EDU 145 Ch 11

805 views

Published on

Powerpoints for Ch 11

0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
805
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
11
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
15
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

EDU 145 Ch 11

  1. 1. Part IV Middle Childhood: Biosocial Development Chapter Eleven <ul><li>A Healthy Time </li></ul><ul><li>Two Common Health Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Brain Development </li></ul><ul><li>Children with Special Needs </li></ul>
  2. 2. Middle Childhood: Biosocial Development <ul><li>There are similarities among all school-age children, but also differences that suddenly become significant. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>learning ability </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. A Healthy Time <ul><li>Middle childhood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Period between early childhood and early adolescence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>approximately from age 7 to 11. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic and environmental factors safeguard children. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most fatal diseases and accidents occur before age 7. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Size and Shape </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The rate of growth slows down. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscles become stronger. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>School-age children can master almost any motor skill. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lung capacity expands. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Children run faster and exercise longer without breathing more heavily. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Physical Activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Active play benefits children in every way. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Benefits of sports include: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>better overall health. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>less obesity. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>appreciation of cooperation and fair play. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>improved problem-solving abilities. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>respect for teammates and opponents from many ethnicities and nationalities. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Physical Activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are also hazards. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>loss of self-esteem as a result of criticism from teammates or coaches. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>injuries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>reinforcement of prejudices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>increases in stress </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>time and effort taken away from learning academic skills </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Neighborhood Games </li></ul><ul><ul><li>play is flexible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>children improvise to meet their needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>areas, rules, boundaries, time adapted to the children's availability </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Athletic Clubs and Leagues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Private and nonprofit clubs and organizations offer opportunities for children to play. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture and family influence this type of play. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most children enjoy organized sports. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Two Common Health Problems <ul><li>Chronic Illness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>About 13% of all children have special health needs; some get worse during Middle Childhood. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any chronic condition can limit active play and impede regular school attendance. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Overweight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adult </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a BMI (body mass index) of 25 to 29 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Child </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>being above the 85 th percentile </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Obesity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adult </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>having a BMI of 30 or more </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Child </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>being above the 95 th percentile </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Primary: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>better ventilation of schools and home </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>decreased pollution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>eradication of cockroaches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>construction of more play areas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secondary: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>breast-feeding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ridding the house of dust, pets, smoke and other allergens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>regular checkups </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tertiary: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>use of injections and inhalers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hypoallergenic materials </li></ul></ul>Prevention of Asthma
  12. 12. Advances in Brain Functioning <ul><li>reduction in reaction time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>time it takes to respond to a stimulus physically or cognitively </li></ul></ul><ul><li>selective attention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ability to concentrate on some stimuli while ignoring others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>automatization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>process in which repetition of a sequence of thoughts and actions makes the sequence routine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>no longer requires conscious thought </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Aptitude: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential to master particular skill or body of knowledge. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IQ tests: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tests designed to measure intellectual aptitude. </li></ul></ul>Aptitude, Achievement, and IQ
  14. 14.
  15. 15. <ul><li>Achievement Test </li></ul><ul><ul><li>measures proficiency in reading, math, writing, science, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Flynn Effect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rise in average IQ scores over the decades </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IQ test designed for school-age children. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>vocabulary, general knowledge, memory, and spatial comprehension </li></ul></ul></ul>Aptitude and Achievement
  16. 16. <ul><li>Criticisms of IQ Testing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No test can measure potential without also measuring achievement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Every test score reflects the culture of the people who wrote, administer and take it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectual potential changes over the life span. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humans may have multiple intelligences. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Sternberg describes three types of intelligence: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Academic: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>measured by IQ and achievement tests </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Creative: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>evidenced by imaginative endeavors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Practical: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>seen in everyday problem solving </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Emotional intelligence: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ability to regulate one’s emotions and perceptive understanding of other people’s feelings </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>North American children would be considered mentally slow if they could not replicate the proper hand, arm, torso and facial positions of a traditional dance, as this young Indonesian girl does. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>The most influential of all multiple-intelligence theories is Gardner’s: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>linguistic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>logical-mathematical </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>musical </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>spatial </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>bodily-kinesthetic (movement) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>interpersonal (social understanding) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>intrapersonal (self-understanding) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>naturalistic (understanding of nature, as in biology, zoology, or farming) *new </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Existential (asking questions about life and death) *new </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Children with Special Needs <ul><li>Children who require extra help in order to learn. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>physical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mental </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Often, first problem to be noticed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>slowness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>impulsiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>clumsiness </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Developmental Psychopathology <ul><ul><li>Uses insights into typical development to understand and treat developmental disorders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>abnormality is normal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>disability changes year by year </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>adulthood may be better or worse </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>diagnosis depends on the social context </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Attention-Deficit Disorder <ul><li>ADHD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>great difficulty concentrating for more than a few moments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>inattentive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>impulsive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>overactive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Comorbidity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>presence of two or more unrelated disease conditions at same time </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Learning Disability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>marked delay in particular area of leaning that’s not caused by: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>physical disability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>mental retardation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>unusually stressful home environment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dyslexia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>unusual difficulty with reading; thought to be the result of some neurological underdevelopment </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><ul><li>autism: developmental disorder marked by inability to relate to other people normally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>extreme self-absorption </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>inability to acquire normal speech </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>autistics spectrum disorder: Any of several disorders characterized by inadequate social skills and abnormal play. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>asperger syndrome: specific type of autistic spectrum disorder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ high-functioning” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unusually intelligent is specific areas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Impaired social interaction </li></ul></ul></ul>Autistic Spectrum Disorders:
  25. 25. Educating Children with Special Needs <ul><li>Resource room </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A room in which trained teachers help children with special needs. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inclusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An approach to educating children with special needs in which they are included in regular classrooms, with appropriate aids and services. </li></ul></ul>

×