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Chapter 2 Understanding Children's Behavior
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Chapter 2 Understanding Children's Behavior

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  • 1. Chapter 2 Understanding Children’s Behavior ©2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 2. Every Child is Unique
    • Although typical patterns can be identified, children have individual patterns and rates of development
    • The only valid reason for comparing a child’s rate of development to standard rates is to be alert to any “red flags” that may indicate a need for professional screening and possibly a need for medical or therapeutic intervention
    ©2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 3. Developmental Red Flags
    • Signs a child may need referral for screening or therapeutic intervention:
      • excessive aggression
      • extreme withdrawal
      • delays in motor skill development
      • language delays
    ©2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 4. PIAGET’S Sensorimotor Period
    • Birth to two years
    • Piaget’s first stage of cognitive development
      • Cognitive system is limited to motor reflexes at birth
      • Infant builds on reflexes to practice motor coordination
      • Activities become generalized into increasingly complex chains of behavior
      • Child has physiological urge to practice motor skills and explore surroundings
    ©2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 5. Appropriate Guidance for the Sensorimotor Period
    • Provide responsive, affectionate caregiving
    • Provide consistent, predictable routines
    • Nurture the development of trust by responding promptly to the child’s needs
    ©2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 6. PIAGET’S Preoperational Thought
    • Two to six years
    • In Piaget’s second stage of cognitive development, the child
      • begins with achievement of object permanence
      • is egocentric and cannot take another’s point of view
      • develops representational skills in imagery and language
      • in imaginative play, can let one object stand as a representation for another
      • believes quantity changes when objects are rearranged
    ©2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 7. Appropriate Guidance for the Preoperational Period
    • In a caring and consistent way, teach self- help skills such as self-feeding, toilet learning, and dressing
    • Give children opportunities to make choices within reasonable limitations
    • Provide a developmentally appropriate environment for the child to explore and challenge emerging skills
    • As children grow, increase their responsibilities to match their abilities
    ©2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 8. PIAGET’S Concrete Operations
    • Six to 12 years
    • In Piaget’s third stage of cognitive development, the child
      • develops the ability to take another’s point of view
      • takes into account more than one perspective simultaneously
      • understands and solves concrete, but not abstract, problems
      • develops the ability to replay events mentally and evaluate experience logically
      • does not consider all logically possible outcomes
    ©2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 9. Appropriate Guidance for the Concrete Operational Period
    • Provide creative activities
    • Give encouragement and deserved recognition to support the development of competence and self-esteem
    • Use class meetings to solve problems
    • Teach conflict resolution skills
    • Nurture each child to help her discover and develop her own special talents and abilities
    ©2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 10. Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages
    • STAGE 1: INFANTS—BIRTH TO ONE YEAR
    • Crisis: Trust versus mistrust
    • Description: Early in life, infants depend on others for food, care, and affection, and must be able to blindly trust caregivers to meet their needs
    • Positive outcome: A sense of hope —If their needs are met consistently and responsively, infants will develop a secure attachment and will develop a sense of trust
    • Negative outcome: If not, infants will not develop a sense of trust
    ©2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 11. Trust versus Mistrust
    • In Erikson’s first stage, babies need…
        • Consistent, warm, loving caregivers
        • To have their comfort needs met immediately
        • To be held much of the time, or carried in a sling or baby carrier so they can feel the warmth of the adult’s body
    ©2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 12. Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages
    • STAGE 2: TODDLERS—ONE TO TWO YEARS
    • Crisis: Independence versus doubt and shame
    • Description: Toddlers begin to develop self-help skills, self-feeding, potty learning, dressing, etc., at this age. Their self-confidence in this stage hinges on their negotiation of this difficult new territory with caregivers
    • Positive outcome: A strong will —If caregivers encourage the child’s initiative and encourage her when she fails, she will develop confidence
    • Negative outcome: If caregivers are overprotective, negative, or disapproving of her newfound independence, she may doubt her abilities and feel shame
    ©2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 13. Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt
    • In Erikson’s second stage, toddlers need to…
        • Discover that their behavior is their own
        • Assert their new sense of independence
        • Have a safe environment to explore freely
        • Be assured of unconditional affection
    ©2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 14. Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages
    • STAGE 3: PRESCHOOLERS—TWO TO SIX YEARS
    • Crisis: Initiative versus guilt
    • Description: Children find a new sense of power and freedom as they develop the motor skills and the language skills they need to become fully engaged in the environment and the social interactions around them
    • They discover that with this power and freedom comes new adult pressure to control immature impulses and to follow rules
    • Positive outcome: A sense of purpose —If adults are encouraging, positive, and consistent in guidance, children learn to accept rules without guilt
    • Negative outcome: If not, children may develop a sense of guilt and may become clingy and dependent, or rebellious and resistant
    ©2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 15. Initiative versus Guilt
    • In Erikson’s third stage, preschoolers need…
        • Materials for creative play such as
            • Arts, crafts and other construction supplies
            • Dress-ups for role play
            • Hands-on cooking experiences
            • Outdoor play equipment that challenges their motor skills
        • A non-critical, supportive environment in which to try out their new skills
        • Help, ideas, questions and enthusiasm about their new abilities
    ©2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 16. Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages
    • STAGE 4: ELEMENTARY AND MIDDLE SCHOOL-AGERS—SIX TO TWELVE YEARS
    • Crisis: Industry versus inferiority
    • Description: School is the critical factor of this stage. Children make a transition from the world of home into the world of community, school, and peers. Home is still important, but succeeding outside the home takes on new importance
    • Positive outcome: A feeling of competence —If children learn that they can succeed, that others value their work, they develop a sense of competence
    • Negative outcome: If not, they will develop a sense of inferiority and may start looking for negative ways to win status with peers (Erikson, 1959)
    ©2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 17. Industry versus Inferiority
    • In Erikson’s fourth stage of development, children need to…
      • Expand their understanding of their world
      • Continue to develop appropriate gender-role identity
      • Learn basic skills required for school success
      • Achieve sense of industry, setting and attaining personal goals
    • Failure to do so results in a sense of inadequacy
    ©2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 18. Developing Self-Awareness
    • Egocentrism
      • cognitive limitation of children in the preoperational stage
      • inability to view reality from standpoint of another
    • Self-concept
      • one’s idea or image of oneself
    • Self-esteem
      • perceiving oneself as worthwhile and valuable
    ©2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 19.
    • Object permanence
      • recognition that something hidden from view is not gone forever
    • Stimuli
      • perceptions taken in through the senses that might spark activity or thought
    • Unconscious reactions
      • unplanned actions
    ©2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 20. Conditioning
    • Classical conditioning
      • associative learning made famous by Pavlov’s experiments with dogs
      • no contingency between response and reinforcer
    • Operant conditioning
      • associative learning like Skinner’s experiments with rats and pigeons
      • contingency between response and reinforcer
    ©2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 21.
    • Metacognition
      • This is the ability to reflect on or evaluate one’s own behavior or actions
      • Preschoolers gradually become more aware of their own choices and intentions
    • Cephalocaudal
      • Growth follows a pattern
      • It begins with the head and proceeds down the body
    • Proximodistal
      • Development proceeds from center of the body outward
    ©2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 22. Appropriate Touch
    • Casual, affectionate, reciprocal and welcome physical contact
    • Never sexual, exploitative or aggressive
    ©2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 23. Behaviors
    • Habituated
      • One is accustomed to stimuli because of repetition
      • Stimulus may be ignored once it becomes usual
    • Learned helplessness
      • Prior repeated exposure to negative stimuli that is inescapable
      • Retards one’s ability to learn when avoidance is possible
      • Develops in children who have no control over their environment
    ©2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 24. Bedsharing
    • Sleeping with an infant may be beneficial if…
        • The baby sleeps on his back (unless the doctor says otherwise)
        • The baby’s face does not come in contact with soft surfaces or loose covers
        • The sides or edges of the bed do not present entrapment possibilities
        • The bed is not also shared with other siblings
        • The adults do not smoke or use substances such as alcohol or drugs
    ©2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 25.
    • External environment…
      • physical surroundings
      • daily routines
      • interactions with others
    • Internal sensations…
      • inner feelings
      • biological urges
      • pleasurable sensations
      • discomforts
    Conditions that Affect a Child’s Behavior ©2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 26. Guidance Styles
    • Authoritarian
      • “ The Sledgehammer”
        • forcibly gains control over children
    • Permissive
      • “ The Doormat”
        • gives up responsibility for children
    • Authoritative
      • “ The Guide”
        • assertively develops children’s self-discipline and self-control
    ©2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 27.
    • The attachment of babies to their adult caregivers is a critical part of their overall healthy social and emotional development
    ©2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 28. Anxiety
    • Stranger anxiety is apprehension in the presence of unfamiliar people
    • Separation anxiety is apprehension when separated from caregiver
    • Stranger and separation anxiety usually peak in young toddlers
    • Occurrence varies widely among children
    ©2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 29. Babies & Toddlers Are Egocentric
    • In the first months of life, babies perceive themselves as part of their caregivers and surroundings
    • Toddlers have some sense of personal identity, but perceive everything apart from themselves as belonging to them. Caregivers often hear the word “MINE”!
    ©2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
    • My Mommy
    • My Daddy
    • My house
    • My toys
    • My food
    • My tricycle
  • 30. Toddlers Can’t Yet Control Their Actions or Emotions
    • They flip-flop between testing their new independence and being clingy
    • They use their senses (touch, sight, smell, taste, and hearing) to explore the physical attributes of their environment
    ©2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 31. Toddlers Repeatedly Explore Cause and Effect
    • Cause-and-effect relationships are an important focal point for toddler learning
        • Cause & Effect = “If I push this button, a bell always rings.”
    • Toddlers also explore the cause-and-effect relationships that occur in social interactions
        • “ If I touch the outlet, my mommy always says ‘no, no.’”
    ©2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 32. Toddlers Need to Explore
    • Healthy, well-developing toddlers have a curiosity that is boundless
    • Their desire to explore at times overshadows all other needs
    ©2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 33. Safety is Critical for Toddlers Because…
    • They can move around the environment
    • They can’t learn or remember rules yet
    • Their desire to explore is so powerful that it drives them to touch, taste, climb and otherwise explore everything
    ©2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 34. Communication
    • Body language
      • nonverbal communication
      • facial expression, tone of voice, body posture, or gestures
    • Expressive language
      • ability to actively communicate
      • vocal speech, writing, or sign language
    • Receptive language
      • ability to comprehend
      • vocal speech, writing, or sign language
    ©2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 35.
    • Autonomy
      • Self-sufficiency and self-reliance
    • Social and emotional growth
      • Affective development
    ©2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 36.
    • Community of learners
      • collaborative learners who cooperate as a team
      • sharing ideas, helping each other and solving problems together
    • Competitors
      • Opponents are adversaries who contend against each other
      • Competition discourages cooperation and may damage self-esteem
      • Competitors use comparisons that label and stereotype children
    ©2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 37. Some Children Become Attached to Security Blankets, Pacifiers and other Cuddlies
    • In most primitive cultures, children stay in close physical contact with their mothers’ bodies most of the time during their first three years of life
    • In fast-moving modern industrialized societies, it is not too surprising that babies and toddlers may find that “cuddlies” help them feel more comfortable
    • As much as possible during the day, a child over three should be gently encouraged to refrain from sucking a pacifier or thumb. It is difficult for him to practice language effectively with his mouth immobilized
    ©2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 38. The Group Contagion
    • In a group, silly behavior sometimes becomes “contagious” and spreads like wildfire
    • A well-behaved group can suddenly go gleefully out of control
    • Children who would not normally behave inappropriately can get caught up in the moment
    ©2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 39. Competent Three-Year-Olds Are…
    • Self-confident and trusting
    • Intellectually inquisitive
    • Able to use language to communicate
    • Physically and mentally healthy
    • Able to relate well to others
    • Empathic toward others
    ©2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 40. Preschoolers Can Make…
    • Plans
    • Decisions
    • Choices
    ©2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Preschoolers become more consciously aware of their own interests and intentions
  • 41. Using Words to Express Feelings
    • Preschoolers can be guided firmly to use words to get a point across rather than relying on aggression
    • They can be helped to practice appropriate words and allowed to express strong emotions, even anger, through their words
    ©2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 42. Stress Traps for parents and educators
    • Perfectionism
    • People pleasing
    • Self-doubt
    ©2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 43. Friendship Is Critical to Preschoolers
    • Preschoolers are elated when they feel liked by peers
    • Preschoolers feel emotionally crushed when they feel disliked
    • Some preschoolers make friends easily
    • Others experience a roller-coaster of emotional turmoil
    ©2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 44. Responsible Preschoolers
    • Allow them to do challenging things
    • Never do for them what they can do for themselves
    • Help them learn to follow rules
        • Be safe
        • Be kind
        • Be neat
    ©2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 45. Competition versus Community of Learners
    • Competition
        • Children become acutely aware of comparison among themselves
        • Whenever there are winners, by definition, there will be losers
        • Winners may feel stressed and pressured about continuing to win
        • Losers may feel inadequate
    • Community of Learners
        • Children share a sense of belonging
        • Children contribute to each other’s learning
        • Children work toward common goals
        • Children help each other, and cooperate as a team
    ©2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  • 46. Schoolagers Ask Questions
    • Schoolagers become more aware of the world around them
    • They want to know a simple answer to every puzzling phenomenon encountered
    • Early school-aged children are less gullible than preschoolers
    • They are quick to see discrepancies in adult actions
    ©2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.