EDU 145 Ch 10


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EDU 145 Ch 10

  1. 1. Part III Early Childhood: Psychosocial Development Chapter Ten <ul><li>Emotional Development </li></ul><ul><li>Play </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges for Parents </li></ul><ul><li>Moral Development </li></ul><ul><li>Becoming Boys and Girls </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>Learning when and how to express emotions is the preeminent psychosocial accomplishment between ages 2 and 6. </li></ul><ul><li>emotional regulation: ability to control when and how emotions are expressed </li></ul>Emotional Development
  3. 3. Initiative Versus Guilt <ul><li>Initiative: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>saying something new </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>extending a skill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>beginning a project </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Guilt makes child afraid to try new activities. </li></ul><ul><li>If parents dismiss child’s emotional expressions, children may not learn emotional regulation. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>self-esteem: person’s evaluation of his or her own worth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>attractiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>overall </li></ul></ul><ul><li>self-concept: person’s understanding of who he or she is in relation to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>self-esteem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>personality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>various traits </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Guilt more mature emotion than shame. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>comes from within the person </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shame can be based on what one is, rather than on something one has done. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>comes from outside and depends on others’ awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Both help children develop moral values, a topic discussed later in this chapter. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Motivation <ul><li>intrinsic motivation: drive or reason to pursue a goal that comes from inside a person </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the need to feel smart or competent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>extrinsic motivation: drive or reason to pursue a goal that arises from the need to have one’s achievements rewarded from outside </li></ul><ul><ul><li>receiving material possessions or another person’s esteem </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. An Experiment in Motivation <ul><li>In a classic experiment, preschool children are given markers and paper and assigned to one of three groups: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>no award </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>expected award (told before they had drawn anything) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>unexpected award ( after they had drawn) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The interpretation was that extrinsic motivation (condition 2) undercut intrinsic motivation. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Externalizing and Internalizing Problems <ul><li>externalizing problems: expressing powerful feelings through uncontrolled physical or verbal outbursts </li></ul><ul><li>internalizing problems: turning one’s emotional distress inward </li></ul><ul><ul><li>feeling excessively guilty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ashamed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>worthless </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Although inborn brain patterns important, the quality of early caregiving makes a difference in children’s ability to regulate their emotions. </li></ul><ul><li>A parent who comforts them and helps to calm them down is teaching emotion regulation. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Play <ul><li>Play: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>most productive and enjoyable activity that children undertake </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>universal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>changes between ages 2 and 6 </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Peers and Parents <ul><li>Young children play best with peers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide practice in: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional regulation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Empathy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social Understanding </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Cultural Differences in Play <ul><li>Play varies by culture, gender, and age. </li></ul><ul><li>Play is an ideal means for children to learn whatever social skills are required in the social context. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chinese children fly kites. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alaskan natives tell dreams and stories. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lapp children pretend to be reindeer. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><ul><li>Solitary play </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Child plays alone, unaware of any other children playing nearby. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Onlooker play </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Child watches other children play. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parallel play </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Children play with similar toys in similar ways, but not together. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Associative play </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Children interact, observing each other and sharing material, but not mutual and reciprocal. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperative play </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Children play together, creating and elaborating a joint activity or taking turns. </li></ul></ul></ul>Five Kinds of Play
  14. 14. Rough-and-Tumble Play <ul><li>rough-and-tumble play: mimics aggression through: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>wrestling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>chasing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hitting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>no intent to harm </li></ul>
  15. 15. Drama and Pretending <ul><li>Sociodramatic play allows children to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>explore and rehearse social roles enacted around them. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>test their ability to explain and to convince playmates of their ideas. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>practice regulating their emotions by pretending to be afraid, angry, brave. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>develop a self-concept in a nonthreatening context. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Challenges for Parents <ul><li>Parents differ a great deal in what they believe about children and how they should act toward them. </li></ul><ul><li>Tend to follow the child-rearing patterns of their own parents. </li></ul><ul><li>Need to decide on a parenting style. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Parenting Styles <ul><li>Expressions of warmth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>very affectionate or cold and critical </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strategies for discipline </li></ul><ul><ul><li>how they explain, criticize, persuade, ignore, and punish </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>listen patiently; others demand silence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expectations for maturity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>parents vary in standards for responsibility and self-control </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Three Patterns of Parenting <ul><li>Authoritarian: Characterized by high behavioral standards, strict punishment of misconduct, and little communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Permissive: Characterized by high nurturance and communication but little discipline, guidance, or control. </li></ul><ul><li>Authoritative: Parents set limits but listen to the child and are flexible. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Neglectful/Uninvolved Parenting <ul><li>Fourth style of parenting </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes mistaken for permissive- but in contract this type of parenting is very careless. </li></ul><ul><li>These parents are strikingly unaware in what their child is doing. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Cultural Variations <ul><li>Chinese, Caribbean, and African American parents are often stricter. </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese mothers tend to use reasoning, empathy and expressions of disappointment. </li></ul><ul><li>Specific discipline methods and family rules are less important then: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>parental warmth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>concern </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Children, Parents, and the New Media <ul><li>What do children see? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good guys as violent as bad guys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>their violence depicted as justified </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good guys are male and White </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>except when all characters are Black or Latino </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Females of all ethnic groups are usually depicted as: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Victims or girlfriends </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Moral Development <ul><li>Children develop increasingly complex moral values, judgments, and behaviors. </li></ul><ul><li>In early childhood, children try to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>please their parents. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>avoid punishment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>make friends. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>exclude enemies. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The emotional development and the theory of mind make morality possible. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Moral Development <ul><li>empathy: ability to understand emotions and concerns of another person </li></ul><ul><li>antipathy: feelings of dislike or even hatred for another </li></ul><ul><li>antisocial behavior: feelings and actions that are deliberately hurtful or destructive to another </li></ul>
  24. 24. Types of Aggression <ul><li>instrumental aggression: hurtful behavior intended to get or keep something that another has </li></ul><ul><li>reactive aggression: impulsive retaliation for another person’s intentional or accidental action </li></ul><ul><li>relational aggression: nonphysical acts aimed at harming social connection between victim and others </li></ul><ul><li>bullying aggression: unprovoked, repeated physical or verbal attack, esp. those who are unlikely to defend themselves </li></ul>
  25. 25. Physical Punishment <ul><li>Young children are slapped, spanked, or beaten more often than children over age 6 or under age 2. </li></ul><ul><li>Many parents remember being spanked themselves and think spanking works well. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some researchers agree; some do not. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>psychological control: disciplinary technique involving threatening to withdraw love and support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>relies on child’s feelings of guilt and gratitude to parents </li></ul></ul><ul><li>time-out: disciplinary technique in which a child is separated from other people for a specified time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social punishment </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Becoming Boys and Girls <ul><li>Identity as male or female important feature of a child’s self-concept. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>first question asked about a newborn is “Boy or girl?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children become more aware of gender every year. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>parents select gender-distinct: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>clothes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>blankets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>diapers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pacifiers, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Sex and Gender <ul><li>sex differences: biological differences between males and females </li></ul><ul><ul><li>organs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hormones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>body type </li></ul></ul><ul><li>gender differences: differences in the roles and behavior of males and females prescribed by the culture </li></ul>
  29. 29. Psychoanalytic Theory <ul><li>phallic stage: Freud’s third stage of development; period from ages 3-6 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>penis becomes the focus of concern and pleasure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oedipus complex: unconscious desire of young boys to replace their father and win mother’s exclusive love </li></ul><ul><li>superego: judgmental part of the personality that internalizes the moral standards of the parents </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Electra complex: unconscious desire of girls to replace their mother and win father’s exclusive love </li></ul><ul><li>identification : attempt to defend one’s self-concept by taking on behaviors and attitudes of someone else; specifically the same-sex parent </li></ul>
  31. 31. Behaviorism <ul><li>Belief that all roles are learned and therefore result from nurture, not nature. </li></ul><ul><li>Gender distinctions are the product of ongoing reinforcement and punishment. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Cognitive Theory <ul><li>gender schema : cognitive concept or general belief based on one’s experiences </li></ul>
  33. 33. Sociocultural Theory <ul><li>androgyny : balance within a person of traditionally male and female psychological characteristics </li></ul>
  34. 34. Gender and Destiny <ul><li>Since human behavior is plastic, what gender patterns should children learn? </li></ul><ul><li>Answers vary among developmentalists, mothers, fathers, and cultures. </li></ul><ul><li>If children respond to their own inclinations, some might choose behavior, express emotions, and develop talents that are taboo, even punished in certain cultures. </li></ul>