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EDU 145 Ch 10
 

EDU 145 Ch 10

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    EDU 145 Ch 10 EDU 145 Ch 10 Presentation Transcript

    • Part III Early Childhood: Psychosocial Development Chapter Ten
      • Emotional Development
      • Play
      • Challenges for Parents
      • Moral Development
      • Becoming Boys and Girls
      • Learning when and how to express emotions is the preeminent psychosocial accomplishment between ages 2 and 6.
      • emotional regulation: ability to control when and how emotions are expressed
      Emotional Development
    • Initiative Versus Guilt
      • Initiative:
        • saying something new
        • extending a skill
        • beginning a project
      • Guilt makes child afraid to try new activities.
      • If parents dismiss child’s emotional expressions, children may not learn emotional regulation.
      • self-esteem: person’s evaluation of his or her own worth
        • intelligence
        • attractiveness
        • overall
      • self-concept: person’s understanding of who he or she is in relation to:
        • self-esteem
        • personality
        • various traits
      • Guilt more mature emotion than shame.
        • comes from within the person
      • Shame can be based on what one is, rather than on something one has done.
        • comes from outside and depends on others’ awareness
      • Both help children develop moral values, a topic discussed later in this chapter.
    • Motivation
      • intrinsic motivation: drive or reason to pursue a goal that comes from inside a person
        • the need to feel smart or competent
      • extrinsic motivation: drive or reason to pursue a goal that arises from the need to have one’s achievements rewarded from outside
        • receiving material possessions or another person’s esteem
    • An Experiment in Motivation
      • In a classic experiment, preschool children are given markers and paper and assigned to one of three groups:
        • no award
        • expected award (told before they had drawn anything)
        • unexpected award ( after they had drawn)
      • The interpretation was that extrinsic motivation (condition 2) undercut intrinsic motivation.
    • Externalizing and Internalizing Problems
      • externalizing problems: expressing powerful feelings through uncontrolled physical or verbal outbursts
      • internalizing problems: turning one’s emotional distress inward
        • feeling excessively guilty
        • ashamed
        • worthless
      • Although inborn brain patterns important, the quality of early caregiving makes a difference in children’s ability to regulate their emotions.
      • A parent who comforts them and helps to calm them down is teaching emotion regulation.
    • Play
      • Play:
        • most productive and enjoyable activity that children undertake
        • universal
        • changes between ages 2 and 6
    • Peers and Parents
      • Young children play best with peers
        • Provide practice in:
          • Emotional regulation
          • Empathy
          • Social Understanding
    • Cultural Differences in Play
      • Play varies by culture, gender, and age.
      • Play is an ideal means for children to learn whatever social skills are required in the social context.
        • Chinese children fly kites.
        • Alaskan natives tell dreams and stories.
        • Lapp children pretend to be reindeer.
        • Solitary play
          • Child plays alone, unaware of any other children playing nearby.
        • Onlooker play
          • Child watches other children play.
        • Parallel play
          • Children play with similar toys in similar ways, but not together.
        • Associative play
          • Children interact, observing each other and sharing material, but not mutual and reciprocal.
        • Cooperative play
          • Children play together, creating and elaborating a joint activity or taking turns.
      Five Kinds of Play
    • Rough-and-Tumble Play
      • rough-and-tumble play: mimics aggression through:
        • wrestling
        • chasing
        • hitting
      • no intent to harm
    • Drama and Pretending
      • Sociodramatic play allows children to:
        • explore and rehearse social roles enacted around them.
        • test their ability to explain and to convince playmates of their ideas.
        • practice regulating their emotions by pretending to be afraid, angry, brave.
        • develop a self-concept in a nonthreatening context.
    • Challenges for Parents
      • Parents differ a great deal in what they believe about children and how they should act toward them.
      • Tend to follow the child-rearing patterns of their own parents.
      • Need to decide on a parenting style.
    • Parenting Styles
      • Expressions of warmth
        • very affectionate or cold and critical
      • Strategies for discipline
        • how they explain, criticize, persuade, ignore, and punish
      • Communication
        • listen patiently; others demand silence
      • Expectations for maturity
        • parents vary in standards for responsibility and self-control
    • Three Patterns of Parenting
      • Authoritarian: Characterized by high behavioral standards, strict punishment of misconduct, and little communication.
      • Permissive: Characterized by high nurturance and communication but little discipline, guidance, or control.
      • Authoritative: Parents set limits but listen to the child and are flexible.
    • Neglectful/Uninvolved Parenting
      • Fourth style of parenting
      • Sometimes mistaken for permissive- but in contract this type of parenting is very careless.
      • These parents are strikingly unaware in what their child is doing.
    • Cultural Variations
      • Chinese, Caribbean, and African American parents are often stricter.
      • Japanese mothers tend to use reasoning, empathy and expressions of disappointment.
      • Specific discipline methods and family rules are less important then:
        • parental warmth
        • support
        • concern
    • Children, Parents, and the New Media
      • What do children see?
        • Good guys as violent as bad guys
          • their violence depicted as justified
        • Good guys are male and White
          • except when all characters are Black or Latino
        • Females of all ethnic groups are usually depicted as:
          • Victims or girlfriends
    • Moral Development
      • Children develop increasingly complex moral values, judgments, and behaviors.
      • In early childhood, children try to:
        • please their parents.
        • avoid punishment.
        • make friends.
        • exclude enemies.
      • The emotional development and the theory of mind make morality possible.
    • Moral Development
      • empathy: ability to understand emotions and concerns of another person
      • antipathy: feelings of dislike or even hatred for another
      • antisocial behavior: feelings and actions that are deliberately hurtful or destructive to another
    • Types of Aggression
      • instrumental aggression: hurtful behavior intended to get or keep something that another has
      • reactive aggression: impulsive retaliation for another person’s intentional or accidental action
      • relational aggression: nonphysical acts aimed at harming social connection between victim and others
      • bullying aggression: unprovoked, repeated physical or verbal attack, esp. those who are unlikely to defend themselves
    • Physical Punishment
      • Young children are slapped, spanked, or beaten more often than children over age 6 or under age 2.
      • Many parents remember being spanked themselves and think spanking works well.
        • Some researchers agree; some do not.
      • psychological control: disciplinary technique involving threatening to withdraw love and support
        • relies on child’s feelings of guilt and gratitude to parents
      • time-out: disciplinary technique in which a child is separated from other people for a specified time
        • Social punishment
    • Becoming Boys and Girls
      • Identity as male or female important feature of a child’s self-concept.
        • first question asked about a newborn is “Boy or girl?”
        • Children become more aware of gender every year.
      • parents select gender-distinct:
        • clothes
        • blankets
        • diapers
        • pacifiers, etc.
    • Sex and Gender
      • sex differences: biological differences between males and females
        • organs
        • hormones
        • body type
      • gender differences: differences in the roles and behavior of males and females prescribed by the culture
    • Psychoanalytic Theory
      • phallic stage: Freud’s third stage of development; period from ages 3-6
        • penis becomes the focus of concern and pleasure
      • Oedipus complex: unconscious desire of young boys to replace their father and win mother’s exclusive love
      • superego: judgmental part of the personality that internalizes the moral standards of the parents
      • Electra complex: unconscious desire of girls to replace their mother and win father’s exclusive love
      • identification : attempt to defend one’s self-concept by taking on behaviors and attitudes of someone else; specifically the same-sex parent
    • Behaviorism
      • Belief that all roles are learned and therefore result from nurture, not nature.
      • Gender distinctions are the product of ongoing reinforcement and punishment.
    • Cognitive Theory
      • gender schema : cognitive concept or general belief based on one’s experiences
    • Sociocultural Theory
      • androgyny : balance within a person of traditionally male and female psychological characteristics
    • Gender and Destiny
      • Since human behavior is plastic, what gender patterns should children learn?
      • Answers vary among developmentalists, mothers, fathers, and cultures.
      • If children respond to their own inclinations, some might choose behavior, express emotions, and develop talents that are taboo, even punished in certain cultures.