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  1. 1. Web 2.0: Technologies and Education
  2. 2. What is Web 2.0? <ul><li>What is Web 2.0 ?!? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Web 2.0 <ul><li>Web 2.0, a phrase coined by Dale Dougherty in 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>made famous in a paper called What is Web 2.0: Design Patterns and Business Models for the Next Generation of Software by Tim O’Reilly </li></ul><ul><li>it is not a set technological standard or protocol </li></ul><ul><li>it is a term to describe the movement/revolution about the social connection and interaction of the web and services and technologies that sponsor and promote it. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the “second phase” of the internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2006 Time Person of the Year: You </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Web 2.0 <ul><li>the meaning varies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dave Winer [a software developer and entrepreneur] says: “Web 2.0 is a marketing concept used by venture capitalists and conference promoters to try to call another bubble into existence.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Om Malik [a technology writer] says: “Web 2.0 as a collection of technologies - be it VoIP, Digital Media, XML, RSS, Google Maps… whatever … that leverage the power of always on, high speed connections and treat broadband as a platform, and not just a pipe to connect.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>kind of a buzz word </li></ul>
  5. 5. What was Web 1.0? <ul><li>Web 1.0 was about reading, Web 2.0 is about writing </li></ul><ul><li>Web 1.0 was about companies, Web 2.0 is about communities </li></ul><ul><li>Web 1.0 was about client-server, Web 2.0 is about peer to peer </li></ul><ul><li>Web 1.0 was about HTML, Web 2.0 is about XML </li></ul><ul><li>Web 1.0 was about home pages, Web 2.0 is about blogs </li></ul><ul><li>Web 1.0 was about lectures, Web 2.0 is about conversation </li></ul><ul><li>Web 1.0 was about advertising, Web 2.0 is about word of mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Web 1.0 was about services sold over the web, Web 2.0 is about web services </li></ul><ul><li>From Darren Barefoot, a technology writer </li></ul><ul><li>modern vs. post-modern ways of thinking </li></ul>
  6. 6. Examples of Web 2.0 <ul><li>Blogs </li></ul><ul><li>Wikis </li></ul><ul><li>Tagging </li></ul><ul><li>Multimedia Sharing </li></ul><ul><li>RSS </li></ul><ul><li>Podcasting </li></ul><ul><li>Second Life </li></ul>
  7. 7. BLOGS <ul><li>blog or weblog </li></ul><ul><li>simple webpage consisting of brief postings of opinion, information, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>blogosphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a collective term encompassing all blogs and their interconnections </li></ul></ul><ul><li>chronologically ordered </li></ul><ul><li>exchange of ideas from single author to unlimited readers </li></ul><ul><li>real time not journal time (ie. daily or weekly) </li></ul><ul><li>has links and comment fields </li></ul>
  8. 8. BLOGS <ul><li>Examples of Blogs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.insidethecbc.com/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.engadget.com/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples of Blog Sevices: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blogger/Blogspot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>https://www.blogger.com/start </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://canuckshockey.blogspot.com/ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BlogsCanada </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.blogscanada.ca/ </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. WIKIS <ul><li>a webpage or set of webpages that can be easily edited by anyone with access </li></ul><ul><li>collaborative tool </li></ul><ul><ul><li>now available as an option in major software packages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>has a history function to view previous versions </li></ul><ul><li>ease of use vs. malicious editing and vandalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>though things can be quickly corrected </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. WIKIS <ul><li>Wikipedia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the most well-known wiki </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>accuracy is comparable to a regular encyclopedia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>disputed though </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.wikipedia.org/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SFU related wikis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SFU Cognitive Science </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.zanyt.com/cogs_wiki/index.php?title=Welcome </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LIDC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://wiki.lidc.sfu.ca/HomePage </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. TAGGING <ul><li>a tag is a keyword attached to a digital object </li></ul><ul><li>very often used in searches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>eg. Flickr and YouTube </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. TAGGING <ul><li>searching Flickr for “fat” and “cat” tags will give results showing a overweight cats or other things called “fat cat”, such as the “Fat Cat” pub… </li></ul>
  13. 13. MULTIMEDIA SHARING <ul><li>areas and services that facilitate the sharing and storage of digital media </li></ul><ul><li>eg. Flickr, YouTube, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>distribution on a massive scale </li></ul><ul><li>productions are high quality, but on low cost digital media technology </li></ul>
  14. 14. RSS <ul><li>RSS = Really Simple Syndication </li></ul><ul><li>allows a user to subscribe to a “feed” and gain content thru a subscription </li></ul><ul><li>RSS icon </li></ul><ul><li>up-to-date information from websites, blogs, etc. without having to go to the original source </li></ul><ul><ul><li>common in news websites or other websites that are continually updated with information </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. RSS <ul><li>The RSS icon will appear in the address field of most modern web-browsers to indicate that the website has an RSS feed </li></ul><ul><li>Click on it to subscribe to the feed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in this case, the CNN.com feed for all the updates to CNN.com </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. PODCASTING <ul><li>a podcast is an audio file uploaded to a host server and subscribed to via RSS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>easy to get new, updated content </li></ul></ul><ul><li>will run on more than just iTunes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>eg. Odeo.com, MyPodcast.com, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>lots of potential for educational purposes </li></ul><ul><li>more on this later… </li></ul>
  17. 17. Second Life <ul><li>a popular, virtual 3D world where a user can construct an avatar and other 3D environments and explore them </li></ul><ul><li>looks like a game, but not really a game… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>venue for socializing and interacting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>various agencies and entities have a presence in Second Life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>including SFU and the VPD </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Second Life
  19. 19. THE SIX BIG IDEAS BEHIND WEB 2.0 <ul><li>from What is Web 2.0? Ideas, technologies and implications for education by Paul Anderson </li></ul><ul><li>Individual production and User Generated Content </li></ul><ul><li>Harness the power of the crowd </li></ul><ul><li>Data on an epic scale </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture of Participation </li></ul><ul><li>Network Effects </li></ul><ul><li>Openness </li></ul>
  20. 20. 1. Individual production and User Generated Content <ul><li>content added very easily to media sites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>eg. MySpace, YouTube, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>content can be searched with tags </li></ul><ul><li>people writing blogs and contributing to wikis </li></ul><ul><li>user generated content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>also called content self-publishing, personal publishing, self-expression. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>new, cheap, accessible and quality tools lower entry bar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>eg. digital cameras, mobile phones with devices, video cameras, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>similar to computers, printers and paper desktop publishing in early 80s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ everybody can do it, but not anybody can do it” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>talent still distinguishes </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. 1. Individual production and User Generated Content <ul><li>existing/traditional media sources are threatened and are adapting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>shows now have podcasts or can be downloaded from iTunes store </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RadioHead, NIN, etc. now giving away music </li></ul></ul><ul><li>redefinition/reinterpretation of audience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>more authors than readers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>blogs that are never read… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>contributors are driven by attention rather than financial motives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>threats to structure and authority </li></ul><ul><ul><li>traditional media sources are structured, edited and sources verified </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>not like the internet… </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. 2. Harness the power of the crowd <ul><li>collective intelligence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>information = intelligence (?) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>as group can be collectively more intelligent than a single individual </li></ul><ul><ul><li>eg. ask the audience on who wants to be a millionaire </li></ul></ul><ul><li>hazards: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ groupthink”, lack of a deep level critical thinking, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ crowd sourcing” “was coined by Wired journalist Jeff Howe to conceptualize a process of Web-based out-sourcing for the procurement of media content, small tasks, even solutions to scientific problems from the crowd gathered on the Internet.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>eg. websites with stock materials, like shutterstock.com, istockphoto, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>threat to existing photographic professionals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>content not good, but good enough </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>eg. websites like Innocentive match scientists with R&D clients </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. 2. Harness the power of the crowd <ul><li>Folksonomy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Folksonomy is the result of personal free tagging of information and objects (anything with a URL) for one's own retrieval. The tagging is done in a social environment (shared and open to others). The act of tagging is done by the person consuming the information.” VanderWal, 2005, blog entry. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tags are meant to connect, not categorize </li></ul></ul><ul><li>tags are created in a social context with people using their own vocabulary and meanings (relative to a community) </li></ul><ul><li>tags are not created in formal taxonomy nor have standard meanings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>remember the search for “fat” and “cat”…? </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. 2. Harness the power of the crowd <ul><li>example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>consider a search on YouTube.com for “evan” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>this can mean: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A trailer for the movie “Evan Almighty” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The “Evan” from the movie “SuperBad” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>And many more “evan”s… </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>each person adding a video to YouTube.com puts an “evan” tag with it…(among other tags) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>YouTube.com does not control or categorize the content to have a standard meaning for “evan” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. 3. Data on an epic scale <ul><li>information, data, etc. generated is staggering in its quantity with multiple sources and contributors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ datafication’ of the world </li></ul></ul><ul><li>services exist to collect and manage this data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>eg. Google </li></ul></ul><ul><li>the use of these services makes these services smarter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>data mining techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>eg. the monitoring of collective buying habits to make suggestions to individual users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>eg. Netflix, Amazon, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>data becomes a resource </li></ul><ul><ul><li>privacy issues and implications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>who owns this data? </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. 4. Architecture of Participation <ul><li>how a website is designed affects the participation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>eg. pay vs. free </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>eg. classmates.com vs. facebook.com </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-eg. amount of steps to register with website </li></ul></ul><ul><li>a website can get better the more a person uses it </li></ul><ul><ul><li>it adapts to the person </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>eg. recommendations from a website, or a website connecting likeminded people </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>open-source software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ie. the sharing of ideas and content for reuse and new combinations </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. 5. Network Effects <ul><li>“ The Network Effect is a general economic term used to describe the increase in value to the existing users of a service in which there is some form of interaction with others, as more and more people start to use it” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>eg. FaceBook </li></ul></ul><ul><li>not all users have the same value </li></ul><ul><ul><li>some are more valuable to user than other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>eg. family, friends, acquaintances, co-workers, strangers, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>the flipside: the lock-in to technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>as more people use a certain product or service, it becomes difficult to switch to another product or service (that may be better) because there a few people to share with </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>eg. VHS vs. Beta </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>eg. Blu-ray vs HD-DVD </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>it shows the needs for interoperability </li></ul>
  28. 28. 5. Network Effects <ul><li>many things on the internet are unequal </li></ul><ul><li>there are artificial barriers that make it easier for some and extremely difficult for others </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ie. popularity, promotion, position on search engine, placement on webpage, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>there is a counter-movement to with the “democratization of the tools of production” as amateurs are able to flood the internet with content </li></ul>
  29. 29. 6. Openness <ul><li>“ The development of the Web has seen a wide range of legal, regulatory, political and cultural developments surrounding the control, access and rights of digital content.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>you don’t have to pay for stuff now! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>eg. music, movies, software… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>web 2.0 stresses openness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>open standards, open-source software, free data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>eg. the push for Open Document Format (or ODF) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>all to be used and reused freely for the common goal of open innovation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>eg. FireFox and its plug-ins </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. EDUCATIONAL AND INSTRUCTIONAL ISSUES: <ul><li>“ In these scenarios, education is more like a conversation and learning content is something you perform some kind of operation on rather than ‘just’ reading it.“ </li></ul><ul><li>Problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>users are in a 24/7 environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>economic divide among user’s home resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>differing skill levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>privacy and plagiarism issues of online collaborations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>shared authorship and assessments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>the lack of understanding about student learning modes and social aspect of the software </li></ul>
  31. 31. EDUCATIONAL AND INSTRUCTIONAL ISSUES: <ul><li>the redefinition of the teacher/student structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>from teacher-centered instruction to student-centered learning/creating </li></ul></ul><ul><li>how does education deal with the traditional hierarchies of knowledge and the new web 2.0 reality? </li></ul>