, mat, pat, rat, sat, spat, tat, that, claw, draw, flaw, jaw, law, paw, straw, thaw.ay away, bay, clay, day, gay, gray, hay, lay, may, okay, pay, play, way, spray, stay, tray, way. Letter Sound and Alphabet WorksheetsChecklist for Readers ages 3-5 yearsReading StrategiesFrom Sue Watson, former GuideSee More About struggling readers literacy worksheets phonicsReading comprehension and reading strategies are key to success. Early diagnosis of learning disabilities is crucial to helping with the skills ofreading. Heres a checklist to determine if your child/student is at an expected level of development.
  14. 14. 1. ____ The child enjoys being read to and has expressed an interest in favorite books.2. ____ The child is able to sit a listen to stories being read to him/her and takes an interest in the illustrations.3. ____ The child pretends to read by holding the book correctly, turns the pages and makes reference to the story from memory and from thepictures.4. ____ The child recognizes his/her own name and knows some of the letters of the alphabet.5. ____ When prompted, the child recalls events in the story.6. ____ The child enjoys participating in songs, chimes, chants, poems and storybook times.7. ____ The child chimes in on familiar or predictable stories.8. ____ When prompted the child can distinguish the beginning, middle and end of the story.9. ____ Some children will have sound-symbol correspondence, theyll know that the B is what the word ball begins with.10.____ Is beginning to recognize similarities and differences between stories or characters.If youve checked most of the boxes, theres nothing to worry about. However, if the child isnt displaying many of the readiness for readingcharacteristics, the child may be showing signs of having language delays or a learning disability. Refer to some of the helpful Suggested Readingon this page to guide you.Reading Disability Checklist 4-6 YearsReading ComprehensionFrom Sue Watson, former GuideSee More About
  15. 15. phonics worksheets spelling struggling readers teacher strategiesReading comprehension and effective reading strategies are critical to the reading process. Early diagnosis of learning disabilities is crucial to helpingwith the skills of reading. Heres a checklist to determine if your child/student is at an expected level of development.1. ____ The child enjoys being read to and has expressed an interest in favorite books.2. ____ The child is able read some environmental print that he/shes exposed to: stop signs, McDonalds signs etc.3. ____ The child pretends to read and uses the illustrations to guide reading.4. ____ The child recognizes letters and sounds of the alphabet. When prompted with: what is the beginning sound of bat, the child knows b or,what is the ending sound of bat and the child knows p.5. ____ The child has memorized familiar books and reads these from memory. (Note: memory reading is an early stage of reading, at this stage itsimportant to write some of the words on cards and get the child to start identifying words from the story in isolation.)6. ____ The child enjoys participating in songs, chimes, chants, poems and storybook times.7. ____ The child chimes in on familiar or predictable stories.8. ____ The child is able to make predictions about what might happen in the story based on what has happened - making connections is part ofcomprehension.9. ____ The child will have fun with words and provide rhymes both real and nonsense type. For instance: right rhymes with tight, fight and grite.The child selects rhyming words and makes up rhyming words. Seuss books are helpful at this stage.10.____ Is beginning to recognize similarities and differences between stories or characters and provides rational regarding the similarities and thedifferences.
  16. 16. If youve checked most of the boxes, theres nothing to worry about. However, if the child isnt displaying many of the readiness for readingcharacteristics, the child may be showing signs of having language delays or a learning disability. Refer to some of the helpful Suggested Readinglinks on this page to guide you.Reading Comprehension RubricHow to Assess Reading Comprehension
  17. 17. Comprehension RubricIn order to determine if a struggling reader is becoming proficient, youll need to watch carefully to see if they exhibit characteristics of competentreaders. These characteristics will include: making effective use of cueing systems, bringing in background information, moving from a word by wordsystem to a fluent reading for meaning system. The rubric below should be used on each student to help ensure reading proficiency.Capitalization RulesFrom Sue Watson, former GuideSee More About how to use capital letters using capital letters helpSentences:Capital letters should always be used for the beginning of sentences and questions.Titles:Capital letters always need to be used for titles and proper names.Countries, Cities, Towns, Lakes, Rivers etc.:All kinds of places require capital letters. Notice how all maps contain capitals on cities, streets and towns?Calendar:The names of the days and months also must be capitalized.Books and Poems:Titles of books and poems have capitals. Book covers also have capital names.Brands:Religious titles, brand names and companies also need capital letters.
  18. 18. Mr. Mrs., Ms., Miss:Always use capitals when addressing people by Mr, Miss etc.Summary:Free Capital Letter Worksheets Students with learning disabilities often need intervention and practice with grammar. Be sure to provide opportunityfor direct teaching and self-correction when working with the many grammar rules.Notice all of the capital letters I need to use in the following paragraph:One day during the month of June, Mrs. Jones took my 3 brothers Jake, Andy and James shopping. She drove them to the shopping plaza on JohnStreet in Chicago. The Glen Echo shopping plaza is just past the Green River Bridge. My brothers bought lots of books at Chapters Book Store.They couldnt wait to get home and begin reading their books.Capital Letters Worksheet # 1 of 4
  19. 19. Deafness and Hearing LossFrom Sue Watson, former GuideSee More About hard of hearing supporting deaf hearing disabledA student/child with deafness or hard-of-hearing disabilities has deficitis in language and speech development because due to a diminished or lack ofauditory response to sound. Students will demonstrate varying degrees of hearing loss which often results in difficulty acquiring spoken language.When you have a child with hearing loss/deafness in your classroom, you need to be careful not t
  20. 20. o assume that this student has other developmental or intellectual, delays. Typically, many of these students have average or better than averageintelligence.Characteristics Found in the Classroom: Difficulty following verbal directions Difficulty with oral expression Some difficulties with social/emotional or interpersonal skills Will often have a degree of language delay Often follows and rarely leads Will usually exhibit some form of articulation difficulty Can become easily frustrated if their needs are not met which will lead to some behavioral difficulties Sometimes the use of hearing aids leads to embarassment and fear of rejection from peersWhat Can You Do? Many students with hearing disabilities will have some form of specialized equipment recommended by the audiologist - help the child to feel comfortable with his/her device and promote understanding and acceptance with other children in the class Remember that devices DO NOT return the childs hearing to normal Noisy enviroments will cause grief to the child with a hearing device and noise around the child should be kept to a minimum Check the device often to ensure it is working When using videos - make sure you get the closed captioned type Shut classroom doors/windows to help eliminate noise Cushion chair bottoms Use visual approaches whenever possible Establish predictable routines for this child Provide older students with visual outlines/graphic organizers and clarification Use a home/school communication book Enunciate words clearly using lip movement to assist the child to lip read Keep close proximity to the student Provide small group work when possible Make assessment accommodations to enable a clear picture of demonstrated academic growth Provide visual materials and demos whenever possible.
  21. 21. Language will be the priority area for students who are deaf or hard of hearing. It is the basic requirement for success in all subject areas and willinfluence the student’s comprehension in your classroom. Language development and its impact on the learning of students who are deaf or hard ofhearing can be complex and difficult to attain. You may find that students will need interpreters, note-takers, or educational assistants to facilitatecommunication. This process will usually require external personnel involement.Teaching WritingFrom Sue Watson, former GuideSee More About ideas to teach writing writing intervention oral activities to promote writingSometimes children with language and/or learning disabilities struggle with writing activities. Often, this is due to the lack of previous oral experience.Children need lots of experience orally before putting their thoughts and ideas to print. Play lots of games orally first and keep these oral activitiesenjoyable.Types of Oral Activities that Will Support Writing:1. Expand my sentence. For this activity, you start with a basic sentence and take turns expanding the sentence.
  22. 22. For instance:Person 1: "I have a dog."Person 2: "I have a big dog."Person 1: "I have a big black dog."Person 2"I have a big, black dog named Dodger."Person 1"I have a big, black dog named Dodger who loves people.2. Another activity that can be done orally is to take any object or item and tell as much about it as possible.For instance: Dogs are friendly. Dogs are furry. Dogs like to eat bones. Dogs can really hear well. (When the child exhausts everything they know,you move to a different object/item or topic)3. To help children understand the 4 types of sentences, you will want to help them understand what they are: Declarative, which makes a statment: Close the door. Imperative, which expresses a command: Finish eating your dinner. Interrogative, which asks a question: Would you like to go to the park? Exclamatory, which makes an exclamation: That roller coaster ride was really scary! Take turns orally making sentences while the other states what type of sentence it is, or give the type of sentence and get the child to come up with that type of sentence. However, keep the oral language fun and as the child progresses, written language is the next logical step.Sub-Departments in Low Vision Products
  23. 23. Low Vision ProductsHi there! Thanks for dropping into our low vision clinic. Whether youre just beginning to lose your vision, or expect to be totally blind in a matter ofmonths, we have a variety of helpful tools to make the most of every bit of sight you do have. Come on - give us a few minutes of your time, and wellshow you what we have to offer.Pocket MagnifiersArguably the most popular type of magnifying glasses out there, pocket magnifiers afford the user quick, discreet visual help whenever its needed.With everything from illuminated credit card magnifiers - to powerful pocket readers - to a handy dandy magnifier thatll fit right onto your keychain,this section is a must-visit for helpful tools that wont break the bank.Reading MagnifiersIf youve always been a real bookworm, or have to do a lot of studying, youll be blown away by what a couple of these magnifiers can do for you! Wehave lighted portable readers, full-page magnifiers, and hand-held magnifiers of all shapes and strengths, lit or not. Go ahead ... Grab one or two ofthese - and bring the joy back to devouring the printed word, free from all that squinting and eyestrain!Stand MagnifiersA practical and useful addition to the desk of any visually impaired person is one kind or another of a stand magnifier. Once you find a model thatsright for you, you can comfortably work for long periods of time, hands-free, while your magnifier sits faithfully in place. Most of these magnifiers arefully-adjustable, meaning you can position the lens and/or light just so, then turn page after page (or work on whatever else you typically do at home,work or play) while benefiting from premium magnification.Loupe MagnifiersA loupe is simply a special type of magnifier, typically designed for high-powered magnification. It has a small lens designed to be put right up to theeye, and can sometimes be attached to a pair of glasses. Loupes are commonly used by jewelers to examine expensive gems, electricians to repaircomplex circuitry, and so on. But the less powerful ones are also helpful for reading and other regular activities. Our pocket-sized loupes in particularare so small that its practical to stick one into your pocket or purse, and pull it out for quick sneak-peeks now and again.
  24. 24. Writing SuppliesWriting out letters, checks, or quick notes gets a lot easier with these simple yet effective handwriting aids. Weve got stationery with raised lines,easy-see pens, and writing templates for all common uses.DepartmentsSub-Departments in Toys and Games(14 products on this shelf.)
  25. 25. Metal HarmonicaPlay Songs by Sliding Side-to-Side as You BlowTell Me More
  26. 26. Plastic KazooMini Megaphone for Kids of All Ages
  27. 27. Plastic FlutePlay Simple Tunes with This Six-Note InstrumentTell Me More
  28. 28. Jingle BandCloth Bracelet with Four large Bells AttachedAvailable Colors: Assorted, or Christmas
  29. 29. Plastic JambourineSmall Drum with Miniture Jingling Discs InsideItem Number: 3426Tell Me More
  30. 30. Wooden TambourineSix-Inch Hollow Drum with Jingle Discs All aroundTell Me More
  31. 31. Plastic MaracaThe Favorite Mexican Rattle, Shaped Like a GordTell Me More
  32. 32. Gripper ShakerQuality Egg-Shaped Wood Rattle for Baby or ToddlerTell Me More
  33. 33. Plastic WhistleBlow for Fun or to Get Help, Has Clip for Keychain
  34. 34. Water Bird CallBlow Whistle to Hear Calls of Favorite Birds
  35. 35. Duck CallTemporarily out of stock. Usually ships in Late January.Blow Into the Back - and Make the Duck Quack
  36. 36. Balloon WhistleBlow Up Balloons with this Tiny Whistling Rattle
  37. 37. Whistle MagnifierTwo-in-One Toy Great for Visually Impared Children
  38. 38. Squeeze ToysTextured Bath Toys that Make Noise, TooSub-Departments in Braille WorkshopGrade 1 Braille ... Grade 2 Braille ... What on earth are you talking about?"Once you learn to read, you will forever be free." - Fredrick Douglas.
  39. 39. ABCs of Braille(10 products on this shelf.) Braille Flash CardsA Fun and Easy Way for Everyone to Learn Braille
  40. 40. Braille Alphabet MagicPop-Up Board to Help Sighted Folks Learn Braille
  41. 41. Braille for the SightedIncludes Print Book and Raised Braille Exercises
  42. 42. Braille Alphabet ChartLarge Poster for Learning or Showing Braille
  43. 43. Braille Alphabet TrayPlastic Plate with Raised Letters and Numbers
  44. 44. Grade 2 Braille Flash CardsPractice Contractions with this Big Box of Cards
  45. 45. Sign Language Flash Cards (Brailled)26 Cards Feature Print, ASL, and Braille Letters
  46. 46. Sign Language Reference Cards, Twelve-PackDetailed ASL Reference for the Basics - and BeyondCovered1. Identifying and writing numbers to 99 1-3, depending on mastery2. Identifying more or less with objects 1-3, depending on mastery
  47. 47. 3. Sequencing numbers 34. Using <, >, = symbols 1-3, depending on mastery5. Skip counting by 10s, 5s, 2s 1-3, depending on mastery6. Introduction to place value 3: cannot skip any7. Identifying operations 1-3, depending on mastery8. Place value 0-50 1-3, depending on mastery9. Writing number sentences 1 and 2 must be completed; 3 dependson mastery at day 210. Place value 0-99 311. Addition facts to sums of 18 1-4 must be completed; 5-6 depends onmastery at previous day12. Subtraction facts to minuends of 18 1-4 must be completed; 5-6 depends onmastery at a previous day13. Review of addition and subtractionfacts1-3, depending on mastery14. Missing addends 1-3, depending on mastery15. Place value 1-3, depending on mastery16. Two-digit addition with no regrouping1-3 must be completed; 4-6 depends onmastery at previous day17. Two-digit subtraction with noregrouping1-3 must be completed; 4-6 depends onmastery at previous dayWHY TEACH TOUCHMATH TO STUDENTS K–3 WITH SPECIAL NEEDS?What if your students with special educational needs could compete with their peers in general education classrooms? Suppose you could help themdevelop a positive attitude about math and raise math test scores across the board at your school?
  48. 48. Sound impossible? Not according to Elizabeth De Fazio, a special education teacher in the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) and one of2,000 special education professionals trained in TouchMath as part of a district-wide initiative. Leveling the playing field."Typically, what I hear back from teachers in the general education classrooms is yes, your child did really well on this area of the test, and yes, theywere using TouchMath," says De Fazio.
  49. 49. Upper grades
  50. 50. Braille By MaggieRead a real life story about a person who is blind.Braille is a way for people who are blind to be able to read. It uses a system of six dots in different patterns. Each pattern of dotsrepresents a different letter of the alphabet. The dots are raised up on paper, like little bumps, and the person who is blind "reads" thesebumps with their fingertips. The bumps stand for the same letters no matter which language you are reading. Braille was invented by a boynamed Louis Braille when he was only fifteen years old.Louis Braille was born in 1809 in a small town called Coupvray, near Paris, France. When Louis was only three years old, he had anunexpected accident and became blind. It all started when Louis was in his fathers workshop, and he was trying to be like his father anduse his fathers tools. Louis picked up a tool called an awl (which is a sharp tool used for making holes).Question: How do you think Louis Braille became blind?A. Louis accidentally let the awl tool slip from his hand, which landed in his eye. It became infected.B. The awl chipped out a large piece of wood which flew into his eyes.C. Louis dropped the awl on his cheek, and the infection was bad and spread to his eyes.Now that Louis was blind, he needed to go to a new school. Children who were blind were not allowed in regular school back then. Learning the regular way was now impossible for Louis. It was a hard life. But that all changed when Louis was ten years old and got a scholarship to the Royal Institution for Blind Youth. But even there, Louis had a hard time. There were only fourteen books at the school library, all of which had large, raised letters, and they were extremely hard to read. In 1821, a former soldier named Charles Barbier visited the school. He brought an invention called night writing. Night writing was acode of 12 raised dots. This code was usually used for communication in wartime, and it let the soldiers get a message across a battlefield withoutspeaking. The code turned out to be too hard for the soldiers to use, but it wasnt too hard for twelve-year-old Louis! Louis decided that this would bea great way for people who are blind to be able to read.
  51. 51. Soon, Louis changed the complicated twelve-dot code into a more simple six-dot code. Sixteen years later, in 1937, Louis published thefirst Braille book ever. But Louis didnt stop with just letters. He also made Braille symbols for math and music.Each Braille letter is kind of like the six-sided dice. One, two, three, four, five, or six dots. There are two columns with three rows. You canmix them up in many different ways to make a letter. Most of the time at least one place where a bump could be is empty. You could have only onebump on the top left, and that would be the letter A.It took a while for the Braille method to catch on, but soon it was used in many places. It wasnt until after Louis died though, that his old school, TheRoyal Institution for Blind Youth, began teaching it to all their students.Braille became common worldwide in 1886 after a group of British men, working for a place now known as the Institute for the Blind, took up thecause. Today, Braille is used in practically every country. Braille books now have double-sided pages which saves a lot of space and paper andhelps them to be smaller and easier to carry. Braille is used so that people who are blind can read, but it is also often used on signs, which helppeople who are blind get around better. The next time youre in an elevator, notice the Braille numbers underneath the regular ones. Most importantof all, it helps people who are blind communicate on their own.Just as regular technology has come a long way over the years, Braille technology has really changed too. We now have many new tools that helppeople who are blind read things on their computers and machines that produce books in Braille. Some of the devices are very simple and others arereally complicated. But all these new machines help people who are blind to do their schoolwork, work at their jobs, and communicate better witheveryone.The slate and stylus are portable and easy to use just like a pencil and paper. They are used so that people can write in Braille. The slate is a pieceof paper between two plastic pieces with little holes in it. The holes are the same size as Braille dots would be. The stylus is an object that looks likea needle with a wooden or plastic grip. You use the stylus to punch holes in the slate. The plastic on the slate keeps the stylus from punching too farand making holes in the paper. Instead, if you do it right, you get raised dots on the other side of the paper. This is Braille writing. The Braille Writer is basically like a regular typewriter. It has six keys, one for each Braille cell, a spacebar, and a backspace key. When you press a key, the key is connected to a little metal bar with a stamp with the dots on it. The key then presses on the paper and indents the paper with the correct amount and position of Braille bumps, or dots. Then if you turn over the paper, you have raised bumps. But what if someone who is blind needs to print something off his or her computer? They would use a
  52. 52. Braille printer. Like a Braille typewriter, it doesnt use any ink. Instead of printing flat words, a Braille printer prints raised Braille bumps. People whoare blind use something called a Braille Display to help them use a computer. A Braille Display translates the words on the computer screen intoBraille on a special keyboard so that the person can "read" the screen as they use the computer.If you would like to make real Braille, get a pillow or soft object, pencil, and paper. Put the piece of paper on the pillow, and poke the pencil into thepaper until you know a tiny bump has emerged on the other side of your paper. You should have texture on the other side of the paper. Dont poketoo hard or youll just make a hole. Try making real sentences.I hope you learned a lot about Braille!
  53. 53. ..Braille Alphabet and Numbers...Braille Alphabet:a b c d e f g h i jk l m n o p q r s tu v w x y z! , - . ? CapitalNumbers:# 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9American Sign Language (ASL)
  54. 54. The Alphabet
  55. 55. NumbersRiddles 1. I have a face, yet no senses. Time is of the essence, but I dont really care. Answer: A clock 2. Voiceless it cries, Wingless it flutters, Toothless bites, Mouthless mutters. Answer: Wind
  56. 56. 3. What has roots as nobody sees, Is taller than trees, Up, up it goes, And yet never grows? Answer: A mountain4. Little Nanny Etticoat In a white petticoat And a red nose The longer she stands, The shorter she grows. What is she? A candle5. Thirty white horses upon a red hill, Now they tramp, now they champ, now they stand still. Answer: Your Teeth6. Lives in winter, Dies in summer, And grows with its root upwards. Answer: An Icicle
  57. 57. 7. I run But I cant walk What am I? Answer: Water Where do cows go on Saturdays?Answer: To the...moovies! What is a snakes favorite school subject?Answer:Hisssstory What goes up when the rain comes down?Answer:An umbrella! What does a lazy dog do for fun?Answer: Chases...parked cars! Why did the dinosaur cross the road?Answer: To get to the...
  58. 58. museum! How do you keep a rhinoceros from charging?Answer: Take away cards! What did thedog say when he sat on the sandpaper?Answer:Ruff ruff! What time is it when the clock strikes 13?Answer: Time to...Fix the clock! Why are Teddy Bears never hungry?Answer: Because theyre always...Stuffed! What is a monkeys favorite month?Answer:Ape-ril!Truth or Lie?After you read each of the following statements, select Truth or Lie. When yourefinished, click "Am I Right?" at the bottom to find out whether you were correct!1. People with learning disabilities arent smart. Truth Lie
  59. 59. 2. People who cant hear can use the telephone. Truth Lie3. You can catch a disability. Truth Lie4. People with cerebral palsy always have mental retardation. Truth Lie5. People who use wheelchairs cant play basketball. Truth Lie6. People who are blind can read. Truth Lie7. People with mental retardation can get jobs. Truth Lie8. People with disabilities cant live by themselves. Truth Lie9. People who cant hear dont watch TV. Truth Lie10. People with disabilities can vote. Truth Lie Am I Right?
  60. 60. Truth or Lie?After you read each of the following statements, select Truth or Lie. When yourefinished, click "Am I Right?" at the bottom to find out whether you were correct!1. People with learning disabilities arent smart. Truth LieCongratulations! This is the correct answer.You probably already knew that people with learning disabilities have normal or abovenormal intelligence. Did you know that George Bush, Tom Cruise, and Greg Louganishave learning disabilities?2. People who cant hear can use the telephone. Truth LieGood job! This is the correct answer.Using a Text Telephone (TT), people with hearing impairments can communicate withjust about everyone through telephone lines.3. You can catch a disability. Truth LieSuperb! This is the correct answer.Disabilities are not illnesses, so you cant catch them.4. People with cerebral palsy always have mental retardation. Truth LieSorry! Your answer is not correct.Although people with cerebral palsy may have limited control of their arms and legs,most have full intellectual capabilities.5. People who use wheelchairs cant play basketball. Truth LieSorry! Your answer is incorrect.Many people with physical disabilities participate in organized basketball programs.6. People who are blind can read. Truth LieTerrific! This is the correct answer.People who are blind often read materials in Braille or use talking books.
  61. 61. 7. People with mental retardation can get jobs. Truth LieTerrific! This is the correct answer.Did you see Chris Burke, an actor who has Down Syndrome, when he appeared on theTV show Touched by an Angel?8. People with disabilities cant live by themselves. Truth LieAwesome! This is the correct answer.With support from different adapted devices (such as door bells that light up for peoplewho are deaf), most people with disabilities can live by themselves. Some people mayneed support from friends or family members, but they could still live in their own home.9. People who cant hear dont watch TV. Truth LieMagnificent! This is the correct answer.The words you sometimes see at the bottom of the television screen are the closedcaptioning that help people who cant hear know what is said during TV programs.10. People with disabilities can vote. Truth LieExtraordinary! This is the correct answer.In fact, many people with disabilities have been elected or appointed to political office.President Franklin Roosevelt used a wheelchair because his legs didnt work well afterhe had polio. Senator Robert Dole did not have the use of one hand after an injuryduring World War II. Robert Williams, former Commissioner of the Administration onDevelopmental Disabilities within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services,uses an electronic communication device to give speeches because he doesnt havegood control of the muscles needed to talk.Disability Awareness CrosswordHow much do you know about different disabilities? Print out the puzzle below andcomplete it with your friends or family to find out!Ask your parents if you can access a printer-friendly pdf version here!
  62. 62. Across 1. a developmental disability that affects communication and social interaction 2. ____ Syndrome causes chronic vocal and motor tics 3. Legally ____: "visual acuity of 20/200 or higher" 4. people with _____ have trouble reading, even if they are very smart 5. ____ Syndrome; a condition caused by the presence of an extra chromosome #21 6. totaly or partially unable to hear 7. ____ Syndrome; a type of autism where people have great memories 8. Cerebral ____; a disorder caused by damage to the brain during pregnancy or birthDown 1. a person who has ____ sometimes has seizures 2. people who are deaf can talk using ____ Language 3. people who are blind can read using ____ 4. when people lose their memory, language, or motor skills 5. Cystic ____; an inherited disease that causes the lungs and pancreas to secrete thick mucusDisability Awareness Crossword: AnswersAcross 1. a developmental disability that affects communication and social interaction Answer: Autism 2. ____ Syndrome causes chronic vocal and motor tics Answer: Tourette
  63. 63. 3. Legally ____: "visual acuity of 20/200 or higher" Answer: Blind 4. people with _____ have trouble reading, even if they are very smart Answer: Dyslexia 5. ____ Syndrome; a condition caused by the presence of an extra chromosome #21 Answer: Down 6. totaly or partially unable to hear Answer: Deaf 7. ____ Syndrome; a type of autism where people have great memories Answer: Asperger 8. Cerebral ____; a disorder caused by damage to the brain during pregnancy or birth Answer: PalsyDown 1. a person who has ____ sometimes has seizures Answer: Epilepsy 2. people who are deaf can talk using ____ Language Answer: Sign 3. people who are blind can read using ____ Answer: Braille 4. when people lose their memory, language, or motor skills Answer: Dementia 5. Cystic ____; an inherited disease that causes the lungs and pancreas to secrete thick mucus Answer: FibrosisAlzheimers DiseaseView this puzzle as a Microsoft Word or pdf file.
  69. 69. Graphic organizers are a popular educationaltool. They help students to visually display,interpret, and understand complex topics.They also assist in reading comprehension byallowing the students to track main ideas, facts,plot, setting, and characters. The most populargraphic organizers are Venn Diagrams,Concept Maps, KWL Charts, checklists andstory maps. For special education students,these tools can help them to express and showan understanding of concepts that may bedifficult for them to show with traditional writtenor essay assessments.Finding, modifying, and printing graphic organizers is easily accessible via the Internet.They can easily be adapted to assist all type of learners, topics, and desired learningoutcomes. Many sites now also allow students to create their own graphic organizersthat they can edit, print and share via the Internet.Printable Graphic OrganizersThe Education World site offers a variety of free printable graphic organizers, includingVenn Diagrams, Comparison Charts, Concept Maps, Fishbone Diagrams, Family Trees,KWL Charts, Life Cycle Charts, Spider Maps, Story Maps, and T-charts. The files youload from this site are available in Word format. When you select the style of graphicorganizer that you would like to print, you have the ability to edit the titles, headings,subheadings or to add or delete information as needed. The files you create can alsobe saved for later use.On the Project Based Learning Checklists for Teachers site, teachers can create theirown project-based learning checklists. These checklists can be used by the students asguidelines to teacher expectations and learning outcomes for their projects. This site isreally great because you can create checklists for writing, science, oral presentations,and multimedia for a variety of different grade levels. To create a checklist, you includethe teacher name, the title for the project, category selections, and then additionaldetails. The additional details can be added from a drop-down list or typed directly in.When completed, you just have to print and photocopy the checklist for your students tofollow.Worksheet Works is a beta website that has free printable organizers, including clocks,fishbones, t-charts, y-charts, YWLs, Venn Diagrams, pies, stars, cycles, PMIs, anddecision-making charts. When you select the type of chart you would like to print, youare taken to a page of options where you can add titles and headers that areappropriate for your lesson. You can also choose the size of paper that you would liketo print on. You then create your worksheet and it is available to download, print andsave print as a PDF file.Online Graphic is a free online brainstorming application. Students can create concept maps(webs) or flow charts using this program. There are options available to save and toprint your maps. The program is kid friendly with fun colors and transitions. Theprogram allows students to create as many bubbles as they need to complete their
  70. 70. project. They can connect and move the bubbles in various ways. Bubbles can beconnected using either arrows or lines, and can be moved above, below, or at the samelevel as other bubbles in the maps.Read Write Think has a section of their website that includes student "interactives."These are interactive online applications where students make and complete their owngraphic organizers. The teacher should provide the link for the interactive applicationthe students should be using based on the lesson they are to complete. Then the workis up to the student! There are interactive activities including creating Venn Diagrams,writing aids, comparison and contrast tables, plot development charts, timelines, andstory maps. Many of their "interactives" involve either reading or writing and would begreat for Language Arts and Social Studies courses.While Class Tools does not have the fancy and easy-to-read format of some of theother sites I have mentioned, they have some of the most fun and interactive graphicorganizers. Along the right-hand column of the site you will find a list of the differentorganizers and activities. Students can choose the graphic organizer style, add therequired information for the assignment, and then either save the file, embed it into awebpage, or print. There are also many other fun review games, activities, andclassroom management tools on this site you should definitely check out.Additional research-based data regarding the successful use of graphic organizers withspecial education students can be found here. NAME: 2-Circle Venn Diagram TOPIC
  71. 71. TITLE TITLE TITLE 3-Circle Venn Diagram NAME: TOPIC
  73. 73. Future: Action Steps: Past:Concept Map NAME: TOPIC
  74. 74. NAME: TOPIC
  75. 75. Fishbone Diagram A GOOD WEEK AT CAMP
  77. 77. Type hereType here Type here Name here Type here Type here
  78. 78. Type here Type hereType here Type here TITLE and AUTHOR:Type here