Foundations of
Distance Education
Week 3
Assist. Prof. Yavuz Samur
1
Today
• Group Work Contract
• Assignment 4 - Topic 1 - Presentation
– Theories of Distance Education by Serdar
Gümrükçü an...
Let’s remember…
• What is distance education?
• Why do we need distance education?
• What problems do we have in our
educa...
Place/Time

4
Advantages of Hybrid Instruction
for teachers
• allows instructors to maximize classroom
efficiency by providing students ...
Advantages of Hybrid Instruction
for students
• can access online course materials at times more
conducive to their busy s...
Examples of Hybrid
• the instructor lectures and facilitates class discussion
in the face-to-face classes, students comple...
Framework for e-learning

8
Framework for e-learning
• The pedagogical dimension of E-learning refers
to teaching and learning. This dimension
address...
Framework for e-learning
• The interface design refers to the overall
look and feel of e-learning programs.
Interface desi...
Framework for e-learning
• The management of e-learning refers to
the maintenance of learning
environment and distribution...
Framework for e-learning
• The ethical considerations of e-learning
relate to social and political influence,
cultural div...
Let’s have a 10 min break!

13
What we are going to talk about today…

14
Theories in Distance Education
• Behaviorist
–
–
–
–

Classical Conditioning
Law of effect
Operant Conditioning
Learning b...
We are concerned with:
• Behaviourism
– actions based on stimuli

• Cognitivism
– learner processes & strategies

• Social...
Behaviourism
Overview
• Behaviourism assumes a learner is essentially passive,
responding to environmental stimuli.
• The ...
Focus - scientific & objective
•

Behaviourists try to explain the
causes of behaviour by studying
only those behaviours t...
Classical Conditioning

19
Classical Conditioning
(Pavlov)
•
•

Learning by association.
Salivation in dogs as part of research programme
– dogs had ...
“Pavlov’s Dog”

21
Classical Conditioning

22
 Bir akvaryumun içine, hem av hem de avcı
olan balıklar yerleştiriliyor fakat akvaryumu
ortasından ikiye ayıran bir cam b...
 Anne bebeğini dışarı çıkaracağı zaman onu
bebek arabasına bindirmektedir. Bir süre sonra
bebek çocuk arabasına her oturd...
Operant Conditioning (Skinner)
• Operant conditioning (or instrumental
conditioning) is a form of learning in
which an ind...
Example of Operant Conditioning

26
Operant Conditioning
• Classical conditioning is an automatic and
unconscious reaction.
– First stimulus and then reaction...
Reinforcement and Punishment

28
Reinforcement Schedules

29
Behaviorism & Learning
• Learning for behaviourism is defined as a permanent
change in behavior in the learner.
• This the...
Making use of reinforcement
• Premack principle: You can play game
after you finish your homework.
• Some questions are 10...
Classical or Operant?
• A professor has a policy of exempting
students from the final exam if they
maintain perfect attend...
Learning by observation

33
Behaviorism and DE
• Stimulus: Distance education tools such
as computer, video, graphics, sounds…etc
• Response: Students...
Behaviorism and DE
• Examine: Students can get chance to examine
things such as 3D version of a map.
• Observation: Visiti...
Cognitivism

36
Cognitivism
• The cognitivist paradigm essentially
argues that the “black box” of the
mind should be opened and
understood...
Cognitivism - Origins
• 1960s - cognitivist revolution replaced
behaviorism in as the dominant paradigm.
• Mental processe...
Cognitivism


A response to behaviorism, people are not “programmed
animals” that merely respond to environmental stimuli...
Information processing model

40

http://www.innovativelearning.com/educational_psychology/cognitivism/index.htm
Which factors influence learning in
cognitivism?

• Teacher
–
–
–
–
–

Instructional explanations
Demonstrations
Illustrat...
Cognitivism and DE
• Stimulate semantic (meanings of words)
knowledge: Relate material to the
learner’s experiences and ex...
Cognitivism and DE
• Immerse learners in problem-centered
activities: Provide opportunities for
learners to work immediate...
Cognitivism and DE
• Provide frequent and varied practice:
Implement a variety of interactive
problems for practice, exerc...
Before Constructivism
• Below is a list of different methods of learning. The
percentages listed represent the average amo...
Constructivism

46
Constructivism
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Individualized learning
Learning by doing
Student centered learning
Real life experiences
Cr...
Oluşturmacı Yaklaşımda UE
• Çoklu bakış açıları (multiple perspectives): Kavramlar ve içerik
çok yönlü bakış açıları ve an...
Oluşturmacı Yaklaşımda UE
• Otantik etkinlikler, bağlamlar: Öğrenme durumları,
çevreler, beceriler, içerik ve görevler ger...
Oluşturmacı Yaklaşımda UE
• Problem çözme: Problem çözmede, yüksek
düzeyde düşünme becerileri ve derin anlayış
vurgulanmak...
Oluşturmacı Yaklaşımda UE
• Kavramsal İlişkililik: Bilginin karmaşıklığı, disiplinler
arası öğrenme ve kavramsal ilişkilil...
For next week…
1. Assignment 1.1 Due Oct 14 - Glossary of
Related Terms (Individual)
2. Assignment 4 - Topic 2 – Presentat...
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  • Physical space/building/place
    Tools
    Quality of teachers
    Quality of education
    Standardization
    Number of students
    Attendance
    Increase in population
    Uninterested families
    Students’ Skills and interests
    Learning level
    Modern/Novel methods
    Permanent learning not memorization
  • Week 3 slides

    1. 1. Foundations of Distance Education Week 3 Assist. Prof. Yavuz Samur 1
    2. 2. Today • Group Work Contract • Assignment 4 - Topic 1 - Presentation – Theories of Distance Education by Serdar Gümrükçü and Hüseyin Kerenciler • Technologies in Distance Education I – Web 2.0 & 3.0 – Net & Web-based Learning – Learning Management Systems 2
    3. 3. Let’s remember… • What is distance education? • Why do we need distance education? • What problems do we have in our educational system? • What are the advantages of DE? • What are the disadvantages of DE? • Who is using DE? • What is hybrid learning? Give me an example… 3
    4. 4. Place/Time 4
    5. 5. Advantages of Hybrid Instruction for teachers • allows instructors to maximize classroom efficiency by providing students with access to web based resources and online learning activities providing students with greater learning opportunities. • helps to lessen instructor workloads, accommodate various student learning styles, personalize the student learning experience, and requires fewer hours of classroom time. 5
    6. 6. Advantages of Hybrid Instruction for students • can access online course materials at times more conducive to their busy schedules. This makes the learning environment more flexible and accommodating to the needs of the student. • can access materials that appeal to varying learning styles, communicate with peers and the instructor, navigate through course materials in a more self-directed style, and can find information they need on their own time and in their own way with the support and motivation they would receive in a traditional classroom. 6
    7. 7. Examples of Hybrid • the instructor lectures and facilitates class discussion in the face-to-face classes, students complete online assignments based on these classroom activities, then these online assignments are posted to asynchronous discussion forums for online discussion; • an instructor places lectures online using voiceover PowerPoint or streaming media for students to review, then subsequently in class students use these preliminary online materials to engage in face-toface small group activities and discussions; • students prepare small group projects online, post them to discussion forums for debate and revision, then present them in the face-to-face class for final discussion and assessment. 7
    8. 8. Framework for e-learning 8
    9. 9. Framework for e-learning • The pedagogical dimension of E-learning refers to teaching and learning. This dimension addresses issues concerning content analysis, audience analysis, goal analysis, media analysis, design approach, organization and methods and strategies of e-learning environments. • The technological dimension of the E-Learning Framework examines issues of technology infrastructure in e-learning environments. This includes infrastructure planning, hardware and software. 9
    10. 10. Framework for e-learning • The interface design refers to the overall look and feel of e-learning programs. Interface design dimension encompasses page and site design, content design, navigation, and usability testing. • The evaluation for e-learning includes both assessment of learners and evaluation of the instruction and learning environment. 10
    11. 11. Framework for e-learning • The management of e-learning refers to the maintenance of learning environment and distribution of information. • The resource support dimension of the E-Learning Framework examines the online support and resources required to foster meaningful learning environments. 11
    12. 12. Framework for e-learning • The ethical considerations of e-learning relate to social and political influence, cultural diversity, bias, geographical diversity, learner diversity, information accessibility, etiquette, and the legal issues. • The institutional dimension is concerned with issues of administrative affairs, academic affairs and student services related to e-learning. 12
    13. 13. Let’s have a 10 min break! 13
    14. 14. What we are going to talk about today… 14
    15. 15. Theories in Distance Education • Behaviorist – – – – Classical Conditioning Law of effect Operant Conditioning Learning by observation • Cognitivist – Information Processing – Learning by discovery • Constructivist 15
    16. 16. We are concerned with: • Behaviourism – actions based on stimuli • Cognitivism – learner processes & strategies • Social Constructivism – knowledge is constructed through social interaction 16
    17. 17. Behaviourism Overview • Behaviourism assumes a learner is essentially passive, responding to environmental stimuli. • The learner starts off as a clean slate (i.e. black box) • Much of our behaviour consists of learned responses to simple signals – behaviour is the sum of many simple stimulus-response connections Basis of the theory • Reinforcement shapes behaviour – Positive - increases the probability the behavior will happen again – Negative - decreases the likelihood the behavior will happen again – Positive - indicates the application of a stimulus – Negative - indicates the withholding of a stimulus 17
    18. 18. Focus - scientific & objective • Behaviourists try to explain the causes of behaviour by studying only those behaviours that can be observed and measured • Behaviourists focus their efforts on two types of learning processes: 1. Classical conditioning 2. Operant conditioning 18
    19. 19. Classical Conditioning 19
    20. 20. Classical Conditioning (Pavlov) • • Learning by association. Salivation in dogs as part of research programme – dogs had started to salivate when they saw the people that usually fed them (also responded to the sound of the dishes being used for their meals) • • • • Pavlov set up an experiment to find out if the dogs could be trained to salivate at other stimuli, e.g. a bell or a light At feeding times, Pavlov would ring a bell and the amount of saliva produced by the dog was measured. After several 'trials' Pavlov rang the bell without presenting the food and found that the dogs salivated in the same way as if food was being presented. Note: – conditional response is the same as unconditioned response – difference = response was evoked by a different stimulus 20
    21. 21. “Pavlov’s Dog” 21
    22. 22. Classical Conditioning 22
    23. 23.  Bir akvaryumun içine, hem av hem de avcı olan balıklar yerleştiriliyor fakat akvaryumu ortasından ikiye ayıran bir cam bulunuyor. Av olan balıklara saldırmaya çalışan avcı balıklar her seferinde cam tarafından durduruluyor. Ve bir süre sonra balıkların cama hiç çarpmadan sadece kendi alanlarında hareket ettikleri gözlendi. İşte önemli olan unsur tam bu anda ortaya çıkacaktı. Cam akvaryumdan alındı ve balıklar sanki cam varmışçasına kendi alanlarında hareket ediyor hiçbir şekilde saldırma girişiminde bulunmuyorlardı.
    24. 24.  Anne bebeğini dışarı çıkaracağı zaman onu bebek arabasına bindirmektedir. Bir süre sonra bebek çocuk arabasına her oturduğunda dışarı çıkılacakmış gibi sevinç göstermektedir.  Öğreniminin ilk yıllarında matematik öğretmeninin sevmeyen bir öğrenci, öğretmeni değiştikten sonra da bu dersi sevmemeye devam edebilir.  Okul arkadaşı ile kavga eden bir öğrenci okula gitmemek isteyebilir.  Öğrencinin olumsuz yaşantı geçirmesine neden olacak durumlardan kaçınılması gerekir
    25. 25. Operant Conditioning (Skinner) • Operant conditioning (or instrumental conditioning) is a form of learning in which an individual's behavior is modified by its consequences; the behavior may change in form, frequency, or strength. • Let’s see… 25
    26. 26. Example of Operant Conditioning 26
    27. 27. Operant Conditioning • Classical conditioning is an automatic and unconscious reaction. – First stimulus and then reaction (salya) – For reflexive behavior – Passive • Operant conditioning is a willing and conscious reaction. – First reaction and then stimulus (cikolata) – For intentional behavior – Active 27
    28. 28. Reinforcement and Punishment 28
    29. 29. Reinforcement Schedules 29
    30. 30. Behaviorism & Learning • Learning for behaviourism is defined as a permanent change in behavior in the learner. • This theory is relatively simple to understand because it relies only on observable behavior and describes several universal laws of behavior. • Behaviorism often is used by teachers, who reward or punish student behaviours. • Reinforcements or rewards has an important place in learning. 30
    31. 31. Making use of reinforcement • Premack principle: You can play game after you finish your homework. • Some questions are 10 points some are 5. • Attendance and participation to the course can be reinforced • Good behavior should be reinforced with appropriate/suitable reinforcers. 31
    32. 32. Classical or Operant? • A professor has a policy of exempting students from the final exam if they maintain perfect attendance during the quarter. His students’ attendance increases dramatically. • You eat a new food and then get sick because of the flu. However, you develop a dislike for the food and feel nauseated whenever you smell it. 32
    33. 33. Learning by observation 33
    34. 34. Behaviorism and DE • Stimulus: Distance education tools such as computer, video, graphics, sounds…etc • Response: Students may want to use/watch/see/hear them as a response. • New: New information can be given with new tools such as by using simulations. • Reward: Various kinds of rewards can be used to reinforce students’ behavior. 34
    35. 35. Behaviorism and DE • Examine: Students can get chance to examine things such as 3D version of a map. • Observation: Visiting different websites to reach information. • Reinforcement: Most important way to motivate students to the DE course. Applause, congrats… etc • Frequency: Various content can be given to the students at various times, rewards can be given at different places. 35
    36. 36. Cognitivism 36
    37. 37. Cognitivism • The cognitivist paradigm essentially argues that the “black box” of the mind should be opened and understood. The learner is viewed as an information processor (like a computer). 37
    38. 38. Cognitivism - Origins • 1960s - cognitivist revolution replaced behaviorism in as the dominant paradigm. • Mental processes such as thinking, memory, knowing, and problem-solving need to be explored (Snelbecker, 1983). • Knowledge can be seen as schema or symbolic mental constructions. • Learning is defined as change in a learner’s schemata. 38 http://www.learning-theories.com/cognitivism.html
    39. 39. Cognitivism  A response to behaviorism, people are not “programmed animals” that merely respond to environmental stimuli; people are rational beings that require active participation in order to learn, and whose actions are a consequence of thinking. Changes in behavior are observed, but only as an indication of what is occurring in the learner’s head. Cognitivism uses the metaphor of the mind as computer: information comes in, is being processed, and leads to certain outcomes. 39
    40. 40. Information processing model 40 http://www.innovativelearning.com/educational_psychology/cognitivism/index.htm
    41. 41. Which factors influence learning in cognitivism? • Teacher – – – – – Instructional explanations Demonstrations Illustrative examples Practice Corrective feedback • Student (mental activities of the learner) – – – – Mental planning Goal-setting Organisational strategies The way learners attend to, code, transform, rehearse, store and retrieve information – Learners’ thoughts, beliefs, attitudes and values are influential in learning process • Focus of cognitive approach is on changing the learner by encouraging him/her to use the appropriate learning strategies (to cope with unstructured domains) 41 Ertmer, P. & Newby, T. (1993)
    42. 42. Cognitivism and DE • Stimulate semantic (meanings of words) knowledge: Relate material to the learner’s experiences and existing semantic knowledge structures to facilitate learning and recall of the information. • Manage the learner’s cognitive load: Organize material into small chunks and build up gradually from simple to complex concepts. 42
    43. 43. Cognitivism and DE • Immerse learners in problem-centered activities: Provide opportunities for learners to work immediately on meaningful, realistic tasks. • Emphasize interactive experiences: Develop problem-centered activities that require manipulation of objects to encourage active construction/processing of training material to help build lasting memories and deepen understanding. 43
    44. 44. Cognitivism and DE • Provide frequent and varied practice: Implement a variety of interactive problems for practice, exercises, and tests that aid understanding. • Provide feedback, repetition, checkpoints, and visually & aurally enriched environment. • Create curiosity and attention for learners. 44
    45. 45. Before Constructivism • Below is a list of different methods of learning. The percentages listed represent the average amount of information that is retained through that particular learning method. Note what method produces the highest retention rate.  Lecture = 5%  Reading = 10%  Audiovisual = 20%  Demonstration = 30%  Discussion Group = 50%  Practice by doing = 75%  Teach others / immediate use of learning = 90% 45
    46. 46. Constructivism 46
    47. 47. Constructivism • • • • • • • Individualized learning Learning by doing Student centered learning Real life experiences Creativity Personal Interpretations Learning in/with groups 47
    48. 48. Oluşturmacı Yaklaşımda UE • Çoklu bakış açıları (multiple perspectives): Kavramlar ve içerik çok yönlü bakış açıları ve anlatımlarıyla verilmeli ve desteklenmelidir. • Öğrenci yönelimli amaçlar: Amaçlar ve davranışlar öğrenciler veya öğretmen veya sistemle tartışılarak belirlenmelidir. • Koç olarak öğretmenlik: Öğretmenler rehber, koç, özel öğretmen (tutor), kontrol edici ve kolaylaştırıcı olarak hizmet etmelidir. • Metabiliş: Öğrenen nasıl düşüneceğini planlayıp, gözlemleyip, değerlendirerek sorgulayıcı ve keşfedici düşünce biçimlerini destekleyecek etkinlikleri, fırsatları, araçları ve çevreyi sağlamalıdır. • Öğrenen kontrolü: Öğrenmeyi kontrol ve uyarlamada öğrenen merkezi role sahiptir. 48
    49. 49. Oluşturmacı Yaklaşımda UE • Otantik etkinlikler, bağlamlar: Öğrenme durumları, çevreler, beceriler, içerik ve görevler gerçek dünyanın doğal karmaşıklığında maksada uygun, gerçekçi, otantik olmalıdır. • Bilginin oluşturulması: Bilginin yeniden üretimi değil, oluşturulması önemlidir. • Bilginin paylaşımı: Bu oluşum, bireysel bağlamlar ile sosyal etkileşim, işbirliği ve deneyim yoluyla olmaktadır. • Ön bilginin oluşturulması: Öğrenenin ön bilgi oluşumları, inançları ve tutumları bilgi oluşturma sürecinde dikkate alınır. 49
    50. 50. Oluşturmacı Yaklaşımda UE • Problem çözme: Problem çözmede, yüksek düzeyde düşünme becerileri ve derin anlayış vurgulanmaktadır. • Hataları dikkate alma: Hatalar, öğrencilerin önceki bilgi oluşumlarını gözden geçirmede fırsat sunmaktadır. • Keşfetme: Amaçlarını belirlemede ve bağımsız bilgi aramada öğrencileri desteklemek için önemli bir yaklaşımdır. • Çıraklık: Öğrenenlere karmaşık görevleri, becerileri ve bilgi kazanımını artırmada çıraklığa dayalı öğrenme için fırsatlar verilmektedir. 50
    51. 51. Oluşturmacı Yaklaşımda UE • Kavramsal İlişkililik: Bilginin karmaşıklığı, disiplinler arası öğrenme ve kavramsal ilişkililiğinin önemini yansıtmaktadır. • Alternatif bakış açıları: İşbirlikli öğrenme farklı bakış açılarını göstermek için tercih edilmektedir, • Scaffolding: Öğrencilere yeteneklerinin üstündeki performansları yerine getirmede yardımcı olmaktadır. • Otantik değerlendirme: Değerlendirme otantik ve performansa yönelik olmalıdır. • Temel kaynaklardan veri toplama: Gerçek dünyanın karmaşıklığını ve otantikliği sağlamak için kullanılır. 51
    52. 52. For next week… 1. Assignment 1.1 Due Oct 14 - Glossary of Related Terms (Individual) 2. Assignment 4 - Topic 2 – Presentation by Metin Mertsoy and Bahadir Ergenç on Technologies in Distance Education 3. Technologies in Distance Education II – Learning Tools and Objects 52

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