Philology Also known as or Historical Linguistics, is a branch of Linguistics that studies language Sociolinguistics Applied Linguistics (AL) change and language It provides the theoretical relationship. It studies how dialects and descriptive differ between groups foundations for the separated by certain investigation and solution social variables such as of language-related ethnicity, religion, problems, especially those of language education. status, gender, level of LINGUISTICS BACK education, age, etc., GROUND The word Linguistics was used in the middle of the 19th century to emphasize Psycholinguistics Socio-Ethnic Linguistics the difference between a newer approach to the It is a disciplineIt focuses on the functions concerned withof language in our societies, study of language that andespecially characterized by the more traditional relations betweenthe deep differences of class, approach of Philology. messages and theethnicity, gender and characteristics ofgeneration . individuals who select and interpret them. Anthropological Computational Linguistics Linguistics It deals with the It is a branch of artificial relationship between intelligence that deals with language and culture and analyzing, understanding has also been a major and generating the concern among linguists, languages that humans use especially anthropological naturally in order to linguists. interface with computers
CONTRASTIVE LINGUISTICS THEORICAL LINGUISTIC THEORICALCOMPONENT CONTRASTIVE (ACS) STUDIES (TCS) It deals with a Practical universal category consequences of and the ways this differences between universal category is contrasted languages. realized in contrasted languages. It is a help for One of its problems teaching purposes. is how to contrast languages because - Bilingual analysis or two objects may translation. appear either similar or different.
COMPARATIVE APPLIED LINGUISTICS CONTRASTIVES LINGUISTICSOriginally known as Certainly studies, analyzes andComparative Philology that is compares two or more languagesa branch of historical which is descriptively in order to fin outconcerned with comparing similarities and differences amonglanguages in order to stablish them during the language learningtheir historical relatedness. process. This may be known as Comparative Diachronic Linguistics
CL It proceeds level by Lexis Language, Contrastive linguistics terms, expressions. level and the traditional syllabus three level of lexis provide Sound Utterances ample scope. Syntax Grammar rules, structure. It sis the study of the ability Contrastive of natural language pragmatics speakers to communicate more than what is stated. Every difference or similarity between two The main technique is to or more related Methodology of match up to languages by languages should be BASIS FOR contrastive linguistics using the contrastive explicable in terms of method. TEACHING isolation or contextCONTRASTIVE analysis Pronunciation According to Lado it is Intonation important to study the Vocabulary New trends micro linguistics and the Cohesion Stress macro linguistics. Structure Rhythm Grammar Junctures Apple [æpəɫ] It is a body of the test. The role of corpora It recognizes and uses the Stressed Unestressed IPA conventional register. Syllable Syllable -Clear - Short - Neat - Reduced - Long
It is an arbitrary structured system of utterances soundsgestures, signs and movements, written symbols,morphemes words and sentences used for humancommunication 1.- Mandarin 2.- Hindi According to the statistics we can classify the languages 3.- English most 5 important languages in the world. 4.- Arabic 5.- Spanish The following information chart contains reference data concerning the world areas, number of languages and speakers throughout the world. World Languages Speakers Area Number Percent Percent Asia 2,269 32.8% 61.0% Africa 2,092 30.3% 11.8% Pacific 1,310 19.0% 0.1% Americas 1,002 14.5% 0.8% Europe 239 3.5% 26.3% Totals 6,912 100.0% 100.0%
Group of languages proto- Language Family language A language as a whole from the Individual language same family, eg. Portuguese. Living languages Extinct languages They are extinct Ancient languages A distinct language from Historic languages any modern languages. Constructed languages Identifiers- artificial language.VERBAL Dialect A variety of languageLANGUAGE Intelligibility Recognize the dialects forms Standard languages Dialect used in written form Nonstandard language It doesn’t follow the standard rules Idiolect Personal language Jargon Used by people who work in a particular area, eg, lawyers Coloquialism Informal expression Slang Informal language, rude
Written Permanent written language symbols Idiographic written Ideograms : Chinese language Syllabic writing Syllables – separate language symbols: Japanese NON Alphabetical Sound pronunciation- writing VERBAL language letters: Spanish, English, Italian.LANGUAGE Artulcated Phonetic spelling of languagel phonetic alphabets English Indo-European language language Spanish Romance branch language
1.- The same letter • Spanish: <cerda> [ˈserđa ] <casa> [ˈkasa ]combination can • English:< letter> [ ˈlɛ:ɾɚ ] <tip> [ˈthɪpˉˡ]refer to different • Italian: <Corpo> [ˈkɔɾpo] <monte> [ˈm nte]sounds.2.- The same sound • Spanish: <bosque> [ˈboske ] <vaso> [ˈbaso ]can be written withdifferent letters or • English: <women> [ˈwɪmɪn] <busy > [ ˈbɪzɪ ]letter combination. • Italian: <certo> [ʧɛɾto] <male> [maɫe]3.- Different • Spanish: <ostia> España: [oʃtja] Ecuador: [ostja]dialects pronounce • English: <cosy> American E: [ˈkoƱzi] British E: [ˈkoƱsi]the same worddifferently. • Italian: <felice> Sicilia: [feliʧe] Toscana: [filiʧe]
CLUSTER Vowel cluster Consonant cluster This deals with the pronunciation It is a group or sequence of that students give to synthetic words consonants that appear containing orthographic vowel- together in a syllable without a cluster and analyzes the observed vowel between them. pronunciations . Initial cluster Medial clusters Final clustersInitial two-consonant clusters Spanish and English mightmay occur in both English and have from two up to four- Spanish has no clusters in final positionSpanish while three-consonant medial consonant clusters while English words containing fromclusters just take place in except English which may pile two up to four final consonant clusterEnglish. up to five-consonant clusters: - may perhaps occur: -VCC; -VCCC ; - VCCCCCV-. VCCCC. Four final consonant cluster is by and large the outcome of the plural forms, third person singular or possessive nouns in English. Intrasyllabic medial cluster When it belongs to the second of English: /nd/: <second> Spanish: /pɾ/: <probar> the two syllable peaks between English: /pɹ/: <pray> which they appear as medial /nst/: <against> Italian: /pɾ/: <premere> /mpts/: <attempts> Intersyllabic medial cluster It is when one consonant of the cluster belongs to the first syllable and the other(s) to the second, so syllable division occurs between the members. English: Intrasyllabic <address> Intersyllabic: <improper>
It is the study of the system of phonemes of a language. • It studies the relevant, distinctive and significant elements in a language • Unit: Phoneme that is the smallest basic andPhonemics theoretical unit of language. /ˈkɹeyn/ ≠ /ˈgɹeyn/ • It is the study and description of the speech sounds made by the human voice.Phonetics button • Unit: An allophone is a real speech variant of a specific phoneme [ˈbʌtn ] which occurs under certain circumstances.
Latin alphabet Arabic alphabetThe Latin alphabet, also called the Roman The Arabic Alphabet or Arabic abjad is thealphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic script used for writing several languages ofwriting system in the world today. Asia and Africa, such as Arabic and Urdu. After the Latin alphabet is the second most The ISO basic Latin alphabet widely used alphabet around the world. A B C D E F G H I J K LM N O P Q R S TU V W X Y Z a bc d e fg h ijk l m n o pq r s t u v w xy z ALPHABET A system of characters arranged in a fixed conventional order symbolizing sounds or letters used in a writing system to represent speech. Cyrillic alphabet Greek alphabet The Cyrillic alphabet is an alphabetic writing systemThe Greek alphabet is a set of twenty four letters that has developed in the First Bulgarian Empire during the 10thbeen used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or century AD at the Preslav Literary School and is used inearly 8th cebtury BC. It is still used today. It is the first and various languages, past and present, of Eastern Europeoldest alphabet in the narrow sense that it notes each and Asia, especially those of Slavic origin as well as nonvowel and consonant with a separate symbol. Slavic languages influenced by Russian.
Description The general principle of the IPA is to provide one letter for each distinctive sound (speech segment).This means that it does not use combinations of letters to represent single sounds, the way English does with ‹sh› and ‹ng›, or single letters to represent multiple sounds the way ‹x› Linguists represents /ks/ or /ɡz/ in English. Symbols and soundsAlthough IPA is popular fortranscription by linguists, it is also The International Phonetic Alphabetcommon to use Americanist phonetic is based on the Latin alphabet, usingnotation or IPA together with as few non-Latin forms assome nonstandard symbols, forreasons including reducing the error IPA possible. The Association created the IPA so that the sound values ofrate on reading handwritten most consonant letters taken fromtranscriptions or avoiding perceived The International Phonetic the Latin alphabet would correspondawkwardness of IPA in some Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic to "international usage“.situations. system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet. The IPA is designed to represent only those qualities of speech that are distinctive in spoken language: phonemes, intonation, and the separation of words and syllables. UsageAlthough the IPA offers over a hundred andsixty symbols for transcribing speech, only a Brackets and phonemesrelatively small subset of these will be usedto transcribe any one language. It is possible [square brackets] are used for phoneticto transcribe speech with various levels of details of the pronunciation.precision. A precise phonetic /slashes/ are used to marktranscription, in which sounds are describedin a great deal of detail, is known as a narrow off phonemes all of which are distinctive in the language,.
TRANSCRIPTION It is a system of notation that represents utterances or partial utterrances of a language pronounced by people in general. Some details might be ignored or included in the transcription. Therefore, depending on the level of detail abstraction, the hearing limits and IPA conventions, two kinds of transcription appear: Phonemic or Broad Transcription and Phonetic or Narrow Transcription. Broad transcription Narrow transcriptionAlso identified as PhonemicTranscription, it is It is also named as Narrow Transcription. It is athe notation that represents utterances of a notation that represents variants of a specificlanguage by indicating only the significant phoneme. It captures as many as possible detailsand underlying sounds (phonemes) that make up which are represented by the diacritics provideda word. It ignores as many as possible details and in the IPA.captures . [ ˈpha:ɹk ̚ ] [ˈga:ɹʔņ ] /ˈpaɹk / /ˈgaɹdən / [phɹɪˈtɛ:nd ] [ˈkhɔ:ɫ ] /pɹɪˈtɛnd / /ˈkɔl / STRESS It is another important feature which is often represented in phonetic and phonemic transcription. Every single word has a stressed syllable. The vowel sound of the stressed syllable is often longer, louder and higher in pitch. Currently, to show main stressed syllables a superscript accent mark is being placed before the stressed syllable ( ˈ )
Marking stress in both monosyllabic and multisyllabic words is some didactic advice for students to beable to use and pronounce properly the stressed syllables in words. This will help them distinguish thepart of speech the words belong to as well as recognize the phonemic and/or phonetic changes thathappen within the phonological group and that mostly implies changes in word meanings;e.g. / pɹəˈdʒɛkt / /ˈfɪltər / / ˈblækˌbɔɹd / /ˈblækˌbɔɹd / / ˈpɹadʒɪkt / Verb Noun Noun Noun Noun to stick out an apparatus piece of work beyond an edgecontaining paper that needs skill, tool used in Notice how or surface.through which a effort, and classroom to stress placement careful planning. Notice how liquid can be write on any alters word stress placement passed to make board which is meanings even alters the vowel it clean. black. though the part quality of the Notice that of speech is kept. stressed syllable stress goes on andthe first syllable. consequently the word meaning and part of speech change
Stress It shows the following syllable is ˈcar mark stressed Angle They are used to enclose the spelling of < pretty >brackets the orthographic notation. Slant / ˈteyp / Phonemic transcription uses them.brackets Square [ ˈtheɪ̭p ̚ They are used around detailed phoneticbrackets ] transcription.Vertical It shows a pause in / ˈyɛs hiyz ˈkəmɪŋ / line phonetic transcriptionDivision It shows the boundaries between ·marker syllables. It shows the variation in the vowel orDiacritics ~ consonant quality. Nasal or dark quality
The paired vocal folds are located in thelarynx, coursing from the thyroid cartilageinteriorly to the arytenoids cartilages.. The The vocal folds vibrate to create sounds forlips form the oral cavity of the mouth and vowels and voiced consonants. The tongue isare comprised of muscle fibers from a segmented in three sections: the tongue tip,number of different facial muscles..The also known as apex, the blade, the tonguelarynx is the portion of the breathing, or back is that part lying below the soft palate.respiratory, tract containing the vocal cords The uvula is that small piece of soft tissuewhich produce vocal sound. It is located that can be seen dangling down from the softbetween the pharynx and the trachea. The palate over the back of the tongue.larynx, also called the voice box, is a 2-inch-long, tube-shaped organ in the neck.
Area frontcentra back l Mid VOWELS Hig Tongue A vowel is a speech sound produced by human beings when positio the breath flows out through mouth without being blocked h by teeth, tongue or lips. Vowels are not formed by blocking Lo n airflow; instead by passing air through different shapes of spread neutral roundedVowel w the mouth and different positions of the tongue and lips. The vocal folds are adducted and vibrating. That is whygrid every English and Spanish vowels sound is voiced. Lip shape DIPHTHONGS When vowels occur in combinations, they are called diphthongs. A diphthong starts in one position (nucleus) and moves to another position (the glide) or viceversa. Therefore, a diphthong is a speech sound which is usually considered as one distinctive vowel sound of a particular language but really involves two vowels, with one vowel gliding to the other. VOWEL PRODUCTION Dimensions: - Voicing: Every vowel sound is voiced. - Vowel quality: Simple and Complex. - Tongue position: High, middle and low. - Area: Front, central , back. - Muscle tension: Lax and Tense. - Lips shape: Spread,, neutral and rounded.
ENGLISH SPANISHDIPHTHONG DIPHTHONG The basic rule of vowel combinations and syllables is that two strong vowels cannotA diphthong is a complex vowel, made of be in the same syllable, so that when twotwo components; a diphthong begins as strong vowels are next to each other, theyone vowel and finishes as another. Usually, are considered to belong to separatethe two components can be referred to as a syllables, <ma•re•o> . But othernucleus and an off-glide. combinations -such as a strong and a weak vowel or two weak vowels are considered to form a diphthong, <frio•len•to>
SPANISH, ENGLISH /aw/SPANISH, ENGLISH /ay/SPANISH, ENGLISH /ɔy/- /oy/
/ya/ voiced, complex- non adjacent glide, high front becoming low central, tense, spread becoming neutral. Spanish rising diphthongs /ye/ /yo/ voiced, complex- voiced, complex- adjacent glide, non adjacent high front glide, high front becoming low becoming mid front, tense, back, tense, spread. spread becoming rounded. /wa/ /wy/ voiced, complex- voiced, complex- non adjacent non adjacent glide, high back /yw/ /we/ glide, high back becoming low /wo/voiced, complex- central, tense, voiced, complex- becoming high front, tense, voiced, complex- non adjacent rounded non adjacent rounded adjacent glide, high front becoming glide, high back becoming mid becoming mid becoming spread. glide, high back neutral. becoming midback, tense, sprea front, tense, back, tense, roun d becoming rounded ded. rounded. becoming spread.