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Transcript

  • 1.
  • 2. Chapter 1
    Starting the Process
  • 3. Early Childhood Education
    Birth through age eight
    Child-centered curriculum and environment
    Has a rich history
  • 4. Developmental Theorists
    Erik Erikson
    Jean Piaget
    Lev Vygotsky
    Howard Gardner
  • 5. Psychosocial Theory
    Eight stages
    First four stages most relevant to ECE
    Trust versus mistrust
    Autonomy versus shame and doubt
    Initiative versus guilt
    Industry versus inferiority
  • 6. Cognitive Theory
    Learning
    Assimilation
    Schema/schemata
    Accommodation
    Equilibrium
    Constructivism
  • 7. Cognitive Theory(continued)
    Stages
    Sensorimotor (birth to about 2 years)
    Object permanence
    Preoperational (about 2 to 7 years)
    Egocentric
    Concrete operations (7 to 12 years)
    Formal operations (12 through adulthood)
  • 8. Sociocultural Theory
    Learning is socially constructed
    Zone of proximal development
    Scaffolding
  • 9. Multiple Intelligences
    Cross-cultural approach
    All eight types of intelligences are equal
    Verbal linguistic and logical-mathematical
    Well known and valued
    Other six types must be addressed and celebrated
  • 10. Developmentally Appropriate Practices
    Age appropriate
    Infants, toddlers, preschoolers, primary
    Individually appropriate
    Every child is unique
    Culturally and linguistically appropriate
    Inclusiveness
  • 11. Child Development and Learning
  • 12. Child Development and Learning(continued)
  • 13. Child Development and Learning(continued)
  • 14. Individual Appropriateness
    Child’s needs
    Child’s strengths
    Child’s interests
    Data are collected through observation and documentation
    Information helps to create a child-centered curriculum
    Put yourself in the child’s place
  • 15. Social and Cultural Appropriateness
    Eliminate bias
    Reject beliefs or feelings that result in unfair treatment
    Create anti-bias
    Challenge prejudices and stereotypes
    Create an inclusive classroom
  • 16. Creative Appropriateness
    Creativity is an integral part of the play environment
    The process is more important than the product
    The atmosphere should be relaxed, self-directed, and individually-paced
    Eliminate conditions that provoke stressors and are time-limited
  • 17. Play
    Play is the core of developmentally appropriate practice
    Play is the foundation for the curriculum
    Threats to play
    Teachers, administrators, policy-makers, and families who do not understand the importance
    Social and economic factors
    Lack of time and opportunity
    Electronic competition
  • 18. Parten’s Developmental Stages of Play
  • Theorists and Play
    Erickson
    Play helps develop cooperative relationships
    Piaget
    Practice play
    Symbolic play
    Games with rules
    Lev Vygotsky
    Social play helps child “interpret the world”
  • 24. Some Tips for Teachers
    Create a positive place for play
    Introduce age-appropriate play activities and materials
    Provide time for play
    Respect individual differences in play
    Respect and provide for cultural diversity in play
  • 25. Why Play Is Important
    Play enhances all developmental domains—physical, social, cognitive, emotional, creative
    Play inspires imagination, creativity, exploration, self-confidence, more play
    Play enhances problem solving, new skills, self-esteem, and sense of security
  • 26. Planning and Scheduling
    Goals
    Objectives
    Both should be developmentally appropriate
    Routines
    Schedule
    Both create a framework for security
  • 27. Daily Schedule
    A schedule is a framework of basic time lines, curricula, and activities
  • 28. Communication with Families
    Build a collaborative partnership
    Establish positive communication between home and school
    Be responsive to the cultural and linguistic differences of children and their families
    Share goals
    Use a variety of methods to communicate with and involve families in programs