EDU 145 Ch 9


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EDU 145 Ch 9

  1. 1. Part III Early Childhoods: Cognitive Development Chapter Nine <ul><li>Piaget and Vygotsky </li></ul><ul><li>Children’s Theories </li></ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><li>Early-Childhood Education </li></ul>
  2. 2. Piaget and Vygotsky <ul><li>Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky are famous for their descriptions of cognition. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Piaget: Preoperational Thinking <ul><li>preoperational intelligence: cognitive development between the ages of about 2 and 6. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>languages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>imagination </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>four characteristics of thinking in early childhood which make logic difficult: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>centration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>focus on appearance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>static reasoning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>irreversibility </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Obstacles to Logical Operation <ul><li>centration: characteristic of preoperational thought in which a young child focuses on one idea </li></ul><ul><li>egocentrism: children’s tendency to think about the world entirely from their own personal perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>literally means self-centered </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>focus on appearance: characteristic of preoperational thought where young child ignores all attributes that are not apparent </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>static reasoning: thinking that nothing changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>whatever is now has always been and always will be </li></ul></ul><ul><li>irreversibility: idea that nothing can be undone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>inability to recognize that something can be restored </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Conservation and Logic <ul><li>conservation: idea that amount of a substance remains the same when appearance changes </li></ul>
  8. 8.
  9. 9. Vygotsky: Social Learning <ul><li>First leading developmentalist to emphasize the other side of early cognition. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>young children not always egocentric </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can be very sensitive to the wishes and emotions of others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emphasizes social aspect of young children’s cognition in contrast to Piaget’s emphasis on the individual. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Scaffolding <ul><li>zone of proximal development (ZPD): skills a person can exercise only with assistance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ideas or cognitive skills a person is close to mastering as well as to more apparent skills. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>scaffolding: temporary support tailored to a learner’s needs and abilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>aimed at helping master next task </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>private speech: internal dialogue that occurs when people talk to themselves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>silent or out loud </li></ul></ul><ul><li>social mediation: function of speech where person’s cognitive skills are refined and extended </li></ul><ul><ul><li>both formal instruction and casual conversation </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Children’s Theories <ul><li>Both Piaget and Vygotsky realized that children actively work to understand their world. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>seek to explain what they experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>why and how people behave as they do </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>theory-theory: idea that children attempt to explain everything they see and hear by constructing theories </li></ul><ul><li>theory of mind: person’s theory of what other people might be thinking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>must realize other people are not thinking the same thoughts that they are </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Language <ul><li>Critical period for language learning due to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>brain maturation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>myelination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>social interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Early childhood is a sensitive period for rapidly and easily mastering: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>vocabulary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>grammar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pronunciation </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15.
  16. 16. Grammar <ul><li>Grammar of language includes structures, techniques, and rules that are used to communicate meaning. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>word order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>word repetition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>prefixes and suffixes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>intonation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>emphasis </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Learning Two Languages <ul><li>Bilingualism is an asset. </li></ul><ul><li>Important to speak the majority language as well as the minority one. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is a nation better off if all its citizens speak one language? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should there be more than one official language? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Switzerland has 3 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Canada has 2 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Bilingualism, Cognition, and Culture <ul><li>Debate over bilingual education inseparable from issues of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ethnic pride </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>identity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>prejudice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fear </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These subjective factors get in the way of objective developmental research. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Bilingualism has both advantages and disadvantages for early cognition and literacy. </li></ul><ul><li>Children who speak two languages by age 5 are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>less egocentric. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>more advanced in their theory of mind. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Constant Change <ul><li>Basics of language learning apply to every language a young child learns. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>naming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vocabulary explosions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fast-mapping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>overregularization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>extensive practice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Established languages continually change as each new generation revises it to meet current needs. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Early-Childhood Education <ul><li>Early educational institutions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>preschool </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nursery school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>day care </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pre-primary </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each early-childhood educational program emphasizes somewhat different: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>methods </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22.
  23. 23. Child-Centered Programs <ul><li>Programs that stress children’s development and growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Child-centered programs that use a Piaget-inspired model allows children to discover ideas at their own pace. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>physical space and materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>puzzles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>blocks of many sizes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>toys </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Child-centered programs also encourage artistic expression. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Early-Childhood Education <ul><ul><li>Child Centered: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Montessori Schools </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Reggio Emilia Approach </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher-Directed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Head Start and Intervention Programs </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Costs and benefits of the different approaches: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>safety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>adequate space and equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>low adult-child ratio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>positive social interaction among children and adults </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>trained staff and educated parents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>continuity helps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ How long has each staff member worked at the center?” </li></ul></ul>