Writing research articles in English, by Adrian Wallwork

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Lecture. MedSouk.
University of Murcia, Campus Mare Nostrum.
By Adrian Wallwork, author of the Springer books "English for Writing Research Papers", "English for Presentations at International Conferences", "English for Academic Correspondence and Socializing", "English for Academic Research: Grammar Exercises" y "English for Academic Research: Vocabulary Exercises".

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Writing research articles in English, by Adrian Wallwork

  1. 1. English for Writing Research Papers Five guidelines to massively improve your chances of publication With easy-to-follow rules and tips, and with examples taken from real papers, the book covers how to: • prepare and structure a manuscript that will be recommended by referees for publication • use a reader-oriented style • write each section of a paper • highlight the most important findings • write concisely and without ambiguity • avoid plagiarism • choose the correct verb forms The book also includes around 700 useful phrases for use in any kind of research paper. • English for Presentations at International Conferences • English for Academic Correspondence and Socializing • English for Research: Usage, Style, and Grammar Education ISBN 978-1-4419-7921-6 Adrian Wallwork English for Writing Research Papers lwork ENGgLISH for WritinPapers Research Adrian Wallwork Good writing skills are key to a successful career in academia. English for Writing Research Papers was written specifically for researchers and professors of all disciplines whose first language is not English and who wish to have their work published in an international journal. With easy-to-follow rules and tips, and with examples taken from real papers, the book covers how to: • prepare and structure a manuscript that will be recommended by referees for publication • use a reader-oriented style • write each section of a paper • highlight the most important findings • write concisely and without ambiguity • avoid plagiarism • choose the correct verb forms The book also includes around 700 useful phrases for use in any kind of research paper. Adrian Wallwork is the author of more than 20 ELT and EAP textbooks. He has trained several thousand PhD students and researchers from 35 countries to write research papers. Through his editing agency, he and his partners have been revising and editing research papers since 1985. This guide is thus also highly recommended for providers of editing services, proofreaders, and trainers in English for Academic Purposes. Other books in the series: • English for Presentations at International Conferences • English for Academic Correspondence and Socializing • English for Research: Usage, Style, and Grammar Education ISBN 978-1-4419-7921-6 allwork Adrian W 1 English for Writing Research Papers Other books in the series: 1 English for Writing Research Papers Adrian Wallwork is the author of more than 20 ELT and EAP textbooks. He has trained several thousand PhD students and researchers from 35 countries to write research papers. Through his editing agency, he and his partners have been revising and editing research papers since 1985. This guide is thus also highly recommended for providers of editing services, proofreaders, and trainers in English for Academic Purposes. al Adrian W Wallwork Good writing skills are key to a successful career in academia. English for Writing Research Papers was written specifically for researchers and professors of all disciplines whose first language is not English and who wish to have their work published in an international journal. Wallwork Adrian Wallwork English for Writing Research Papers ENGgLISH for WritinPapers Research
  2. 2. A  PDF  of  this  seminar  will  be  on  my  blog:   adrianwallwork.wordpress.com   under  English  courses/downloads        
  3. 3. GUIDELINE #1 Who should you have in mind when you are writing your paper?
  4. 4. Who is the most important reader of your paper? The referee.
  5. 5. Spain’s  record  for  publishing   3  Spanish  ins>tutes  in  top  200  ins>tutes  that   have  published  papers  in  Nature     (Portugal  0,  Italy  1,  France  5,  Germany  17,  UK   20)  
  6. 6. Research has found that there is a correlation between poor English and non-acceptance of articles. Many top journals are based in US and GB.
  7. 7. List four things that you think represent ‘poor English’ and/or ‘poor writing skills’ that would cause a paper to be rejected by a US or GB referee / reviewer.
  8. 8. REASONS FOR PAPERS TO BE REJECTED 1) “There are 80 words in this sentence – my brain is going to explode” 3-4 badly constructed long sentences may make a whole article incomprehensible.
  9. 9. 2) “Where are your findings?” Referee cannot understand the importance of your findings / results because you have not highlighted them clearly.
  10. 10. 3) “Whose are these findings – yours or another author’s?” Referee cannot understand if you are referring to your findings or findings already established in the literature.
  11. 11. 4)  Ambiguity   If you take your dog in the car don't let him hang out of a window while driving. Like Maria, he had dark brown hair, with enormous black eyebrows, a moustache and a short beard.
  12. 12. What do Spanish Referees complain about the most?
  13. 13.       Moral of the story Papers are NOT normally rejected for a few grammar or vocabulary mistakes. Papers ARE rejected for just two or three long sentences / paragraphs
  14. 14. FIVE EASY GUIDELINES       •  1 Write from reader’s / referee’s point of view •  2 Reduce word count to the minimum •  3 Use short sentences •  4 Avoid ambiguity •  5 Highlight your findings and clearly differentiate your findings from those already in the literature        
  15. 15. If you follow my five guidelines you will DOUBLE the chances of your manuscript being accepted.  
  16. 16. If you follow my five guidelines you will DOUBLE, even TRIPLE, the chances of your manuscript being accepted.  
  17. 17. If you follow my five guidelines you will QUADRUPLE the chances of your manuscript being accepted. OK, I am little optimistic perhaps!  
  18. 18. What do you see?
  19. 19. We all have different perspectives Trend today in English: seeing things from the reader’s point of view rather than your point of view
  20. 20. Moral of the story   In your papers, emails, presentation slides, and applications for jobs always think about the audience. What do they want to: •  know? •  read first? •  hear first? Think in terms of them them them NOT me me me How can I make it easier for them?
  21. 21.   Guideline  1   Write  for  the  referee  /  reader   Guideline  2   Write  short  sentences  
  22. 22. Very  Simple  Sentence   One  part  only   English  is  oQen  considered  to  be  the   simplest  language.    
  23. 23. Simple  Sentence   Two  parts   Of  all  the  languages  in  the  world,   English  is  oQen  considered  to  be  the   simplest.    
  24. 24. Complex  Sentence   Too  many  ideas   Of  all  the  languages  in  the  world,   including  those  that  are  now  dead   languages,  for  example  La>n  and   Sanskrit,  English,  which  is  now  spoken   by  around  400  million  na>ve  speakers   and  1.1  billion  non-­‐na>ve  speakers,  is   considered  by  most  people  to  be  the   simplest.    
  25. 25. Where  is  key  informa>on?  In   italics?  Or  normal  script   English,  which  is  the  interna4onal   language  of  communica4on,  is   now  studied  by  1.1  billion  people.     English,  which  is  now  studied  by   1.1  billion  people,  is  the   interna>onal  language  of   communica>on.    
  26. 26. Rule  for  wri>ng  a  sentence     1  Subject  in  first  part   2  Key  info  in  second  part    
  27. 27. 1)  Subject  2)  Key  info     English,  which  is  the  interna4onal   language  of  communica4on,  is  now   studied  by  1.1  billion  people.     English,  which  is  now  studied  by  1.1   billion  people,  is  the  interna>onal   language  of  communica>on.    
  28. 28. Do  NOT  separate  the  subject     from  the  key  informa4on   English,  which  owes  its  origins  to  the   Anglo  Saxons  (a  tribe  who  lived  in  what   is  now  Denmark  and  Northern   Germany)  and  is  the  interna>onal   language  of  communica>on,  in  part  due   to  the  importance  of  the  USA,  rather   than  the  Queen  of  England,    is  now   studied  by  1.1  billion  people.      
  29. 29. Don’t  hide  the  subject  in  the   middle  of  the  phrase   Owing  its  origins  to  the  Anglo  Saxons  (a   tribe  who  lived    in  what  is  now  Denmark   and  Northern  Germany),  English  is  the   interna>onal  language  of  commun-­‐ ica>on,  in  part  due  to  the  importance  of   the  USA,  rather  than  the  Queen  of   England,  and  is  now  studied  by  1.1   billion  people.      
  30. 30. Think  how  you  could  divide  up  this   sentence  into  four  short  sentences.   Owing  its  origins  to  the  Anglo  Saxons  (a   tribe  who  lived    in  what  is  now  Denmark   and  Northern  Germany),  English  is  the   interna>onal  language  of  commun-­‐ ica>on,  in  part  due  to  the  importance  of   the  USA,  rather  than  the  Queen  of   England,  and  is  now  studied  by  1.1  billion   people.      
  31. 31. Solu>on   English  owes  its  origins  to  the  Anglo   Saxons,  who  were  a  tribe  from  what  is   now  Denmark  and  Northern   Germany.  //  It  has  become  the   interna>onal  language  of   communica>on.  //  This  is  in  part  due  to   the  importance  of  the  USA,  rather  than   the  Queen  of  England.  //    English  is  now   studied  by  1.1  billion  people.      
  32. 32. Remove  relaCve  clauses   English, which owes its origins to the Anglo Saxons, is …   English  owes  its   origins  to  the  Anglo   Saxons.  
  33. 33. Remove  brackets  (and  consider  removing     content  of  brackets)     English, which owes its origins to the Anglo Saxons (a tribe who lived in what is now Denmark and Northern Germany)   English  owes  its   origins  to  the  Anglo   Saxons.    
  34. 34. Remove  linker  *  and  begin  a  new  sentence.     Don’t  worry  about  repeaCng  the  same  word  twice.   …. a tribe who lived in what is now Denmark and northern Germany) and is the international language of communication,   …a tribe from what is now Denmark and northern Germany. English has become the international language of communication.   * A linker is a connecting word: moreover, in particular, consequently  
  35. 35. Remove  comma  (,)  and  begin  a  new  sentence   … is the international language of communication, in part due to the importance of the USA, rather than the Queen of England, is now studied by 1.1 billion people.   …  is  the   interna>onal   language  of   communica>on.       This  is  in  part  due  to   the  importance  of   the  USA,  rather  than   the  Queen  of   England.  English  is   now  studied  by  1.1   billion  people.          
  36. 36. Having  shorter  sentences  also  makes  it  easier  to   change  their  order   English owes its origins to the Anglo Saxons, who were a tribe from what is now Denmark and Northern Germany. // It has become the international language of communication. // This is in part due to the importance of the USA, rather than the Queen of England. // English is now studied by 1.1 billion people.     English  is  now  studied  by   1.1  billion  people.  It  owes  its   origins  to  the  Anglo  Saxons,   who  were  a  tribe  from  what  is   now  Denmark  and  Northern   Germany.  //  It  has  become  the   interna>onal  language  of   communica>on.  //  This  is  in   part  due  to  the  importance  of   the  USA,  rather  than  the   Queen  of  England.    
  37. 37. Summary:  How  to  make  short  sentences  from  a  very   long  sentence.  Start  a  new  sentence  if  there  are/is:     •  •  •  •  •  brackets   which   and   more  than  two  commas   a  link  word  (in  addi4on,  furthermore)  
  38. 38.   Guideline  1   Write  for  the  referee   Guideline  2   Write  short  sentences   Guideline  3   Minimum  number  of  words     (avoid  redundancy)  
  39. 39. Researchers vs Normal People Imagine you ask a researcher the question “What time is it?”
  40. 40. A typical researcher will say: "On the basis of the consideration that the sun would appear to be at its highest peak in the sky, it would be reasonable, given such circumstances, to hypothesize, all other things being equal, that the time, with respect to Greenwich, is midday."
  41. 41. A normal person would say: “12 o’clock”
  42. 42. Which style of writing is easier to understand and more enjoyable to READ? a) “12 o’clock” b) "On the basis of the consideration that the sun would appear to be at its highest peak in the sky …”
  43. 43. Which style do you use? Why? a) “12 o’clock” b) "On the basis of the consideration that the sun would appear to be at its highest peak in the sky …”
  44. 44. In a survey at Stanford University, 86.4% of students admitted they used complicated language in their papers to make themselves sound more intelligent.
  45. 45. Remove the fog: cut redundant words It was yellow in colour and round in shape.  
  46. 46. Remove the fog: cut redundant words 1.  It was yellow in colour and round in shape. 2.  This will be done in the month of December. 3.  The research activity carried out in our department. 4.  The activity aimed at the extrapolation of X is not trivial. 5.  We did X. This choice meant that … 6. The summary statements presented above represent the authors’ current perceptions in relation to the results. Since the work is ongoing, these statements should only be viewed as conclusions to the extent that it is the author’s intention and aim to embellish them in the light of subsequent events.
  47. 47. Cut redundant words 1.  It was yellow in colour and round in shape. 2.  This will be done in the month of December. 3.  The research activity carried out in our department. 4.  The activity aimed at the extrapolation of X is not trivial. 5.  We did X. This choice meant that … 6.  The summary statements presented above represent the authors’ current perceptions in relation to the results. Since the work is ongoing, these statements should only be viewed as conclusions to the extent that it is the author’s intention and aim to embellish them in the light of subsequent events.
  48. 48. Why is eliminating redundant words useful? It was yellow in colour and round in shape / form. We did X. This choice / choose meant that … The activity aimed at / to the extrapolation of X is not trivial.
  49. 49. Why is eliminating redundant words useful? It was yellow in colour and round in shape / form. We did X. This choice / choose meant that … The activity aimed at / to the extrapolation of X is not trivial.  
  50. 50. Why cut redundant words? It was yellow in colour and round in shape / form. We did X. This choice / choose meant that … The activity aimed at / to the extrapolation of X is not trivial. •  If you cut redundant words it is impossible make mistakes with them! •  They add no value for the reader. •  They are not concrete.
  51. 51. Which is correct?   1a) We found useful to consider the cases separately. 1b) We found it useful to consider ... 2a) It is worth to note that x = y. 2b) It is worth noting that x = y.
  52. 52. Which is correct?   We found useful to consider … We found it useful to consider ... It is worth to note that x = y. It is worth noting that x = y. Are you 100% sure???!!!
  53. 53. Are the sentences in blue correct?   We found useful to consider … We found it useful to consider √ We considered ... It is worth to note that x = y. It is worth noting that x = y. √ Note that x = y.
  54. 54. Eliminating words   Reduces the number of choices you have to make, thus reduces the time you have to spend thinking. Reduces the chances of you making mistakes, thus reduces correction time. Saves the reader time and reduces possible boredom.
  55. 55. Using simple constructions does not mean you have a low intelligence quota!
  56. 56. Prefer verbs to nouns     X was used in the calculation of Y.   X was used to calculate Y.     All sentences in red are examples of BAD English
  57. 57. Prefer a verb to a verb + noun construction     This allows the analysis of X to be performed. This allows you to analyse X. This allows X to be analysed. A comparison was made between X and Y. X and Y were compared. X showed a better performance than Y. X performed better than Y.  
  58. 58. Why is using verbs a good idea? A comparison was made / done / effected / carried out between X and Y. X and Y were compared.
  59. 59. Be concise in the title of your paper but not too concise  
  60. 60. After reading a title of a paper only 1 in 500 people … ?
  61. 61. So you think they are going to read your paper? 1 in 3 Americans read gossip on blog websites 1 in 6 people read 12 or more books a year 1 in 100 people read a newspaper ONLY 1 in 500 people read a paper after reading the title 1 in 10,000 people read poetry
  62. 62. What is the problem with this title? An innovative Spanish PhD student scientific English didactic methodology
  63. 63. When you start reading it, it seems to have one meaning. But when you finish it, it has another meaning. An innovative Spanish PhD student …
  64. 64. It is a string of : adjectives + nouns that act as adjectives + nouns An innovative Spanish PhD student scientific English didactic methodology
  65. 65. Rewrite the title. Include some prepositions and a verb. An innovative Spanish PhD student scientific English didactic methodology
  66. 66. Good titles have a verb and some prepositions. An innovative Italian PhD student scientific English didactic methodology An innovative methodology for teaching scientific English to Spanish PhD students
  67. 67. Good titles put the adjective next to the noun it refers to. NO! An innovative Spanish PhD student scientific English didactic methodology YES! An innovative methodology for teaching scientific English to Spanish PhD students
  68. 68. Moral of the story If readers can t understand your title, there is a 98.76532% chance they won t read your paper.
  69. 69. Using  Google  to  check  your  English  
  70. 70. Google:  summary   This  word  or  exact  phrasing:  these  informa>ons  are     Language:  English     Domain:  .ac,  .edu     Author  (Google  Scholar  only):  Smith      
  71. 71. Being concise: Summary     Remove redundant words (and even whole sentences, paragraphs, sections) For a period of six months For six months Reduce number of words This gives us the possibility to do x This allows us to do x Use verbs instead of nouns We made an analysis of x We analysed x  
  72. 72. Why be concise?     Abstracts CVs Applications for grants Research proposals Emails Slides in presentations Posters at conferences Twitter Learning to be concise is not an option, it is essential.  
  73. 73. You will not write like a child! Being concise does not mean that you cannot be expressive or cannot be eloquent. You can! Are native English academics concise? Most are not. But the difference between them and you is that they don’t make mistakes!  
  74. 74. Believe me. You need to be concise    
  75. 75. Just because it was not concise: “Must be rewritten completely”   Referees can be real bastards!
  76. 76. But the author could easily have been avoided the problem   Abstract   Tomato  (Solanum  lycopersicum  L.)  is  a  worldwide-­‐culCvated  vegetable  crop   which  is  affected  by  many  viruses  that  cause  significant  economic  losses.   Therefore,  Their  detec>on  and  iden>fica>on  is  of  cri>cal  importance  to  plant   virologists  in  general  and,  in  parCcular,  to  scienCsts  and  others  involved  in  plant   protec>on  acCviCes  and  quaran>ne  and  cer>fica>on  programs.     Instead publication was delayed 3 months. Also, the author had to pay me €220 to revise his manuscript – when he could have done the revision HIMSELF before the first submission. P.S. Obviously, the author had NOT followed my English course!
  77. 77. Note also that this is an Abstract   Abstract   Tomato  (Solanum  lycopersicum  L.)  is  a  worldwide-­‐culCvated  vegetable  crop   which  is  affected  by  many  viruses  that  cause  significant  economic  losses.   Therefore,  Their  detec>on  and  iden>fica>on  is  of  cri>cal  importance  to  plant   virologists  in  general  and,  in  parCcular,  to  scienCsts  and  others  involved  in  plant   protec>on  acCviCes  and  quaran>ne  and  cer>fica>on  programs.     If the reader sees a lot of redundancy in the Abstract, then he/she will probably stop reading. In your Abstract every word must add VALUE. You do not have much space in an Abstract, so don’t waste a single word.
  78. 78.     1)  Write  for  the  referee   2)  Write  short  sentences   3)  Avoid  redundancy)     Guideline  4   Highlight  your  findings  and   differenCate  them  from  the  literature     Guideline  5   Avoid  ambiguity  
  79. 79. Which part of the paper is the most difficult to write? Why? Abstract Introduction Methodology (Materials and Method) Results Discussion Conclusion
  80. 80. Which part of the paper is the most difficult to write? Why? Abstract Introduction Methodology (Materials and Method) Results Discussion Conclusion
  81. 81. With  the  person  siSng  next  to   you  decide  the  main  purposes  of   the  Discussion  
  82. 82. In Discussion / Conclusions it is essential to: 1) be clear what you did and what other authors have done 2) highlight your unique contribution 3) discuss limitations of your findings 4) state what the applications and implications of your research are
  83. 83. Differentiating yourself from other authors NO!! It was found that … •  ? •  ? They found X. •  They found X. •  They found XThey found X YOU THEM YOU They found X. We found X. Our findings show that ...
  84. 84. Use ACTIVE and WE to distinguish between you and other authors 1.  2.  3.  GOOD! In 2008, we confirmed that complex sentences aggravate the reader [25]. GOOD! In 2007, Carter suggested that complex sentences could also lead to high levels of stress for the reader [36]. OK! In 2007, it was suggested that complex sentences could also lead to high levels of stress for the reader [Carter, 36]. 4.  BAD! In 2007, it was suggested that complex sentences could also lead to high levels of stress for the reader [25]. 5.  DISASTER! In 2007, it was suggested that complex sentences could also lead to high levels of stress for the reader. 1.  We clearly indicates that you are referring to your own work. 2.  The author is the subject of the verb, so it is clear to the reader. 3.  The passive form means that the reader is not sure until the end of the sentence if it was you or another author. A long literature review full of passive sentences is very heavy for the reader. 4.  This is ambiguous. Readers cannot know who made the suggestion unless they go to Ref. 25 and see if it was you or someone else. 5.  There is no reference. Readers cannot be sure if you made the suggestion or someone else.
  85. 85. Not making the distinction clear between what YOU did and what OTHERS have done causes more confusion for the reader than any grammatical or vocabulary mistake
  86. 86. For  each  verb  in  bold,  try  to  understand  if  the  verb  refers  to  something  Kim   (the  author)  did  or  found,  or  to  something  another  author  (AA)  did  or  found.     Bilingual  children  (1)  were  found    to  show  a  greater  adaptability  to  new   situa>ons  (e.g.  change  of  school,  change  of  diet)  and  demonstrated  a  greater   ease  in  communica>ng  confidently  with  adults  [Simons,  1995].  As  result  of  an   extensive  search  for  bilingual  children  in  ten  European  countries,  149  children   (2)  were  iden3fied  (Table  1).  It  (3)  has  been  found  that  those  children  with   parents  of  the  same  na>onality  but  who  lived  in  a  foreign  country  (for   example,  a  child  with  English  parents  living  in  Italy)  (4)  have  a  greater  level  of   adaptability  than  those  children  with  parents  of  different  na>onali>es  living   in  the  na>ve  country  of  one  of  the  parents.      
  87. 87. Original Bilingual children were found to show a greater adaptability to new situations and demonstrated a greater ease in communicating confidently with adults [Simons, 1995]. As result of an extensive search for bilingual children in ten European countries, 149 children were identified (Table 1). Revised Bilingual children show a greater adaptability to new situations and demonstrated a greater ease in communicating confidently with adults [Simons, 1995]. Simons investigated children from the US and Canada. On the other hand, the focus of our study was Europe and as a result of an extensive search for bilingual children in ten European countries, 149 children were identified (Table 1).
  88. 88. impersonal forms vs we Simons investigated children from the US and Canada, whereas we studied children in Europe. We conducted an extensive search for bilingual children in ten European countries and identified 149 children (Table 1). We found that those children with parents …
  89. 89. Results: present simple vs simple past present: to talk about established scientific fact past: your findings that you describe in your paper. It is well known that if green is mixed with red, brown is produced. We found that when we mixed green and red, white was produced. NO!!! We found that when we mixed green and red, white is produced.
  90. 90. Highlighting your findings
  91. 91. Telling
  92. 92. Show Don’t tell
  93. 93. Don’t tell The large difference in mean size between X and Y is particularly interesting. Interesting for who? Show X showed a massive increase, almost ten times that of Y.
  94. 94. This is one ridiculously long paragraph containing all kinds of information about everything that you can possibly imagine and conceive. This is one ridiculously long paragraph containing all kinds of information about everything that you can possibly imagine and conceive. Here are my findings you will be lucky if you can see them here buried in the midst of this ridiculously long paragraph containing all kinds of information about everything that you can possibly imagine and conceive. And now I will continue with this ridiculously long paragraph containing all kinds of information about everything that you can possibly imagine and conceive. So here we go again with this ridiculously long paragraph containing all kinds of information about everything that you can This is now a much shorter paragraph. This is now a much shorter paragraph. This is now a much shorter paragraph. This is now a much shorter paragraph. This is now a much shorter paragraph. This is now a much shorter paragraph. This is now a much shorter paragraph. This is now a much shorter paragraph. This is now a much shorter paragraph. Here are my findings, which you can now see quite clearly. Note how this paragraph is also quite short. In fact, it is shorter than the previous and following paragraphs. This is now a much shorter paragraph. This is now a much shorter paragraph. This is now a
  95. 95. Highlighting your findings "   Begin a new paragraph "   Use different language "   Avoid too many note that , interestingly – show rather than say "   If possible, use we and active form "   Use shorter than normal sentences "   Keep the paragraph short
  96. 96. Do any of you drink Carlsberg? Probably the best beer in the world
  97. 97. Probably the best beer in the world Early Carlsberg adverts had these slogans: Lager at its best. Unrivalled quality and flavour. The world s best. Why did Carlsberg decide to use probably ? http://carlsberg.com/#/Commercials/historic+ads
  98. 98. Hedging and Sitting on the Fence
  99. 99. Emphasizing your contribution Too modest Too arrogant
  100. 100. Too weak It may be the case that these findings could possibly find an application in … These findings would seem to suggest that in certain circumstances there might be a possiblity to .. Too strong These findings will certainly be useful for … Our findings prove that .. Other researchers should use these findings to …
  101. 101. The right balance X would seem to indicate that … We hope that other researchers will … We believe that these results show that … Our findings suggest that .. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that … Other researchers may benefit from …
  102. 102. But don’t put probably in front of every affirmation you make!
  103. 103. Level of certainty when discussing results 100% Must will (certainly) 90% should will probably 50% may could 0% will not cannot
  104. 104. How can you be so sure about what you say? There are no studies on ... Have you actually checked every single paper in the world? The literature has not discussed ... Are you 100% certain about this? This is the first time that this method has been applied to ... What about that recent study in China? Results often conflict with each other ... Have you investigated all the results?
  105. 105. I want my paper published, so I am more modest and open to other interpretations As far as we know, there are no studies on ... To [the best of] our knowledge, the literature has not discussed … We believe that this is the first time … Results often appear to conflict with each other ...
  106. 106. Don’t offend anyone when describing their limitations
  107. 107. Don’t give the finger to another author: he/she might be the refereee
  108. 108. Describe the limitations of your research + all possible objections.
  109. 109. So, what does it all mean?
  110. 110. Summary     Write  for  the  reader  not  for  yourself     Simple,  short,  clear  and  unambigous       ‘Sell’  your  methods  and  results     Reduce  what  you’ve  wrihen  by  25%  
  111. 111. How to end a seminar using boring scientific English On the basis that I have now concluded everything that I wish to say on this particular occasion, and, moreover, due to the consideration that the time allocated to this particular session is drawing near to its scheduled completion, I believe, given all the above factors, that we have reached the point at which we can bring this seminar to a suitable and appropriate termination.
  112. 112. How to end a lesson using error-free English

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