EDU 145 Ch 10
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EDU 145 Ch 10



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EDU 145 Ch 10 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Part III Early Childhood: Psychosocial Development Chapter Ten
    • Emotional Development
    • Play
    • Challenges for Parents
    • Moral Development
    • Becoming Boys and Girls
  • 2.
    • Learning when and how to express emotions is the preeminent psychosocial accomplishment between ages 2 and 6.
    • emotional regulation: ability to control when and how emotions are expressed
    Emotional Development
  • 3. Initiative Versus Guilt
    • Initiative:
      • saying something new
      • extending a skill
      • beginning a project
    • Guilt makes child afraid to try new activities.
    • If parents dismiss child’s emotional expressions, children may not learn emotional regulation.
  • 4.
    • self-esteem: person’s evaluation of his or her own worth
      • intelligence
      • attractiveness
      • overall
    • self-concept: person’s understanding of who he or she is in relation to:
      • self-esteem
      • personality
      • various traits
  • 5.
    • Guilt more mature emotion than shame.
      • comes from within the person
    • Shame can be based on what one is, rather than on something one has done.
      • comes from outside and depends on others’ awareness
    • Both help children develop moral values, a topic discussed later in this chapter.
  • 6. Motivation
    • intrinsic motivation: drive or reason to pursue a goal that comes from inside a person
      • the need to feel smart or competent
    • extrinsic motivation: drive or reason to pursue a goal that arises from the need to have one’s achievements rewarded from outside
      • receiving material possessions or another person’s esteem
  • 7. An Experiment in Motivation
    • In a classic experiment, preschool children are given markers and paper and assigned to one of three groups:
      • no award
      • expected award (told before they had drawn anything)
      • unexpected award ( after they had drawn)
    • The interpretation was that extrinsic motivation (condition 2) undercut intrinsic motivation.
  • 8. Externalizing and Internalizing Problems
    • externalizing problems: expressing powerful feelings through uncontrolled physical or verbal outbursts
    • internalizing problems: turning one’s emotional distress inward
      • feeling excessively guilty
      • ashamed
      • worthless
  • 9.
    • Although inborn brain patterns important, the quality of early caregiving makes a difference in children’s ability to regulate their emotions.
    • A parent who comforts them and helps to calm them down is teaching emotion regulation.
  • 10. Play
    • Play:
      • most productive and enjoyable activity that children undertake
      • universal
      • changes between ages 2 and 6
  • 11. Peers and Parents
    • Young children play best with peers
      • Provide practice in:
        • Emotional regulation
        • Empathy
        • Social Understanding
  • 12. Cultural Differences in Play
    • Play varies by culture, gender, and age.
    • Play is an ideal means for children to learn whatever social skills are required in the social context.
      • Chinese children fly kites.
      • Alaskan natives tell dreams and stories.
      • Lapp children pretend to be reindeer.
  • 13.
      • Solitary play
        • Child plays alone, unaware of any other children playing nearby.
      • Onlooker play
        • Child watches other children play.
      • Parallel play
        • Children play with similar toys in similar ways, but not together.
      • Associative play
        • Children interact, observing each other and sharing material, but not mutual and reciprocal.
      • Cooperative play
        • Children play together, creating and elaborating a joint activity or taking turns.
    Five Kinds of Play
  • 14. Rough-and-Tumble Play
    • rough-and-tumble play: mimics aggression through:
      • wrestling
      • chasing
      • hitting
    • no intent to harm
  • 15. Drama and Pretending
    • Sociodramatic play allows children to:
      • explore and rehearse social roles enacted around them.
      • test their ability to explain and to convince playmates of their ideas.
      • practice regulating their emotions by pretending to be afraid, angry, brave.
      • develop a self-concept in a nonthreatening context.
  • 16. Challenges for Parents
    • Parents differ a great deal in what they believe about children and how they should act toward them.
    • Tend to follow the child-rearing patterns of their own parents.
    • Need to decide on a parenting style.
  • 17. Parenting Styles
    • Expressions of warmth
      • very affectionate or cold and critical
    • Strategies for discipline
      • how they explain, criticize, persuade, ignore, and punish
    • Communication
      • listen patiently; others demand silence
    • Expectations for maturity
      • parents vary in standards for responsibility and self-control
  • 18. Three Patterns of Parenting
    • Authoritarian: Characterized by high behavioral standards, strict punishment of misconduct, and little communication.
    • Permissive: Characterized by high nurturance and communication but little discipline, guidance, or control.
    • Authoritative: Parents set limits but listen to the child and are flexible.
  • 19. Neglectful/Uninvolved Parenting
    • Fourth style of parenting
    • Sometimes mistaken for permissive- but in contract this type of parenting is very careless.
    • These parents are strikingly unaware in what their child is doing.
  • 20. Cultural Variations
    • Chinese, Caribbean, and African American parents are often stricter.
    • Japanese mothers tend to use reasoning, empathy and expressions of disappointment.
    • Specific discipline methods and family rules are less important then:
      • parental warmth
      • support
      • concern
  • 21. Children, Parents, and the New Media
    • What do children see?
      • Good guys as violent as bad guys
        • their violence depicted as justified
      • Good guys are male and White
        • except when all characters are Black or Latino
      • Females of all ethnic groups are usually depicted as:
        • Victims or girlfriends
  • 22. Moral Development
    • Children develop increasingly complex moral values, judgments, and behaviors.
    • In early childhood, children try to:
      • please their parents.
      • avoid punishment.
      • make friends.
      • exclude enemies.
    • The emotional development and the theory of mind make morality possible.
  • 23. Moral Development
    • empathy: ability to understand emotions and concerns of another person
    • antipathy: feelings of dislike or even hatred for another
    • antisocial behavior: feelings and actions that are deliberately hurtful or destructive to another
  • 24. Types of Aggression
    • instrumental aggression: hurtful behavior intended to get or keep something that another has
    • reactive aggression: impulsive retaliation for another person’s intentional or accidental action
    • relational aggression: nonphysical acts aimed at harming social connection between victim and others
    • bullying aggression: unprovoked, repeated physical or verbal attack, esp. those who are unlikely to defend themselves
  • 25. Physical Punishment
    • Young children are slapped, spanked, or beaten more often than children over age 6 or under age 2.
    • Many parents remember being spanked themselves and think spanking works well.
      • Some researchers agree; some do not.
  • 26.
    • psychological control: disciplinary technique involving threatening to withdraw love and support
      • relies on child’s feelings of guilt and gratitude to parents
    • time-out: disciplinary technique in which a child is separated from other people for a specified time
      • Social punishment
  • 27. Becoming Boys and Girls
    • Identity as male or female important feature of a child’s self-concept.
      • first question asked about a newborn is “Boy or girl?”
      • Children become more aware of gender every year.
    • parents select gender-distinct:
      • clothes
      • blankets
      • diapers
      • pacifiers, etc.
  • 28. Sex and Gender
    • sex differences: biological differences between males and females
      • organs
      • hormones
      • body type
    • gender differences: differences in the roles and behavior of males and females prescribed by the culture
  • 29. Psychoanalytic Theory
    • phallic stage: Freud’s third stage of development; period from ages 3-6
      • penis becomes the focus of concern and pleasure
    • Oedipus complex: unconscious desire of young boys to replace their father and win mother’s exclusive love
    • superego: judgmental part of the personality that internalizes the moral standards of the parents
  • 30.
    • Electra complex: unconscious desire of girls to replace their mother and win father’s exclusive love
    • identification : attempt to defend one’s self-concept by taking on behaviors and attitudes of someone else; specifically the same-sex parent
  • 31. Behaviorism
    • Belief that all roles are learned and therefore result from nurture, not nature.
    • Gender distinctions are the product of ongoing reinforcement and punishment.
  • 32. Cognitive Theory
    • gender schema : cognitive concept or general belief based on one’s experiences
  • 33. Sociocultural Theory
    • androgyny : balance within a person of traditionally male and female psychological characteristics
  • 34. Gender and Destiny
    • Since human behavior is plastic, what gender patterns should children learn?
    • Answers vary among developmentalists, mothers, fathers, and cultures.
    • If children respond to their own inclinations, some might choose behavior, express emotions, and develop talents that are taboo, even punished in certain cultures.