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Chapter1 Introduction Chapter1 Introduction Presentation Transcript

  • ©2010 Cengage Learning.
    All Rights Reserved.
    Positive Child GuidanceSixth EditionDarla Ferris Miller
  • ©2010 Cengage Learning.
    All Rights Reserved.
    IntroductionChapter 1
  • ©2010 Cengage Learning.
    All Rights Reserved.
    Families Need Child Care
    Working parents frequently have difficulty finding child care that is
    developmentally appropriate
    affordable
    accessible
    available
    Most difficult to find and afford is quality child care for infants and toddlers
  • ©2010 Cengage Learning.
    All Rights Reserved.
  • ©2010 Cengage Learning.
    All Rights Reserved.
    Fostering Positive Guidance
    Responding to children’s needs
    Showing affection
    Assuring children that they are valued
  • ©2010 Cengage Learning.
    All Rights Reserved.
    Internal Control
    Strategies for child guidance should not rely only on methods for external control, but rather must interact with and extend the development of naturally unfolding internal mechanisms and motivations for self-control
  • ©2010 Cengage Learning.
    All Rights Reserved.
    The Adult
    Adults should seek not to gain control over children but rather to guide them effectively, while setting for them an immediate and tangible example of appropriate coping and assertive negotiation
  • ©2010 Cengage Learning.
    All Rights Reserved.
    The Authoritarian Style
    This is the “sledgehammer” approach:
    “Do it because I said so.”
    “I don’t want to hear any more about it.”
    “Do as you’re told!”
  • ©2010 Cengage Learning.
    All Rights Reserved.
    The Permissive Style
    This is the “doormat” approach:
    “Gee, I hope you don’t fall off that fence.”
    “I’d rather pick up your clothes than listen to whining.”
    “Here, darling, have more chocolates—unless you prefer ice cream.”
  • ©2010 Cengage Learning.
    All Rights Reserved.
    The Authoritative Style
    This is the “guide” approach:
    “April, please stop.”
    “When you shake the hamster cage, Fluffy feels frightened and his water spills.”
    “Would you like to get fresh water for Fluffy so that you can make him feel better?”
  • ©2010 Cengage Learning.
    All Rights Reserved.
    Family Structures
    Various arrangements of people living together with children
    Dual-earner couples
    couples where both partners are gainfully employed
    Single parents
    mothers, fathers, grandparents, or guardians rearing children alone
  • ©2010 Cengage Learning.
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    Typical Causes of Stress for Families with Children
    Time crunch
    Financial pressures
    Lack of adequate sleep
    Juggling needs of job and family
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    Early Childhood Programs
    Proprietary program
    privately owned for-profit business
    Faith-based program
    owned and run by a religious group
    Publicly funded program
    funded by grants, donations, and/or government funds
  • ©2010 Cengage Learning.
    All Rights Reserved.
    Sadly, Quality Child Care Is Not Available to All Families
    According to a Philadelphia study, only 2 out of 10 centers are able to provide quality care; the rest range from poor to mediocre
    Poor children are less likely to participate in quality care programs
  • ©2010 Cengage Learning.
    All Rights Reserved.
    Child Care is Costly for Low-Income Families
    The average percent of family income spent on child care is 7.5%
    Families with annual incomes of $18,000 or less, however, tend to spend an average of 22.8% of their income on child care
    Although families with incomes of $54,000 or more tend to spend an average of 3.9%
  • ©2010 Cengage Learning.
    All Rights Reserved.
    Child Care Financial Assistance Is Hard to Get
    In most states, families with annual incomes of $25,000 do not qualify for assistance with child care expenses
    Funding for child care has declined in recent years. Federal child care funding dropped from $4.817 billion in 2002 to $4.800 billion in 2005
    During that time, TANF funding for child care decreased from $3.96 billion in 2000 to $3.28 billion in 2004
  • ©2010 Cengage Learning.
    All Rights Reserved.
    Who Benefits from Quality Child Care?
    Throughout the country, there is growing recognition that investing efforts and resources to better the lives of children is not only humane but also very cost-effective
    Head Start research has shown the dramatic long-term savings in tax dollars, not to mention all the unaccomplished dreams and wasted talents, if we fail to provide early quality care and education
  • ©2010 Cengage Learning.
    All Rights Reserved.
    Objective versus Goal
    Objective
    immediate intention or purpose
    Goal
    overarching aim or aspiration
  • ©2010 Cengage Learning.
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    The Short-Term Objective
    Children will be helped to follow the same basic rules for decent and responsible behavior that are applicable to all persons living in a democracy
    Behavior must not infringe on the rights of others
    Behavior must not present a clear risk of harm to oneself or others
    Behavior must not unreasonably damage the environment, animals, objects, or materials in the environment
  • ©2010 Cengage Learning.
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    Rules for Responsible Human Behavior
    Treat others the way you want to be treated
    Take only reasonable risks
    Take care of the environment
    (immediate surroundings as well our earth)
  • ©2010 Cengage Learning.
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    Focus on Basic Ground Rules
    Be safe
    Stop behavior if it presents a clear risk of harm to oneself or others
    Be kind
    Stop behavior if it infringes on the rights of others
    Be neat
    Stop behavior if it will unnecessarily damage the environment
  • ©2010 Cengage Learning.
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    Rights
    Human rights
    basic liberties and privileges due all human beings
    Children have a right to…
    be protected from injury
    avoid unnecessary discomfort
    protect their possessions
    be treated fairly
  • ©2010 Cengage Learning.
    All Rights Reserved.
    Long-Term Goal
    Our most critical long-term goal is to assist children in their journey to responsible adulthood by nurturing their mastery of self-control
  • ©2010 Cengage Learning.
    All Rights Reserved.
    The Spoiled Child,Myth or Reality
    Spoiling is the process of overprotecting and overindulging children
    Spoiling should never be a consideration when caring for infants
    The issue is personal responsibility,
    individual accountability, and answerability
  • ©2010 Cengage Learning.
    All Rights Reserved.
    The Environment is…
    All of the people and things that come in contact with the child
    Critically important to children’s growth and development
    Needs to be developmentally appropriate
    Should have activities matched to the natural stages of children’s growth and development
  • ©2010 Cengage Learning.
    All Rights Reserved.
    Role Models
    An appropriate role model teaches children positive behavior by serving as an example
    Children learn social skills by imitating others’
    communication styles
    attitudes
    responses to stress
  • ©2010 Cengage Learning.
    All Rights Reserved.
    Positive Role Models…
    Treat everyone with dignity and respect at all times
    Rely on communication, persistence and patience rather than on force
    Respond assertively to misbehavior with both firmness and gentleness
    Use problem-solving strategies to identify the causes of misbehavior
    Plan and prepare appropriate activities, materials and routines
    Give unconditional affection and affirmation
  • ©2010 Cengage Learning.
    All Rights Reserved.
    Learning
    Children learn best in settings that
    are relaxed
    encourage play
    invite exploration
    are relevant to their interests and abilities
  • ©2010 Cengage Learning.
    All Rights Reserved.
    Early Development
    Is fostered by
    Safe but interesting environment
    Opportunities for exploration
    Freedom within reasonable limits
    Activities that encourage movement
    Experiences that stimulate the senses