2011 07-12 adrian yanes - aalto 1

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Aalto-1 tiene como objetivo ser el primer satélite que Finlandia pondrá en órbita. El proyecto esta desarrollado por la Universidad Aalto (Helsinki, Finlandia). El propósito de su misión científica …

Aalto-1 tiene como objetivo ser el primer satélite que Finlandia pondrá en órbita. El proyecto esta desarrollado por la Universidad Aalto (Helsinki, Finlandia). El propósito de su misión científica esta orientado a la toma de imágenes 2D en un determinado espectro electromagnético, así como la monitorización de radiación en el espacio cercano a la tierra. El satélite esta desarrollado dentro del marco universitario, siguiendo un modelo de desarrollo abierto y basado en tecnologías y estándares libres.

Ponente: Adrian Yanes, estudiante de la Universidad Europea de Madrid, pertenece al Departamento de Comunicaciones y Redes (Commet) de la Universidad Aalto de Finlandia. Actualmente, se trabaja en el proyecto Aalto-1, diseñando la arquitectura software para el primer proyecto de nanosatélite finlandés.

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  • 1. Aalto-1 The Finnish Student SatelliteAdrian Yanes, Jaan Praks and Aalto-1 Team http://aalto-1.tkk.fi http://blogs.aalto.fi/satellite/
  • 2. History Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 3. Aalto University, FinlandEstablished in 2010 … Where science and art meet technology and business. •  School of Art and Design •  School of Economics •  School of Chemical Technology •  School of Electrical Engineering •  School of Engineering •  School of Science •  20 000 students •  338 professors Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 4. University Campus in Espoo by Alvar Aalto Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 5. University Campus in Espoo by Alvar Aalto Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 6. Space Technology at Aalto UniversityProfessorship of Space Technology was established in1987 in response to Finland joining the EuropeanSpace AgencyIn Finland M.Sc. and Ph.D. education in SpaceTechnology is provided only by Aalto UniversityAalto University (and previously Helsinki University ofTechnology, now part of Aalto University) hasparticipated in space projects in remote sensing,material technology, radio astronomy, robotics, etc.Aalto University presently participates in the EuropeanErasmus Mundus Space Master degree program andhas international Master’s program in Radio Scienceand Space Technology Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 7. Student satellites in TKK (Aalto)•  1992 – 1995 HUTSAT, several year project, reached prototype building phase.•  1992 - 1993 FIMSAT , Finnish remote sensing satellite, preliminary design. Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 8. Image © ESALatest achievements Aalto-1Aalto University designed SMOS satellite receivers The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 9. Space as anInspiration in Education Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 10. Motivation and Challenge for ModernEngineering Student Space has inspired human beings from the beginning of civilized times and led us to the greatest adventures of history. We attempt to harness this inspiration to promote the engineering education in Finland and in Aalto University. Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 11. Student satellites•  CanSat•  CubeSat•  Other designs•  Constantly growing topic•  Often open source, open standards, community AAUSAT-II supported Aalborg University, Denmark•  Spinoff companies selling parts for Cubesat systems•  Cheap launches•  Nanosatellites < 10 kg•  OTS mobile electronics to small satellites•  Whole satellite industry driving towards smaller size Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 12. AET 2010 course•  During the spring term 2010 we arranged experimental course:•  S-92.3192 Special Assignment in Space Technology•  “Feasibility study of a Nanosatellite”•  Teachers Jaan Praks, Antti Kestilä•  During the course, 7 students made a realistic preliminary design for the first Finnish nanosatellite.•  The course introduced several new concepts in our teaching•  The course was project based, all teaching was given in the form of project meetings.•  The course was Wiki based, using online collaboration as a main cooperation tool. Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 13. Starting with wild Ideas•  Nanosatellite with adjoint picosatellites•  Biological material in nanosatellite•  Synthetic aperture radiometer as satellite swarm•  Mobile phone in space•  Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)•  Deep space mission•  Propulsion test•  Asteroid mission•  Cosmic file server Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 14. Refinement of the goal•  Make realistic preliminary design for first Finnish nanosatellite•  Constrains:•  Design has to be realistic•  The satellite has to be possible to build mostly with student work (thesis and special assignments)•  Satellite instruments should be made in Finland (if possible)•  The satellite main payload and mission should be related to our department research and teaching topics Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 15. The Main Payload is Found!•  The satellite started to shape when the main payload was found and selected.•  Main payload defined scientific goals and most mission parameters.•  The main payload introduced A miniature imaging also “client” relationship to spectrometer developed in VTT the project. Technical Research Centre of Finland Prototype for usage in UAV Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 16. Main Concept ü Open standardRequirements ü Community•  The satellite has to accommodate hyperspectral camera ü Organization•  The satellite has to be stabilized ü Platform•  The best orbit is sun synchronous mid-day orbit ü Education•  The satellite has to be affordable•  The satellite has to be usable in education•  The satellite should have high speed data link•  There should be common standards for cooperation and continuity•  Some subsystems should be available CubeSat standard based nanosatellite design Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 17. ProjectMIDE student project 2011-2013Project leader Martti Hallikainen International collaborationProject coordinator Jaan Praks University of TartuSteering group and Science Team TU Delft CalPolyDomestic collaboration TU Berlin etc Aalto University (4 departments) VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland University of Helsinki University of Turku Finnish Meteorological institute Nokia Aboa Space Research Oy (ASRO) Oxford Instruments Analytical Oy Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 18. Evolutionof Aalto-1 design Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 19. Aalto-1The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 20. Aalto-1The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 21. Aalto-1The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 22. Aalto-1The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 23. Aalto-1The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 24. Aalto-1The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 25. ScienceSPECTROMETER Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 26. World smallest hypespectral camera forremote sensing applications by VTTVTT Technical Research Centre ofFinland has developed a tinyhyperspectral camera suitable formany applications based on MEMSFabry-Perot interferometer.Aalto-1 provides a test platform todemonstrate space readiness of thistechnology. The Fabry-Perot Interferometer based hyperspectral hand held imager by VTT Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 27. Fabry-Perot interferometer workingprinciple Fabry-Perot Mirrors Object of the Image of the hyperspectral hyperspectral imager imager Front optics for collimation Focusing optics Order sorting for imaging filter Air gap Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 28. Current model for UASIMajor specifications of the spectral cameraSpectral range: 500 – 900 nmSpectral Resolution: 9..45 nm @ FWHMFocal length: 9.3 mmF-number: 6.8Image size: 5.7 mm x 4.3 mm, 5 MpixMinimum total exposure time: 30 msField of View: 32° (across the flight direction)Ground pixel size: 3.5 cm @ 150 m heightWeight: 350 g (without battery)Size: 62 mm x 61 mm/76mm x 120 mmPower consumption: 3 W Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 29. VTT miniature spectrometers UASI test flights Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 30. Satelliteborne hyperspectral remote sensing•  Vegetation•  Water quality•  Geology Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 31. SciencePLASMA BRAKE Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 32. Solar photon sail§  Each solar photon carries momentum, doubled if reflected§  About 9 uN/m2 thrust density for perfect mirror§  At 1 AU, 1 N sail would be 330x330 m, membrane mass 1200 kg if made of 7.6 um polyimide sheet, characteristic acceleration 0.8 mm/s2§  Thrust vectoring is possible, but thrust magnitude and direction change in unison for flat sail§  Solar sail is old idea (roughly 100 years), implemented in space first time in 2010 (IKAROS, Japan)§  Technical challenges of solar sail: –  Membrane should be very thin –  Membranes support structures should be very lightweight as well –  Everything must be tightly packaged and folded during launch Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 33. Electric solar wind sail§  Solar wind –  Plasma stream emitted from Sun in all directions –  Speed 350-800 km/s (lowest in ecliptic plane, higher elsewhere)‫‏‬ –  Mean density 7 cm-3 at Earth –  Variable, but always present –  Dynamic pressure ~2 nPa at Earth (1/5000 of photon pressure)‫‏‬§  Electric sail (E-sail)‫‏‬ –  Slowly rotating system of long, thin, conducting and centrifugally stretched tethers which are kept positively charged (~ +20 kV) by spacecraft electron gun –  Only modest amount of electric power needed, obtained from solar panels –  ~500 nN/m thrust per length –  For example, 100x20 km tethers, 1 N thrust, 100 kg mass, specific acceleration 10 mm/s2 Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 34. E-sail, traveling in interplanetary space without fuel Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 35. Electrostatic Plasma BrakeElectrostatic Plasma Brake is designed as an “end of life”mission to bring satellite after service down.Based on Electric Space Sail concepts by Pekka Janhunen (FMI)Developed and produced byFinnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 36. Aalto-1The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 37. Image © ESA20 000 pieces trackable space junk orbits the Earth Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 38. ScienceRADiation MONitor Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 39. Radiation environment in Earth orbit•  Radiation in LEO is the most significant threat to electronics.•  Need for simple and small radiation detector.•  Trapped proton environment on LEO needs to be taken into account in the design of any spacecraft. Trapped proton environment anisotropies Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 40. Payloads:Radiation Monitor University of Helsinki•  Sensor unit based on Si detector and CsI(TI) scintillator•  Readout electronics consist of a pulse shaping and peak-hold circuitry with a pre-amplifier signal being digitised with high sampling rate•  FPGA based logic to count particle events hitting the sensor Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 41. BepiColombo SIXSBepiColombo is ESA mission to Mercury. Spacecraft will set off in 2014, arrives to Mercury 2020, planned operation till 2022. Onboard will be the pioneering SIXS instrument (Solar Intensity X-ray and particle Spectrometer) developed in a Finnish consortium. The main task of SIXS is to provide observations of X-ray and particle radiation on Mercury’s surface.Consortium: Finnish Meteorological Institute, FMI (project managing, FPGA coding, EGSE design), Space Systems Finland Oy, SSF (software, systems engineering), Ideal Product Data Oy (thermal modelling) and Patria Oyj (Digital Processing Unit). The collaboration includes also UK Illustration: Oxford Instruments contribution by the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, RAL Analytical OY (readout ASIC for the particle detector system), Oxford Instruments Analytical OY Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 42. TECHNOLOGY Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 43. Launch is most critical part of themissionStatic accelerationShocks and vibrations –  Recall problems with Space Shuttle tiles!Acoustic stressDeclining pressureTemperature changesSatellite has to be strong Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 44. Extreme speed and distance makecommunication difficultExtremely big variability in speed and distance during the lifespanof spacecraftSignal attenuationDopler effectIonospheric effects Nasa Deep Space Network Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 45. Space environment:Electromagnetic radiation•  The Sun is a variable star –  Strong variations at short (UV, X, gamma) and long (radio) waves•  Black space is cold –  The illuminated side gets heated, the opposite side radiates the heat (IR) and cools –  Thermal design is very tricky •  Extreme example: BepiColombo between the Sun and Mercury Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 46. Cosmic radiationCosmic rays are very energetic charged particles •  Galactic: > 100 MeV •  Solar: < 1 GeV •  Anomalous: around 10 MeV –  Note these energies are much higher than the energy of solar wind particlesCause single events in electronicsMost energetic cosmic rays penetrate through theEarth’s magnetic field and are stopped in theatmosphere causing air showers Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 47. Vacuum, there is no airNo air means that there is no convection.The only heat exchange way is radiationNothing to grab, you cannot flySome materials can just evaporateVery tricky to lubricate mechanismsThere is no electrical conduction, a satellite canbuild up static electric charge which can damageelectronics Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 48. Micrometeoroids and space debrisDebris is a growing concern •  20,000 pieces larger than 10 cm •  500,000 in the range 1 – 10 cm •  Tens of millions smaller piecesLarge relative speeds – large momentum incollisionsSources •  Old satellites •  Left-overs from lauchers,pieces of surface materials and paint, etc. •  Collisions, e.g., Kosmos-2251 – Iridium 33 collision in February 2009Micrometeoroids •  ”Natural space debris” Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 49. Satellite subsystems Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 50. Aalto-1 satelliteBased on CubeSat 3U standards (34cm×10cm×10 cm)Weight: 3 kg.Orbit: Sun-synchronous mid-day LEO .Attitude control: 3 axis stabilized.Communication: VHF-UHF telecommand S-band data transfer.Solar powered, max power 8 W.Payloads: Imaging spectrometer (VTT). Radiation detector (HY, UTU). Electrostatic Plasma Brake (FMI). Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 51. Mechanical structureThe new mechanical structure isunder developmentBase model for subsystems Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 52. Mechanical structure Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 53. Mechanical structure Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 54. Mechanical structure Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 55. Mechanical structure Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 56. Antennas Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 57. System design•  CubesatKit PCB layout and Connector•  RS-422 / LVDS for all the interfaces•  PicoADACS (BST/Delft) Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 58. System design Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 59. Bus interface/protocol•  Bus is created with stack-trough connectors (CubeSatKit).•  Bus is used for all electrical connections (power, data).•  3.3V, 5V and 12V available.•  Data interface will be differential system (RS-422/LVDS).•  I2C will be used for zombie control.•  Separate pins for all data connections => star topology•  Separate kill switch pins? 4/20 Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 60. System Design Legend: Data Interfaces ____ Power Interfaces ____ Thermal Interfaces ____ Sensors Mechanical Interfaces ____ Control System Actuators Spectrometer Attitude Determination and Control System ADCS Ground Computer System GCS GPS Onboard Mission GPS module Radiation Monitor Antenna Computer Database OBC Tracking Orbit Determination System Command and Command and Data Handling B UHF-VHF UHF-VHF e Data Handling Antennas Transceiver a System c Electrostatic o Plasma Brake n Modem Modem Payloads S-band Thermal System Receiver S-band Antenna Transmitter Communication System S-band UHF-VHF Antenna Antennas Communication Subsystem Housekeeping Structural System Batteries Power Ground Segement Regulation Solar Panels and Control Power System Satellite Segment Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 61. 3/20Aalto-1The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 62. Electrict Power System Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 63. Power generation•  Energy generated via solar cells.•  Average power (eclipse included) is ca. 4.7 W –  No panels on nadir-side, 6 panels on other sides.•  A crude simulation for 15 orbits (ca. 1 day) has been done. –  It seems like we have plenty of energy. –  However, fully charging the batteries (20Wh) will take around 6-7 orbits in power saving mode. Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 64. Energy Budget Energy budget simulations for optimal attitude and orbit Direct Earth Total SunPolar 7.7 W 0.51 W 8.21 W45 deg 7.7 W 0.51 W 8.13 WAverage 7.7 W 0.51 W 8.17 W Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 65. Orbit Mid-day Sun-synchronous orbit would be preferable for main instruments. Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 66. On Board Data Handling HardwareBased on ARM920T 180MHzRAM: 256MB (ECC)Mass-storages:•  OS (~256MB)•  Data (1GB)Interfaces:SSP/I2SI2C/SPI/61 GPIO/JTAG Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 67. Data SystemSingle Board Computer as a centralcomputerSeparate DSPDigital Signal Processing performedonboard in order to reduce the downlinkdata streamBackup system is based onmicrocontrollers and is able to re-flashthe system Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 68. Software•  OS: GNU/Linux•  Client-server architecture for payloads•  ASM / C / C++ (µlibc).•  Really tiny and tested.•  Designed to run in user space.•  Dispensable.•  Extensible from Earth (re-programming). Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 69. Software Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 70. Software Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 71. Kernel & OS–  Highly customized: focused in I2C and process scheduling.–  Real-time patches (http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/ projects/rt/)–  OpenEmbedded as basement for the distro.–  Deterministic system.–  Autonomous: non human-interaction needed.–  Inter-process communication: D-Bus. Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 72. Ground station Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 73. Ground stationLocation: Espoo, FinlandCoordinates: 60.188444N, 24.829981EUHF operational from July 2011!Future equipment (really soon):-S-band antenna-VHF – antenna-Receivers and transmitters & tracking mechanisms. Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 74. Aalto-1The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 75. TelecommunicationsVHFdownlink /UHF uplinkS-band DownlinkLink duration per day – simulation for selected orbitMin. Duration 65.313 secMax. Duration 637.889 sec Transreceiver VHF downlink/UHF S-band downlinkAvg. Duration 475.298 sec examples uplink Frequency 130-160 MHz 2100-2500 MHzTotal Duration 14258.926 sec RF output 300 mW PEP / 150 500 mW mW average Power consumption 1,7 W/0,2 W 2W Data transfer up to 9,6 kbps up to 115 kpbs Mass 85g <125g Size 90mmx96mmx40m 90mmx96mmx40m m m Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 76. Ground station Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 77. STATUS andCOMMUNITY Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 78. Tightly integrated with teachingThe satellite project is tightly integrated with teaching, itwill be designed and constructed as a part of specialassignment courses and thesis works, supported bySpace Technology and Radio Engineering main subjectteaching.The satellite project brings together a consortium ofFinnish space industry and Finnish top universities forthe benefit of our students.The project has involved already five departments inAalto University Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 79. Active studentsStudent activities areimportant part of the project.Learning can be fun! Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 80. Meeting peoplePart of student satellite team meeting with NASA astronaut Timothy Kopra Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 81. Learning together Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 82. Conferences and Workshops Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 83. Participating Conferences Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 84. Proto-storm 18.3.2011 Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 85. Aalto-1The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 86. Aalto-1The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 87. Aalto-1The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 88. Aalto-1The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 89. Aalto-1The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 90. Aalto-1The Finnish Student Satellite
  • 91. Gracias! Aalto-1 The Finnish Student Satellite