PREDYNASTIC EGYPT (5000-3000 BC) The Dynastic period began around 3000 bc when lands along the Nile River were united under one ruler. From about 5000 bc until 3000 bc, a time known as the Predynastic period, Egypt was not a uniﬁed nation. As time passed, however, these groups were incorporated into larger political units, until a single state was formed around 3000 BC
PREDYNASTIC EGYPT (5000-3000 BC) The Egyptians began creating art early in the Predynastic period, using materials such as bones, clay, stone, and the ivory teeth of hippopotamuses. They made ﬁgurines of animals, birds, and human beings, and decorated the tops of hair combs and pins with carved birds and animals. Stone palettes used for grinding minerals for eye paint took the shape of birds, turtles, and ﬁsh.
PREDYNASTICPottery also was decoratedtypically with geometric or animaldesigns painted in white on a redbackground.The designs included ﬂamingos,horned animals, human ﬁgures,plants, wavy lines, and boats withoars.Most of this pottery has been
DYNASTIC EGYPT (3000-30BC)The most important buildings in ancientEgypt were temples, tombs, and palaces.Temples housed rituals for the worship of thegods.Tombs served as the burial locations for theking and the elite.The king lived in the palaces, where heperformed governmental and religious duties.
BOOK OF THE DEAD
SCULPTUREMost statues of gods and kings were housedin temples. In addition to the cult statue,larger images of gods, or of gods and the kingtogether, were placed within temple areas.elite people presented offerings at temples ofsmall bronze images of gods and of theanimals sacred to those gods.They also put brightly painted woodenstatues of funerary gods in tombs to help thedeceased pass safely into the afterlife
Thutmose IVand Mother
The hippopotamus was a symbol of rebirth in ancient Egypt
stone ﬁgure ofEgyptian kingKhafre (2500 BC)165 cm (66 in) high and is an idealized representation of the king
life-sized statue ofEgyptian king Pepi l inHierakonpolis, Egypt
Shrine inTutankhamun’sTombcovered in gold leaf was found in the tomb of Egyptian king Tutankhamun. A goddess stands on each side of the shrine, facing inward with arms outstretched in a protective gesture. Inside the shrine were alabaster jars containing the internal organs of Tutankhamun
PAINTING AND RELIEFAncient Egyptians decorated the walls oftemples and tombs with painted scenes.The painting might be ﬂat or in relief, meaningthat ﬁgures and background occupy differentlevels of the wall surface.In raised relief, the background was cut awayso that the ﬁgures stood out.In sunk relief, the ﬁgures were cut back to aslightly lower level than the background.
The ancient Egyptians decorated tombs with paintings and reliefs to ensure that the deceased spent eternity in a comfortable and familiar environment. This relief, from the 5th Dynasty (2465 bc-2323 bc), shows the deceased seated at a table stacked with offerings of food.
Geese of Meidum, the 4th-dynasty
Amon-Ra, Father of the GodsThe Egyptian god Amon-Ra was a combination of Amon, a god from the city of Thebes, and Ra, the sun god. Amon-Ra is depicted with a hawk’s head surmounted by a sun disk in this painting from the Tomb of Sennedjum, in Luxor, Egypt. (13 bc)
The ankh, a cross with a circular loop at the top, appears frequently in ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs and art. For the Egyptians, the ankh sign represented LIFE