Science, behind social revolutions:
what’s next? Quantum technology
Javier Prior

Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena
Qua...
MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013

Brief history of Humanity
MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013

Thermodynamics

Sadi Carnot
1796/1832

James Joule
1818/1889

James Watt
1736/1819
MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013

Industrial revolution

Robert E. Lucas, Nobel Prize winner in economics science, "For the first tim...
MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013

Industrial revolution

Robert E. Lucas, Nobel Prize winner in economics science, "For the first tim...
MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013

Industrial revolution

Robert E. Lucas, Nobel Prize winner in economics science, "For the first tim...
MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013

Industrial revolution

Robert E. Lucas, Nobel Prize winner in economics science, "For the first tim...
MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013

Industrial revolution

Robert E. Lucas, Nobel Prize winner in economics science, "For the first tim...
MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013

Thermodynamics

Nicolas Otto
1832/1891

Rudolf Diesel
1858/1913
MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013

German car industry

Nicolas Otto
1832/1891

Rudolf Diesel
1858/1913
MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013

German car industry

Nicolas Otto
1832/1891

Rudolf Diesel
1858/1913
MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013

Electromagnetism

Michael Faraday
1791/1867

James Maxwell
1831/1879

Thomas Edison
1847/1931
MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013

XX century revolution
MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013

XX century revolution
MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013

XX century revolution
MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013

XX century revolution
MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013

XX century revolution
MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013

XX century revolution
MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013

Quantum physics

Max Planck
1858/1947

Erwin Schrodinger Richard Feynman
1887/1961
1918/1988
MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013

Exponential Growth in Technology

Space/Time Measurement precision
Communication capacity
Computati...
MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013

Measurement of time gains in precision exponentially
MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013

Measurement of time gains in precision exponentially

Essen & Parry @ National Physical Laboratory ...
MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013

Measurement of time gains in precision exponentially

Essen & Parry @ National Physical Laboratory ...
MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013

Measurement of time gains in precision exponentially

Essen & Parry @ National Physical Laboratory ...
MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013

Measurement of time gains in precision exponentially

Essen & Parry @ National Physical Laboratory ...
MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013

Computer grow faster exponentially
MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013

Computer grow faster exponentially

Kelvin’s tide predictor 1872
MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013

Computer grow faster exponentially

Z3 Zuse 1941

Kelvin’s tide predictor 1872
MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013

Computer grow faster exponentially

Wilkes EDSAC 1949
Z3 Zuse 1941

Kelvin’s tide predictor 1872
MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013

Computer grow faster exponentially

Wilkes EDSAC 1949
Z3 Zuse 1941
Commodore 64

Kelvin’s tide pred...
MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013

Computer grow faster exponentially

Wilkes EDSAC 1949
Z3 Zuse 1941
Commodore 64

Kelvin’s tide pred...
MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013

Components grow smaller exponentially

cm
Quantum Noise

mm
Quantum technology

nm
A
MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013

Components grow smaller exponentially
MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013

Secret Communication
MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013

Secret Communication

?
miles away

KEY 0

0

1

0

1

1

0

KEY 0

0

1

0

1

How to establish ke...
MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013

Secret Communication
MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013

Secret Communication

Quantum World:
Charles’s measurement of
quantum signal causes
perturbation an...
MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013

Secret Communication

Zeilinger Space Quest

Gisin
MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013

Wave-particle duality

High intensity:

Intensity

Time
MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013

Wave-particle duality

High intensity:

Intensity

Time
MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013

Wave-particle duality

High intensity:

Intensity

Time
MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013

Wave-particle duality

High intensity:

Intensity

Time
MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013

Wave-particle duality

Low intensity:

Clicks

Time

Light comes in little portions  Photons
MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013

Wave-particle duality
Clicks

Time
Clicks

Time
MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013

Wave-particle duality

Clicks

?

Time

Clicks

Time
MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013

Wave-particle duality

Clicks

Time

Clicks

Photons can be in superposition
 Interference
Time
MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013

Wave-particle duality
MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013

Wave-particle duality

Clicks

Time
Clicks

Time
MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013

Wave-particle duality

Take home messages:
 When evolving freely quantum systems exhibit wave char...
MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013

Hierachies in Biology: From classical to quantum world
10 -1

Can quantum
coherence be
relevant for...
MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013

Hierachies in Biology: From classical to quantum world
10 -1

Can quantum
coherence be
relevant for...
MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013

Photosynthesis
MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013

Photosynthesis
MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013

Photosynthesis
MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013

Photosynthesis
MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013

Photosynthesis
MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013

Photosynthesis
Fenna-Matthews-Olsen complex
Exciton
Chlorosome

BChl
a

FMO

Exciton transport

1
6
5

2
7

4

3

Water soluble
Crystal s...
Fenna-Matthews-Olsen complex
Exciton
BChl
a

FMO
Antenna
Photon

Exciton

1
6
5
Chromophore
(pigment)

2
7

4

3

eReactio...
Long-lasting coherences in FMO
Inter-exciton coherence times > 1.8 ps (77K)
0.6 ps (277K)
Ground-exciton coherence times <...
Long-lasting coherences in FMO
Inter-exciton coherence times > 1.8 ps (77K)
0.6 ps (277K)
Ground-exciton coherence times <...
Long-lasting coherences in FMO
Inter-exciton coherence times > 1.8 ps (77K)
0.6 ps (277K)
Ground-exciton coherence times <...
Environmental interactions

E

|i>

|g>
Environmental interactions

J

|i >
1

|g>

Uncorrelated
Fluctuations

|i >
2

|g>
Environmental interactions
J

|i >
1

|g>

Uncorrelated
Fluctuations

|i >
2

|g>
Long-lasting coherences in FMO
Inter-exciton coherence times > 1.8 ps (77K)
0.6 ps (277K)
Ground-exciton coherence times <...
MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013

Conclusions

Can we improve solar cells
based on this idea ?
More generally: Adding the right kind ...
MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013

Thanks
Javier Prior
Funded by:

Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena
Quantum Many Body Systems’s gr...
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Science, behind social revolutions: what’s next? Quantum technology, by Javier Prior (UPCT)

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Lecture. MedSouk 2013
University of Murcia, Campus Mare Nostrum
By Javier Prior (UPCT)

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Science, behind social revolutions: what’s next? Quantum technology, by Javier Prior (UPCT)

  1. 1. Science, behind social revolutions: what’s next? Quantum technology Javier Prior Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena Quantum Many Body Systems’s group
  2. 2. MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013 Brief history of Humanity
  3. 3. MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013 Thermodynamics Sadi Carnot 1796/1832 James Joule 1818/1889 James Watt 1736/1819
  4. 4. MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013 Industrial revolution Robert E. Lucas, Nobel Prize winner in economics science, "For the first time in history, the living standards of the masses of ordinary people have begun to undergo sustained growth ... Nothing remotely like this economic behavior is mentioned by the classical economists, even as a theoretical possibility.”
  5. 5. MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013 Industrial revolution Robert E. Lucas, Nobel Prize winner in economics science, "For the first time in history, the living standards of the masses of ordinary people have begun to undergo sustained growth ... Nothing remotely like this economic behavior is mentioned by the classical economists, even as a theoretical possibility.”
  6. 6. MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013 Industrial revolution Robert E. Lucas, Nobel Prize winner in economics science, "For the first time in history, the living standards of the masses of ordinary people have begun to undergo sustained growth ... Nothing remotely like this economic behavior is mentioned by the classical economists, even as a theoretical possibility.”
  7. 7. MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013 Industrial revolution Robert E. Lucas, Nobel Prize winner in economics science, "For the first time in history, the living standards of the masses of ordinary people have begun to undergo sustained growth ... Nothing remotely like this economic behavior is mentioned by the classical economists, even as a theoretical possibility.”
  8. 8. MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013 Industrial revolution Robert E. Lucas, Nobel Prize winner in economics science, "For the first time in history, the living standards of the masses of ordinary people have begun to undergo sustained growth ... Nothing remotely like this economic behavior is mentioned by the classical economists, even as a theoretical possibility.”
  9. 9. MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013 Thermodynamics Nicolas Otto 1832/1891 Rudolf Diesel 1858/1913
  10. 10. MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013 German car industry Nicolas Otto 1832/1891 Rudolf Diesel 1858/1913
  11. 11. MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013 German car industry Nicolas Otto 1832/1891 Rudolf Diesel 1858/1913
  12. 12. MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013 Electromagnetism Michael Faraday 1791/1867 James Maxwell 1831/1879 Thomas Edison 1847/1931
  13. 13. MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013 XX century revolution
  14. 14. MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013 XX century revolution
  15. 15. MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013 XX century revolution
  16. 16. MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013 XX century revolution
  17. 17. MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013 XX century revolution
  18. 18. MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013 XX century revolution
  19. 19. MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013 Quantum physics Max Planck 1858/1947 Erwin Schrodinger Richard Feynman 1887/1961 1918/1988
  20. 20. MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013 Exponential Growth in Technology Space/Time Measurement precision Communication capacity Computational power Energy efficiency 1.6% p.a. on average at the world level between 1990 and 2006
  21. 21. MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013 Measurement of time gains in precision exponentially
  22. 22. MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013 Measurement of time gains in precision exponentially Essen & Parry @ National Physical Laboratory 1955
  23. 23. MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013 Measurement of time gains in precision exponentially Essen & Parry @ National Physical Laboratory 1955
  24. 24. MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013 Measurement of time gains in precision exponentially Essen & Parry @ National Physical Laboratory 1955
  25. 25. MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013 Measurement of time gains in precision exponentially Essen & Parry @ National Physical Laboratory 1955
  26. 26. MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013 Computer grow faster exponentially
  27. 27. MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013 Computer grow faster exponentially Kelvin’s tide predictor 1872
  28. 28. MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013 Computer grow faster exponentially Z3 Zuse 1941 Kelvin’s tide predictor 1872
  29. 29. MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013 Computer grow faster exponentially Wilkes EDSAC 1949 Z3 Zuse 1941 Kelvin’s tide predictor 1872
  30. 30. MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013 Computer grow faster exponentially Wilkes EDSAC 1949 Z3 Zuse 1941 Commodore 64 Kelvin’s tide predictor 1872
  31. 31. MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013 Computer grow faster exponentially Wilkes EDSAC 1949 Z3 Zuse 1941 Commodore 64 Kelvin’s tide predictor 1872
  32. 32. MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013 Components grow smaller exponentially cm Quantum Noise mm Quantum technology nm A
  33. 33. MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013 Components grow smaller exponentially
  34. 34. MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013 Secret Communication
  35. 35. MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013 Secret Communication ? miles away KEY 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 KEY 0 0 1 0 1 How to establish key that only Alice and Bob know ? 1 0
  36. 36. MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013 Secret Communication
  37. 37. MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013 Secret Communication Quantum World: Charles’s measurement of quantum signal causes perturbation and can be detected.
  38. 38. MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013 Secret Communication Zeilinger Space Quest Gisin
  39. 39. MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013 Wave-particle duality High intensity: Intensity Time
  40. 40. MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013 Wave-particle duality High intensity: Intensity Time
  41. 41. MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013 Wave-particle duality High intensity: Intensity Time
  42. 42. MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013 Wave-particle duality High intensity: Intensity Time
  43. 43. MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013 Wave-particle duality Low intensity: Clicks Time Light comes in little portions  Photons
  44. 44. MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013 Wave-particle duality Clicks Time Clicks Time
  45. 45. MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013 Wave-particle duality Clicks ? Time Clicks Time
  46. 46. MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013 Wave-particle duality Clicks Time Clicks Photons can be in superposition  Interference Time
  47. 47. MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013 Wave-particle duality
  48. 48. MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013 Wave-particle duality Clicks Time Clicks Time
  49. 49. MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013 Wave-particle duality Take home messages:  When evolving freely quantum systems exhibit wave character  When measured quantum systems exhibit particle character  Measurements that acquire information, inevitably destroy coherence and perturb the quantum systems.
  50. 50. MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013 Hierachies in Biology: From classical to quantum world 10 -1 Can quantum coherence be relevant for biological function? Typical time scale [s] 10 -2 Tools 10 -3 10 -4 Function 10 -6 10 -8 ? 10 -12 Quantum Classical 10 -14 10 -11 10 -10 10 -9 10 -8 10 -6 10 -5 Typical spatial scale [m] 10 -4 10 -2 © Vaziri Requires tools for studying biological structure and function at unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution
  51. 51. MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013 Hierachies in Biology: From classical to quantum world 10 -1 Can quantum coherence be relevant for biological function? Typical time scale [s] 10 -2 Tools 10 -3 10 -4 Function 10 -6 10 -8 ? 10 -12 Quantum Classical 10 -14 10 -11 10 -10 10 -9 10 -8 10 -6 10 -5 Typical spatial scale [m] 10 -4 10 -2 © Vaziri Requires tools for studying biological structure and function at unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution
  52. 52. MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013 Photosynthesis
  53. 53. MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013 Photosynthesis
  54. 54. MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013 Photosynthesis
  55. 55. MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013 Photosynthesis
  56. 56. MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013 Photosynthesis
  57. 57. MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013 Photosynthesis
  58. 58. Fenna-Matthews-Olsen complex Exciton Chlorosome BChl a FMO Exciton transport 1 6 5 2 7 4 3 Water soluble Crystal structure Charge separation Electrons for chemistry Transport time ~ 5-6 ps RC
  59. 59. Fenna-Matthews-Olsen complex Exciton BChl a FMO Antenna Photon Exciton 1 6 5 Chromophore (pigment) 2 7 4 3 eReaction centre PigmentProtein complex Water soluble Crystal structure Transport time ~ 5-6 ps RC
  60. 60. Long-lasting coherences in FMO Inter-exciton coherence times > 1.8 ps (77K) 0.6 ps (277K) Ground-exciton coherence times < 150 fs How are inter-exciton coherences protected? Room temperature coherences Higher plants (LHCII) Calhoun et al. J. Phys. Chem. B, 113 (51), 2009 Marine algae Collini et al. Nature 463, 644-647 2010 Panitchayangkoon et al. PNAS 107:29 (2010)
  61. 61. Long-lasting coherences in FMO Inter-exciton coherence times > 1.8 ps (77K) 0.6 ps (277K) Ground-exciton coherence times < 150 fs How are inter-exciton coherences protected? Room temperature coherences Higher plants (LHCII) Calhoun et al. J. Phys. Chem. B, 113 (51), 2009 Marine algae Collini et al. Nature 463, 644-647 2010 Panitchayangkoon et al. PNAS 107:29 (2010)
  62. 62. Long-lasting coherences in FMO Inter-exciton coherence times > 1.8 ps (77K) 0.6 ps (277K) Ground-exciton coherence times < 150 fs How are inter-exciton coherences protected? Room temperature coherences Higher plants (LHCII) Calhoun et al. J. Phys. Chem. B, 113 (51), 2009 Marine algae Collini et al. Nature 463, 644-647 2010 Panitchayangkoon et al. PNAS 107:29 (2010)
  63. 63. Environmental interactions E |i> |g>
  64. 64. Environmental interactions J |i > 1 |g> Uncorrelated Fluctuations |i > 2 |g>
  65. 65. Environmental interactions J |i > 1 |g> Uncorrelated Fluctuations |i > 2 |g>
  66. 66. Long-lasting coherences in FMO Inter-exciton coherence times > 1.8 ps (77K) 0.6 ps (277K) Ground-exciton coherence times < 150 fs How are inter-exciton coherences protected? Javier Prior, Alex Chin, et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 050404, (2010). Alex Chin, Javier Prior, et al. Nature Physics 9, 113 (2013).
  67. 67. MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013 Conclusions Can we improve solar cells based on this idea ? More generally: Adding the right kind of noise, to the right kind of nano-structure can improve its performance.
  68. 68. MURCIA, 24th Oct 2013 Thanks Javier Prior Funded by: Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena Quantum Many Body Systems’s group

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