Glosa Dictionary


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Glosa Dictionary

  1. 1. Glosa Inter-reti Diktionaria Glosa Internet Dictionary Glosa–English and English–GlosaPersons who have - more or less directly - worked on this book: Wendy Ashby (Glosa author), Paul Bartlett, Ronald Clark (Glosa author), Charles Ganson, Robin Gaskell,Nick Hempshall, Gary Miller, William Patterson (former editor), Kevin Smith, Marcel Springer (maintainer of this list)., Hamburg, Germany, 2009–11–05. Index Glosa, an international auxiliary language p. 2 Glosa Mechanics p. 3 About this dictionary p. 4 Glosa–English, Centra (only most useful words) p. 5 ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ Glosa–English, Mega (all words) p. 19 ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ English–Glosa, Mega p. 71 ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
  2. 2. Glosa, an International Auxiliary LanguageGlosa is an international auxiliary language.There are many drafts of international auxiliary languages, but Glosa is themost advanced one with no grammatical endings on the words (linguists callthat an “isolating” structure). It is designed by Ronald Clark and WendyAshby and goes back to Lancelot Hogben’s Interglossa (1943).From The Glosa Basic Reference (by Ron Clark and Wendy Ashby, 1994):Glosa is an artificial language intended for use among people with differentnative, cultural, or national languages. It is an auxiliary language and has nopurpose of supplanting or replacing any other languages. Its purpose is onlyto be a common means of communication for people of different languages.Glosa has several distinguishing characteristics: • Its structure is very simple and based on semantics. It is an analytical language with no inflexions, genders, or diacritical marks. Glosa does have ways of forming plurals, tenses, questions, etc., similar to Chinese and Malay, which use a word for each idea, but no inflections. A small number of words handle grammatical relationships not otherwise pro- vided for. Many Glosa words can serve as more than one part of speech as meaning and common sense allow. • Glosa words are based on Latin and Greek roots common to the chief Euro-languages; via science, technology, and medicine, these words are penetrating all languages. Although a larger vocabulary is available, a base vocabulary of between 1000 and 2000 words handles most situa- tions. • Its pronunciation is simple and regular, and its spelling is phonetic. • Above all, Glosa is neutral. Because it is no one’s own language, it is available to everyone without jealousy or resentment over the dominance of any one or a few national languages. Its use of Latin and Greek roots, many of which are already in widespread use, gives it internationality. 2
  3. 3. Glosa MechanicsBelow are listed the words and particles essential for expressing:Number, Tense, Passive Voice, Questions, Comparison, Relative Pronoun. u(n) a, the, any u bibli, un avi a book, a bird plu more than one plu avi the birds nu now Fe (nu) vora. She is eating (now). pa (past:) did Fe pa dice ... She said ... fu (future:) shall Fe fu dice. She will speak. du -ing (du-ration) Fe pa du dice She was talking. nu pa have just Mi nu pa vide fe. I’ve just seen her. nu fu just going to nu fu ki ex just going out pa fu was going to pa fu dice was going to say fu pa shall have fu pa akti id shall have done it si if si fe vide an if she sees him sio would (if) Mi ne sio ki I wouldn’t go. ne not Fe ne pote vide id. She cannot see it. qe ... ? ...? (question start) Qe, tu pa vide id? Did you see it? qo-ka ... ? why (CAuse) Qo-ka tu ... ? What made you ...? qo-te ... ? why (InTEntion) Qo-te tu ki? Why go? (aim) qe? ... doesn’t it? Termo qe? Hot isn’t it? gene get (passively) pa gene u grama got a letter pa gene got pa gene frigo got cold ge- got- (past participle) ge-frakti broken se self lava se wash oneself mi auto I myself ... Mi auto pa vide id. I myself saw it. iso ... de as ... as iso mega de ... as big as ma ... de more ... than ma termo de warmer than maxi most, -est maxi termo hottest mei de less than mei termo de less warm than mini least mini rubi least red u gina, qi .. the woman, who no- opposites alti, non-alti tall, low 3
  4. 4. About this dictionarySources for the words have been several publications by Ronald Clarkand Wendy Ashby, c Glosa Education Organization (GEO, P. O. Box18, Richmond Surrey TW9 1WD, UK), namely “Glosa Basic Reference”,“English - Glosa 1000”, “English - Glosa 1000 classified”, “Glosa 6000”,“18 Steps to Fluency in Euro-Glosa” (Glosa-English list), “Central Glosa”(lists “5000 English to Glosa 1000” and “Useful Prefixes”), “Francais -¸Glosa 1000”, “Espa˜ ol - Glosa 1000” and others and the friendly correspon- ndence with Glosa author Wendy Ashby.The Glosa Internet Dictionary has three levels. • “Mega”/“Literary”-dictionary (large) = all words. • “Basi”/“Basic”-dictionary (middle): its words are marked with “+” (or “++”). • “Centra”/“Core”-dictionary (small, = only most useful “Basi”-words): words are marked with “++”.Suggestion: prefer ++, then +.Further abbreviations:“G” marks Glosa words with Greek origin.“1” marks Glosa 1000 words (words, that appear in one of the severalGlosa-1000-lists).“*” marks a word not original GEO (Clark/Ashby).“1*” means only a slight modification from a Glosa-1000-word.“X”-words should be avoided. The prefered synonym is in brackets (=...).and: adj adjective, n noun, v verb.See also history-file and criticism about this dictionary are welcome.Please write to Marcel Springer, 4
  5. 5. Glosa–English ali-kron ali-lo whenever anywhere; wherever (adverb) arti haughtiness; vain art; ability; capable; skill ali-mode anyhow (anyway); anyway artikla article Centra (anyhow); however (adverb, =in whatever way) artri asilu joint; juncture asylum; harbor; harbour; ali-pe anyone (whoever); whoever haven; port (harbour); refuge; (anyone) safe place; shelter ali-ra anything (of every item you asocia associate; ally (v); ally (state); care to choose); whatever; ally (person); association;A alkoholi whichever alcohol; spirit (alcohol) astro partner star alo or; alternative; either atende wait; await; delay; expect; alo ... alo either ... or hope; waitinga (before consonants without h, else prefer alterna alternate; although; else atri court; hall; courtyard; class-ad) alti altitude; high; aloft; height; room; entrance (hall); hallway; at (location); till; to; towards; lofty; tall lecture room; yard up to ambasadora ambassador audaci dare; daring; venturea fini at last; eventually; finally ambula amble; stroll; walk; walking audi hear; listen; harka latu aside ami friend; amiable; comrade; auto own (self); self; herself; him-a-kron punctual; till (until); until friendly; kind (friendly); lov- self; itself; myself; ourselves;a-nu hitherto; yet able; warm (friendly) themselves; yourselfab away; absent; from; missing amo love; like (love); affection; auto-kritici conscience (not there); off approve; approval; kindness; auto-lauda haughty; pride; proud; vanityabili able; ability mercy; warm (friendly) automati automatic; self-actingacide happen; event; circumstance; amorfo clod; lump; shapeless auxi help; advantage; aid; assist; incident; occur; pass (happen) amusa amuse; amusement; entertain; grow (something); helpfulad (before vowels and h, else prefer a) at funny avanti forward; advance; ahead; (location); till; to; towards; amusa-ra entertainment forth; move forward; forwards; up to an he; him; his; male; masculine onwards; proad-in into; inward an- (prefix:) male; male (prefix) avi birdadamanta diamond; very hard an-fili sonadi add an-galina cockerel; roosteradora adore; worship an-regi kingaero air; atmosphere an-sibi brotheraeroplana aeroplane; airplane an-sponsa husbandagentiagri agent field; countryside; meadow- ana anas upwards; rise (go up); up duck (animal) B land andro man; gentleman; husbandagri-lo farm angeli angel; messengeragri-pe farmer; agricultural labourer ankora still (yet); yet babi babyplu agri-zoa cattle ante ahead; before (place); fore; baci bar; baton; rod; staff (rod);agrikultura agriculture front; in front stick (baton)agrio wild; savage anti against; although; despite; hin- baia bay; creekakidi acid; sour; acute der; hostile; in spite of; op- bali throw; accelerate; cast (throw);akorda according to; agree; accord; pose; though; versus dash (throw); fling; hurl; acknowledge; consent; harmo- anti-co although; but; however (=al- launch; post (send); send; toss nize; league; match (v); treaty; though it was so); neverthe- bali ab dismiss; dispose unanimous; undertake; uphold less; though bali ex banish; expelakro top (highest point); climax; anti-ergo lazy bali ex landa exile end; peak; point (sharp); sum- anti-krati rebel; revolt; treason baluna balloon mit; tip (top) anti-lega illegal; crime; criminal (adj) banana bananaakti act; do; behave; accomplish; anti-pe enemy; foe; opponent banda band; band (strip); bandage; action; active; commit; deed; anua year; annual; yearly ribbon; strip (band); tape does (form of to do); do- anxio anxiety; anxious; fret; fuss; banka bank (money) ing (participle of to do); per- haggard; uneasiness; uneasy bapti baptize; dip form; performance; take ac- aperi open (adj); open (v) barage (French) barrage; dam (barrier) tion; transact apis bee barba beard; whiskerakti ma boni de excel apo apart; away; remove; delete basi grounds; reason (n); base; ba-akti mali insult; offence; offend; offense (computer); erase; pull out; sis; found (v); proofaktivi active; busy; brisk skim; snatch away; subtract; bate bat; batter; beat; beating;aku nail; needle; pin; prick (v); take away; tear out; un-; whisk hit; knock; smite; strike (hit); splinter; tack aqa water (n); irrigate; liquid; thrash (beat)akuto sharp; sharpen; shrill; acid soak; water (v); wet bato deep (distance); depth (dis- (“sharp” taste); sour (“sharp” arca arch (archway); archway tance); batho- taste) area area; domain; pitch; plot beka beak; peck; spoutalegro cheerful; jolly; merry (ground); region ben ge-ski familiaralelo each other; mutual arena sand; arena benca bench; bank (long seat); longalexi defence; defend; defense; argenti silver seat guard; look after; protect; arki chief; official (adj); authority; bene-veni welcome protective; safeguard; watch govern; rule (authority) benzina benzine; gasoline; petrol over arma arm (v); weapon; armor; ar- betona concretealgo pain; ache; -algia; grief; hurt; mour; arms bi two; both; double painful; sore; suffering arme army u bi pairali any (whatever); whatever (any) aroga arrogant; arrogance; haughty; bi kron twiceali kron ever (at any time); any time bi-ci bibli these two books; both books 5
  6. 6. bi-ciklo bicycle celu cell (living); cell (prison) densi-lo bush (thicket); thicketbi-la bibli those two books cementa cement denti tooth; grinbibe drink (v) centi cent; hundredth; hundred (pre- derma skin; hide (skin); leather; peelbibli book fer hekto, take centi for hun- designa designbibli-do library dredth!) desira desire; wishbileta ticket centra center; central; centre; centric; deskribe describe; descriptionbio life; living; vital centrical; hub destru destroy; destructionbira ale; beer Cepa onion detekti detect; find; discover; discov-bitumino tar cepti receive; accept; adopt; pick up; ery; expose; scoutblada blade; knife; dagger take in; take up dextro right (hand); right hand; right-blasto-tem spring (season); springtime cerka search; grope; quest; look for; handbloka block; obstruct; writing pad seek di day; dailyblonda blond; fair certa certain; a certain; sure di kli couchbola ball; sphere; throw (n); stroke ceru wax; beeswax dia through; thru; across; via (n) ci here diaboli devil; diabolicalbomba bomb; shell (bomb) ciano blue; cyanic (blue); sky blue; dice say; speak; tell; assert; de-bombasti boast celestial; heavenly clare; narrate; remark; speach;boni good; bonny; fine (good); re- cide kill; murder; slay speech; talk; utter (speak) spectable; well (good) cigareta cigarette dice de describe; discuss; mentionboni fortuna luck ciklo cycle; wheel; circle; circular dice mali insultboni-fortuna fortunate; fortunately; lucky cinera ash; ashes; cinder; gray; grey dice penite apologizeboteka boutique; shop cirka circa; about; about (location); dice-ra speech; statementbotilia bottle; flask around difere differ; difference; differentbovi beef; cow; bovine; ox cirkulati traffic difusi broadcast; diffuse; scatter;braki arm ciru curl; ringlet spreadbrevi short; abbreviate; abbrevia- cisori scissors; shear digi finger; toe; digital tion; brief civi citizen digni dignity; worthybrevi digi thumb civili civil; polite; courteous; cour- dina force; compel; might (power);brevi tem temporary tesy; meek; mercy oblige; power; power (en-brika brick civiliza civilization; civilize gine or computer); powerful;bronto thunder; explode civita city; town strength; vigor; vigourbrosa brush; broom; scrub; sweep -co (Italian. Only in compounds!) the just diplo doublebruno brown; scorch; tan said dipso thirstbuka cheek; cheeks; mouth cokolata chocolate diptera fly (insect)bulbo bulb direkti direct; direction; guidebuleta bullet disci learn; studybuli boil; bubble disci-pe pupil (learner)buli-va cooking-pot; kettle; saucepan disipa waste (use without good pur-buno hill; mound; mountain pose); squanderburoburo-pe bureau; office; desk clerk; office worker D disko disc; dish (plate); disk; plate; record (disc)bursa purse; exchange (stock); wallet diskusi conference; discussion; dis- (for money) cuss; talkbus bus; omnibus daga dagger; stab disputa dispute; quarrel; argue; con-buta aim; purpose; butt; goal; inten- dama subdue; tame flict; quarrelsome; row (dis- tion; object (purpose); score; datu date (day) pute); squabble; strife target; task de about; belong; concerning; distribu distribute; deal (cards); distri-butiri butter from; in relation to; of; butionbutona button; knob (button); pimple of (concerning); with regard divi bet; wager to; relating to; ’s (genitive divide divide; division; fissure; marker); than schism; separate (v); share debi ought to; should; debt; duty; (v); split obligation; ought; owe divina guess; prophesy debili feeble; weak doci teach; instruct; profess (teach);C decide decide; decision; determine; determination; judge (v); re- doci-pe train (v) teacher; tutor solve; settle domi house; building; domestic; decimali decimal homecampiona champion defekti defect; fault; deficiency; flaw; dona give; award; deliver (give);carma charm; charming lack; be lacking; be missing extra; furnish; grant; rendercarta chart; map; diagram; graph defi challenge; defy (give); spare; supplycasa chase (hunt); hunt; hunting; deino terrible; frightful; shock; terror dona sito a feed pursue deka ten doro gift; present; present (gift)cede cede; yield (give way); yield deklara declare; announce; declara- dorsa back (n); dorsal; ass (but- (cease opposition); abandon tion; deem tocks); bottom; buttock; but- (give up); cease opposition; deko decent; seemly; adequate; ap- tocks; hind (back); rump; rear give up; give way; go (cede); propriate; apt; fitting (adj); (n) retire; surrender; withdraw; do proper doxo opinion; be of the opinion without delekta delight drama-an actor (male)cefa chief; employer; main; major; delikate delicate; dainty drama-fe actress master; patron; principal demanda demand; ask for; charge; order drama-pe actorcefa vora dinner (demand) dromo run; race (competition); gal-ceka cheque demo people; folk; population lop; scampercelebra celebrate; acclaim; party (cele- dendro tree du continue (-ing); -ing (continu- brate) densi condense; dense; thick (dense) 6
  7. 7. ous tense) etio blame; accusation; cause; fata fate; destiny; lot (destiny)dubi doubt; hesitate guilt; guilty fatiga bore (tire); fatigue; haggard;duce lead; priority; conduct; drive; eva age; lifetime; period tire (v); tired; weary guidance; guide evita avoid; dodge; shirk; shun fatuo absurd; dull (stupid); foolish;duce-pe leader; director; manager; pilot evolve evolve; develop; development sillydulo slave; servant ex out from; by (marker of doer favo favor; favour; favorable;dura continue; still (continue); abid- by passive voice); from; out; favourable; on behalf of; for ing; constant; continuous; since (in favour of); partial (favor- durable; endure; hard (last- exakti accurate; exact; exactly; pre- ing); privilege ing); last (v); lasting; lasting cise fe she; her; hers; female; woman (hard); permanent; persist; examina examine; consider; examina- fe-bovi cow tough tion; inspect; interview; inves- fe-fili daughterdura feru steel tigate; probe; survey; test fe-galina hendura vive survive excele excel; excellent fe-regi queendusca (French) shower (bath) excesi excess; excessive; too (in a too fe-sibi sister high degree); very ((almost) fe-sponsa wife too much) febri fever excite excite; exciting; thrill feli cat; feline excite viagia adventure femina female; woman exempla example; instance; pattern; fenestra window; window (computer)E exercise sample; specimen exercise; drill (training); prac- feno seem; apparent; appear; ap- pearance; look like (seem) tice; train (practice) feri fairy existe available; exist; existence; ex- feria fair (bazaar); holiday; vacatione and tant fero carry; bear (carry); convey;editora editor exklude exclude; exclusive; except transfer; transporteduka educate; education; educa- expande expand; expansion fero ci bring tional; learning expande-lo expanse fero-pe carrier; porterefekti effect (n); effect (v) expekta expect fertili fertile; dung (v); fertilize; ma-egotisti selfish experi experience (n); experience (v) nure (v); productiveeko dwell; live (dwell); address; experimenta experiment feru ferrous; iron dwelling; household; inhabit; explika explain; explanation; explicate feru-via railway reside explode explode; burst; explosion festa feast; festival; festive; festiv-eko-lo home; address; lodging; lodg- exporta export ity; fete; holiday; party ings; tenement expresi express; expression; utter (-)fi thread; wire; filament; fiber;eko-preci rent (n) (speak) fibre; strand; string; strip (ofekonomi economy; economic; thrift extende extend; spread something); yarnelasti coil (spring); elastic; spring extra external; beside; out of; out- fibri fibre (coil) door; outdoors; outer; outside; fide confide; confidence; confident;elefa elephant outward; outwardly; outwards entrust; faith; fidelity; loyal;elekti elect; choose; appoint; ballot; extra landa abroad loyalty; trust (confide) choice; election; pick (chose); extra-ve coat figura figure select; selection fikti fiction; fictional; form (v); pre-elektro electric; electricity tend; shape (v)elementa element; elementary; primary; fili offspring; daughter (or son); simple son (or daughter); child (son oremotio emotion; expression daughter)energienigma energy enigma; puzzle; riddle; prob- F filtra fini filter finish; end; abort; aim; com- lem plete; conclude; deadline; fi-epi on; onto; upon nal; finally; goal; terminateeqa equal; equality; be (equal); is (-)fa set (n); bundle; group; bunch; fisika nature; physics (equals) cluster; sheaf fiska fiscal; taxEqus horse faba bean fisu crack (split); fissure; schism;ergo work (n); work (v); business; face make; build; commit; con- split job; labor; labour; occupation; struct; execute; forge (v); fixa fix; firm; clasp; record (v); so- on watch (ship) making; manufacture; produce lidify; splint; tightergo-ma fuel (make) fla blow (air); draught; inflate;ergo-mensa desk face-do factory puffplu ergo-pe staff (workers) facia face; features; surface flaci flaccid; floppy; weak; droop;ero error; mistake; blunder; err; facili easy lax; limp; slack mis-; wrongdoing faktu fact; factual flagela whip; lashes be; am; are; is; there is/are; ’s fali fail; failure flama flame; flare (short for is); ’re (short for are); fals akti fraud flasc flash; lightning ’m (short for am); being (par- falsi false; wrong; cheat; deceit; de- flavoro flavor; flavour ticiple of to be); find oneself ceive; dummy; fraud; lie (un- flexi bend; bend (v); curve (v); flex (in a place) truth); mistake; sham; treach- flori flower; bloom; flourishes la attend; be present; presence; erous; untruth flu flow; current; flood; fluent; exist fami hunger; hungry fluid; flux; running; stream (v)espio spy famili family; familiar fluvi riverest east famina famine; hunger; starve fo(-)(short form of forti) intense; strong;establi establish famo fame; famous; noted; promi- tight (strong); very; vivideste feel; conscious; conscious- nent (famous); renown; reputa- fo tekno brilliant (intelligent) ness; esthetic; perceive; sense tion; well-known fo-amo adoration; enjoy; fondeste fobo afraid farina dust; flour; powder 7
  8. 8. fo-klinafo-mega steep huge; immense; monster; vast G gravi grave (serious); heavy; se- rious; especially; important;fo-soni bang (sound); blare; loud considerable; impressive; mas-fo-tenta effort; exert sive; solidfo-valu precious galina chicken; fowl gravi pro concernfo-voci scream game marry; marriage; wed grega group; herd; party (team);fo-volu desire; ambition; appetite; game-ritu wedding party (political); crew; flock; long (v) for; yearn gasi gas; air gang; swarm; teamfobo fear; phobia; alarm; dismay; gastro stomach gresi walk dread; fright; horror ge-face artificial; made (participle of to gru fit; adapt; agree; convenient;fobo-pe coward make) fitting; fitting (adj); install;folia foliage; leaf u ge-face produce (n) mount; proper; property; rele-fonda background ge-face ex consist vant; set up; suit (v); suitablefono -phone; sound (acoustic); ge-favo favorite; favourite guarda guard aloud; voice ge-fixa tem term gumi rubber; caoutchouc; gum;fonta fountain; source; spring ge-flexi bent; curved resin (source); well (water) ge-frakti broken gusta taste; taste (test)fora hole; bore (hole); drill (v, make ge-grafo akorda contract holes); leak; perforate; pierce; ge-klavi closed (locked); shut (closed); puncture lockedfora-ru borer; drill (tool) ge-mixa mixedforma form; shape; forge; mold; ge-nati born mould; sculpture ge-place contentformaliformika formal ant ge-publika-ra gele publication jelly Hformula formula; prescription; recipe geli freeze; ice (v)forti (or short form fo) intense; strong; tight gema bud; gem; jewel (strong); very; vivid gene become; get (obtain); receive;fortuna chance; casual; destiny; fate; get (become); get (passive); habe have (own); have the quality fortune; likelihood; luck; prob- gets (tense); getting; access of; has (form of to have, own); ability; random (get); accomplish; acquire; has the quality of; ’ve (shortfosi dig; cavity; ditch; hole; moat; come to be; gain; obtain; pro- for have, own); own (pos- pit cure; turn into sess); possess; property (pos-foto light (n); light (v); bright; illu- gene ma-boni reform sessions) minate; photo- (light) generali general; generalize; universal habe epi se wearfotografi photograph geneti genetic; inherit; hereditary habe sati tem affordfragma barrier; hedge; enclosure gentili gentle; kind; kindly; mild habe sati valuta afford (fences); fence; partition genu knee; knee-joint habe-pe proprietor; ownerfrakti break; fracture; interrupt geo earth habitu habit; customfrase sentence; phrase; speak gina woman; female; gyna-; lady; harmoni harmony; agreement; have anfreqe frequent; often; frequency wife agreement; harmonizefresko fresh; freshen; ventilation gipso chalk; plaster hedo fun (feeling); pleasure; gayfria crumble; smash gira gyrate; rotate; whirl; revolve; (happy); glad; glee; good-frigi cold; chill spin; turn; twirl humoured; happiness; happy;frigi-tem winter glabro glabrous; smooth joy; like to; merry; pleasant;frika friction; rub (friction); wipe; glacia glacial; ice; icy pleased; rejoice graze; scrape gladia sword heli sun; solarfronta brow (forehead); forehead; glisa glide; slip; slide; lapse; skate helika helix; coil; propeller; spiral front (on ice); skid; skim helikopter helicopterfrukti fruit globula bead heliku helix; screwfrustra frustrate; disappoint; disap- glori glory hema blood pointment; disillusion; frustra- glosa tongue; lick; language herba herb; grass; plant (n) tion glu glue; lime; stick (glue); size hero herofu will (future tense); adjourn; fu- (glue) hesi adhesive; stick (join); sticky; ture; postpone; shall (future gluko sweet; nice; comfortable; gen- adhere; cling; glue (v) tense); ’ll (future tense); be go- tle; gentleness; lovely; pleas- hetero different; other; another; dif- ing to (future tense) ant; soft; softness; sweetness; fer; difference; else; otherwisefu-di tomorrow tender; tenderness histori history; story; historical; nar-fugi flee; escape; run away gluto gulp; swallow; greedy rative; reportfumi fume; smoke gono angle; corner; vertex holo whole; complete; absolute;fumi-tubi chimney; smokestack gra grass; fodder; lawn; turf completely; entire; quite; total;funda bottom; found (v); base; depth; gradu degree; step; at the same time utter (whole); wholly foot (lowest part); foundation; as; grade; pace; stride holo tem ever (at all times); forever ground grafo write; draw (sketch); design; homi human; human race; man;funktio function; useful; operate; op- script; sketch (draw); writing mortal; mankind; person eration; work (have the desired grafo-ru pen; pencil homo same; like (similar); alike; function) grama letter (mail); missive equal (nearly); likeness; ratherfurka fork; branch off; pitchfork grama-ve envelope like; resemble; similar; simi-furna oven; bake; furnace; heater; gramatika grammar larity; very like stove grana grain; corn; seed honesti honest; honesty; sincere; up-fusi pour; fuse; melt; shed (liquid); grandi grand; magnificent; noble; right (honest) smelt (melt); spill stately honora honor; honour; honesty; re-fusili gun; shoot; discharge (fire); grati grateful spect fire (shoot); rifle gratia grace; thank; thanks honora-abili honorable; honourable gratula congratulate horibili horrible 8
  9. 9. horizo horizon; horizontal; across; instrumenta (long form of ru) instrument; ka-co hence (therefore); so (there- boundary; lie (down); limit implement; tool; utensil; appa- fore); therefore (n); lying down ratus; tackle (n) kade fall; cascade; drop (fall); liehoro hour; o’clock; time ((clock) insura insurance; insure down; topple; trip (fall); tum- time) intelige intelligent; cunning; shrewd blehoro-me clock; watch inter between; among kafa coffeehoro-tabla timetable inter-reti internet kafe caf´ehorti garden; park (n) interese interest; interesting kako bad; evil; nasty; undesirable;hospi guest internatio international very bad; vicious; vile; wickedhospita entertain; hospitable; hospital- intestina intestine; bowels; gut kako-fono cacophony; clatter; din; noise; ity; lodge (v) intra inside; below; in (indoors); in- tumulthoteli hotel door; indoors; inland; interior; kako-zelo jealous; jealousy; envy; zealhumidi humid; humidity; damp; internal; intimate; inward; in- kali beautiful; decorate; handsome; dampness; moist; moisture; wards; under; within pretty wet (v) intra-duce introduce; introduction kalki heelhumoro humor; humour; disposition intra-ve shirt; underwear; vest kalma calm; soothe inventi invent kambio exchange investi invest Kamelus camel invidio envious; envy; jealous; jeal- kamera room; accomodate; apartment; ousy camera (apparatus); camera involve involve; wrap; wrap in; wrap (room); chamber; hallI iso up identical; exactly like; as kamera-fa kampu apartment; flat (apartment) camp; field (equal); equal kanali canal; channel; ditch; drain; iso ... de as ... as groove; gutter; furrow iso-tem contemporary (event); simulta- kanava canvas (cloth)id it; its neous kancela cancel; grating (n); gril; grille;idea idea; thought; mental image; itera again; insist; iterate; new lattice notion (again); re; repeat; repetition; kancera cancer; crab; latticeidio unique; private; especial; iden- return kandela candle; candle (sparking plug); tity; individual; own (adj); iti go sparking plug (candle) of his/her/its own (particular); kandi glow particular; peculiar; separate kani canine; dog (adj); special kanona cannonidio-stori version kanta cantata; sing; songikno track; footprint; Ichno-; track kapila hairimagi (v); trail image; picture (v) J kapitala kapitali capital (city) capital (money)imagina imagine; fancy; grasp (can kapitana captain; skipper imagine); imaginary; imagina- kapitula chapter; capitulate tion; picture; image ja yes; agreed!; yeah kapo cape (land)imedia immediate; as soon as; at janu door; doorway; entrance kapri goat once (immediately); immedi- joko jest; joke; play a joke; play kapsu capsule; parcel; box ately; instantly; straight away; (joke) kapti catch; capture; grasp; seize; right away ju- (short prefix form of juve) young seizure; snareimpakti impact; blow (n); push; shock; ju-an boy; lad; youngster (male) kapti piski angle (v) stroke ju-fe girl; lass; miss (young karakteri character; temperament; traitimperi command; imperial; rule (au- woman); youngster (female) karbo coal thority); empire judika judge (v); criticize; decide; karcera prison; cage; imprison; incar-importa important; considerable; great; umpire; verdict cerate; jail importance; be important judika-pe judge (person); magistrate; ref- kardia heart; core; hearty; warmimpude cheeky; disgusting eree (emotional)imuni immune; safe; protected; pro- judika-ra justice kardina hinge tect; safety jungla jungle karesa caress; massage; stroke (ca-in in; in (local); indoors; inside jura oath; swear oath; swear (oath); ress); rub (caress); pet (caress) of; into take an oath; curse kareta cartin-ra contents jurnali journal; magazine; newspaper kargo load; burden; cargo; charge;in-valuta income justi equitable; fair (equitable); fair charge (load); duty; job; loadindika indicate; point to; hint; clue; (just); impartial; just; just (eq- (charge); pack (charge); task designate; point (indicate); uitable); just (fair); justice; kargo-vagona lorry; truck signal; trace right (just) karni flesh; meatindustri industry; industrial juve young; youth; youthful karo dearinfanti child; infant; kid (child) karpe harvest; crop; pluck (harvest);infanti-tem childhood reapinflu influence; affect u karpe cropinfo inform; information; an- karpu wrist; carpus nounce; data; message; reveal karta cardinfo-biletainfra label below; beneath; inferior; under K kartona kasea cardboard; carton cheeseinfra toga skirt kaso case (example, at court, condi-inklude include; enclose; lock up; shut tion, event); in the case of in ka because; as (because); for (be- kastela castle; fortinsekti insect cause) kata down (adverb); downwards;insigni flag; badge; emblem; ensign; -ka (short affix form of kamera) room; - sink; swoop banner room 9
  10. 10. katena chain komerci commercial; commerce; trade krimi crimekauda queue; tail (n) komika comic; comical; funny; humor- kripti hide; conceal; cryptic; hid-kauli stalk; stem ous; humourous den; mask (v); mystery; secret;kausa because; because of; as (be- komiti committee; council stealthy cause); cause; owing (v); since kompani company krisi crisis; critical (crisis) (because) kompara compare; comparison kriso gold; goldenkaverno cave; cavern kompeti compete; competition; contest; kritici criticize; critical (criticizing);kavita cavity; abyss; empty; hollow; race (competition) rebuke; review; scold hollowness; pit; vacant komplexi complex; complicated; elabo- kroma color; colour; dye; huekefa head rate (colour); paint; tingekefa-ve cap (hat); hat; hat (cap); hood komposi compose; arrange kron time (instant); chron-; instant;kerami ceramic; clay; earthenware; kompositi composite; composition; com- moment; occasion; when pottery pound kruci cross (n); cross (v); breed;kerati horn kompromise compromise crossing; crossroads; inter-ki go; move; goes (form of to go); komuni common; in common; to- breed; intersect; traverse going (participle of to go) gether; sharing krudi raw; blunt (rude); rough; rude;ki ab leave; abandon (go away); de- komunika communicate; communication tasteless; uncouth; uncultured; part; desert (v); go away; quit; kon (before vowels and h, else prefer ko) vulgar retire; retreat with; together with; with (=to- kubi cube; cubicki ex emerge; go out; issue; leave gether with); meet (by appoint- kubita elbow; nudgeki in enter; get in; invade; penetrate ment) kuko cook; bake; stewki kata descend; sink koncerto concert kuko-ka kitchenkilo kilo; thousand konfesi confess; admit; profess (de- kuko-me stovekine move; motion; move oneself; clare belief) kulti cultivate; care for; raise (agri- movement; whisk konfusi confuse; mix; muddle culture); tend (care for); tillkinema cinema; motion picture the- konsili advice; advise; counsel; rec- (cultivate) ater; movie theater ommend kumbe lie down; lie (down)kla call (telephone) konski conscious kumu heap; accumulate; amass;klari clear (distinct); clear (easy to konsola console (comfort); comfort crowd (n); hoard; lump; mass; see through); clear (evident); (console) pile clear (bright); clear up; dis- kontento content; constituent kune wedge tinct; evident; explain; light kontinenta continent kuni cuniculus; rabbit (pale); obvious; pale konto account; bank account kupa barrel; tubklasc clash kontra contrary; opposite; against; kupra-zinka brassklasi class; classify; arrange; order backside backwards kura care; concern; accurate; ad- (arrangement); rank konversa conversation; converse; talk minister; attend; attendance;klaudi cripple; lame; limp kope oar; row (a boat) attention; care for; careful;klavi key (lock); lock (v); close kopi copy; imitate caution; mind (take care); re- (with key); key (keyboard); kopula couple; connect; join; link gard (care); take care; tend plug (electric) (connect(ion)); mate (v, ani- (care for); tender; therapy;klavi-me lock (n) mals) thorough; treat (therapy); wardklepto steal; plunder; rob; thieve koragi brave; courage; courageous (care); waryklepto-pe bandit; burglar; thief korbi basket kura puta de considerkli bed; lie down; pass the night; korda cord; rope; string; twine kura-pe nurse (male or female); war- sleep kore dance den; warder; watchmankli-te blanket korekti correct; proper; right (correct) kurva curve (n); curve (v); bend (n);klina incline; bend over; bow (bend korina club (stick); bat (n); cudgel; bend (v) over); inclined; lean (rest mace; truncheon against); list (of ship); pend- koriza coryza; cold (illness) ing; slant; slope; tilt korona crown; corona; garland;kloro green; chloro-; verdant; ver- wreath; wreathe dure korta court; courtyard; yardklu even; even (including); even (still); including; inclusive; kosta coast (shore); rib; shore; side (shore) L still (even) kotona cottonkluba club (society) krak crack; crack (noise)klude close (v); fasten (v); shut (v) krasc crash la there; over thereko (before consonants without h, else prefer kratera basin; bowl; wash bowl; vessel labia lipkon) krati be in force; govern; govern- laboratori laboratory with; together with; with (=to- ment; manage; regime; rule laevo left (hand); left-hand gether with); meet (by appoint- (authority); steer lakrima tear (eye); cry (weep); weep ment) krati-fi rein (cry)kognato cognate; related krati-grega government lakti milkkoku berry krati-pe minister laku lake; loch; poolkola neck; gorge; gullet; isthmus; plu krati-pe cabinet (ministers) lakuna lacuna; gap; abyss throat krea create; make; produce (make) lamina slice; plate; film; layer; lami-kola-ve collar kredi belief; believe; confide; creed; nate; pane; sheetkolekti collect; gather; pick (collect) entrust; rely; suspect; trust lampa lamp; glow; light (n); shinekoleri anger; angry; annoyance; cho- kredito credit; lend lana wool leric; furious; indignant; irrita- krema cream landa land; country (land) ble; rage; temper kremno cliff larva-fi silkkolumni column; pole; post (pole) kresce crescent; grow; growth; in- lase let; allow; permitkoma clause; comma; piece (literary) crease; rise (grow) lati wide; ample; breadth; broad;komanda command; order (command) kriket cricket (sport) extensive; spacious; widthkombina combination; combine latu side; lateral; flank; swerve 10
  11. 11. lauda praise; esteem; applaud; ap- longi kavita trench marsu pocket proval; approve; compliment loqi speak; speech; talk materia material; stuff; matter; sub- (admiration); pay tribute to lose lose; squander; waste (use stancelava wash; bath; take a bath; bathe without good purpose) matina morninglaxa lax; loose; release; slack; un- lose este faint (v) matri mother; dam (mother); mum fasten lose hemo bleed (mother)lega law; legal luci clear (easy to see through); matura mature; ripe; ripenplu lega constitution translucent; transparent matura-pe adultlega cide execute ludi play (game); gamble; game; maxi -est (superlative); most (su-lekto read; reading fun (play); sport perlative); maxi-; maximum;lenti lens lukta fight; struggle; make an effort; supreme; utmostplu lenti glasses; spectacles exert oneself; strive; wrestle maxi boni bestlento slow; delay; slowly; tardy lumi light (n); illuminate; light (v); maxi dista extremelepido scale (body cover); scale (lose light up; luminous; shine maxi tele extreme or remove scales) luna moon; lunar -me (short affix form of mekani)leuko white; bleach; whiten lustra lustre; polish (n); polish (v) mechanism; appliance; device;leva lift; raise; hoist; shrug apparatus; machineleva-ru lever medika medical; medicate; treat (ther-levia light (not heavy); fickle; light apy) weight medika-ma medicine; drug; lotionliabili responsible medika-pe doctor (medical)libe free; set free; freedom; ab- solve; independent; liberal; M mega big; abundant; great; hearty; huge; large; lot (n); lot (many); liberate; liberty; release; rid a lot of; lump; magnify; many;libe se escape mass (many); mega-; much;libe-tem holiday; leisure; spare time; ma more; -er (comparative pile; plenty vacation marker) mega valu valuablelibela even (level); level -ma (short affix form of materia) material; mega vora feastliberali liberal; generous; broad- stuff; matter; substance mega-preci expensive; costly; precious; minded; kind (friendly); toler- ma-amo prefer valuable ant ma-boni adjust; better (n, something mei less; lessen; decrease; dimin-libra balance; scales (weighing) better); better (v); improve; ish; dwindle; minor; reduce;lice be allowed; admissible; law- improvement; revise wane ful; legal; legitimate; licence; ma-mali aggravate; make worse; mekani mechanism; appliance; device; license worsen apparatus; machine; hardwareliga ligature; tie; bind; attach; ma-mega enlarge; extend; grow; in- (computer); mechanic; me- connect; join; knot together; crease chanical tether; union; unite ma ... de more ... than melano black; darkligni wood (substance); timber magika magic; charm; enchant; magic melodi melody; melodious; sing;ligni-bloka beam (wooden); log spell song; tunelimita limit (n); limit (v); bound; magika-pe magician; wizard membra member rather (somewhat); bound- magneti magnet; magnetic; magnetism memo remember; memory; recollect; ary; confine; frontier; modify; major bigger; greater; main; more retrospect qualify; restrict makina machine; engine; machinery; menace menace; threat; threatenlimo mud; slime motor meno month; monthlylingua language; tongue makula mark; spot (mark, stain); stain; mensa counter (table); table (furni-linqi leave behind; abandon (go blot; blotch; smear ture) away); abjure; forsake mal-acide accident; mishap; disaster; fail menta mind (n); mentallinqi ergo resign mal-fusi spill merge dive; immerse; plunge; sinklipo fat (fatty); fat (substance); malea mallet; hammer (n) (plunge); submerge fatty; fried; fry; grease; greasy mali bad; amiss; coarse; horrid; ill; merito deserve; earn; merit; worthyliqi liquid; fuse; juice; liquefy; illness; infirm; infirmity; mal- merka buy; bribe; buy (v); purchase; liquify; melt; thaw ady; nasty; naughty; offend; ransom (v)lisi loosen; separate (v); analysis; shabby; sick; vicious merka-pe buyer; customer isolate mali fortuna bad luck; misfortune; unfortu- plu merka-ra goodslista list; catalogue; register (n); nate; unfortunately mero part; bit; piece; abstract; de- register (v); schedule mali gresi limp (v); reel (v) partment; district; quarter (dis-literatura literature mali-dice curse; slander; swear (curse) trict); ward (division); divisionlito stone mali-kredi superstition (part); fragment; instalment;litora littoral; shore; beach; coast mama breast (female); nipple (breast) morsel; part (rˆ le); rˆ le; partial o olitra liter; litre mandibula jaw; mandible (partly); partly; portion; sec-livra deliver manu hand; hand over; handle (v); tion; share; slice (n)logi understand; understanding; manage; pass (hand over); meso middle; amid; average; be- grasp (understand); know; see smack tween; centre; centric; centri- (understand) manu-pe administrator; manager cal; mean (middle); medial;logika logic; logical; reason (n); rea- manu-va bucket; pail medium (middle); mid; moder- son (v); reasonable manu-ve glove ate; normalloka place (extended); location (ex- margari pearl meso frigi cool tended); area; deposit; local; margina margin; border; brim; curb; meso termo warm (temperature) position; region; site; situa- edge; fringe (border); hem meso-soma waist tion; territory; put; install; lay; (border); kerb; rim; verge (bor- metali metal; metallic place (v) der) meteo weather; climatelokali local mari sea; marine metra meter (metre); metre; metriclongi long (adj); along; length marka brand; mark; scratch; trace metri measure; dimension; gauge; marketa market 11
  12. 12. mete (v); meter (v); size (mea- surements) N no-puri no-resista dirt; dirty; filthy; foul; shabby weakmi I; me; my no-sati scantymi auto myself no-semani nonsense; senselessmikro little; tiny; minute (tiny); na we; our; ours; us no-soni quiet; noiseless; silence; silent; small; petty; trickle nara narrate; tell; narrative; report soundlessmikroskope microscope narko narcotized; drunk; drunken no-stimula dull (boring); boring (adj)miliona million nasa nose; flair; nasal; smell (v); no-sura uncertain; wavermilita war; fight; battle; military; sniff no-tekno awkward; clumsy riot; strife nasa-te handkerchief; hankie; hanky no-vide blindmilita-pe soldier; warrior nati birth nodi knot; nodemini least; minimum; smallest nati-di birthday noktu night; nocturnalmini-ra detail natio nation; national; nationality noku damage; harm; harmful; hurt;minus without; lack; -less; minus; natura nature; natural inflict; injure; mischief; nox- missing (not there); subtract navi ship (n); boat; barge; vessel ious; spoil (damage); torment;minuta minute (n) (ship) wear outmira wonder; admiration; admire; navi frakti wreck nomi law; -nomy (suffix law); right amaze; amazement; astonish; u navi-fa navy (n); rule (standard); theory astound; marvel; surprise ne not; omit nomina name; nominatemira-ra miracle ne akti refrain non-akuto blunt (not sharp); dull (notmiso hate; hostile; aversion; detest; ne foto dull (not clear/bright) sharp) distaste; loathe; spite; ven- ne importa never mind non-ami enemy; foe; hostile; ill-feeling omous ne-ski ignorant non-amo disgust; mean (not nice)misteri mystery; mystic; mysterious; nebu fog; haze; mist (fog) non-audi deaf problem; unexplained; weird nece necessary; have to; must; duty; non-hedo unhappy; grief; sad; sorrowmite send; envoy (v); ship (v); trans- essential; necessity; need; ur- nona nine mit gent nord northmixa mix; blend; mess; mingle; nece-fa equipment norma normal; standard; conventional muddle; whisk nefo cloud; nepho- nota note; notice; bill; observe;mo one; single nega deny; abstain; answer nega- record; remarkmo kron once tively; behave negatively; de- nova news; news-item; piece ofmo-bi dozen; twelve cline; negative (v); refuse; turn newsmo-mo eleven down nova-papira newspapermobili furnish; furniture; piece of fur- negoti business; negotiate; deal (busi- nu now; present (now); present niture ness); do business; negotia- (time); present time; up-to-mode mode; way (manner); way tion; negotiations date (method); fashion; approach; neka drown nu-di today; modern; nowadays attitude; manner; method; nekto swim (active); swimming nu-fu just going to; just (time); style neo new; fresh; novel (new) presently (soon); soonmodela model; pattern nervo nerve nu-noktu tonightmoli soft; bland; mushy nervoso nervous; anxious; eager; jit- nudi nude; bare; nakedmoneta coin; coined money tery; timid nuki nut; kernel; nuclear; nucleusmonito advice; advise; admonish; nesia island nuli null; nullify; nothing; abol- warn; prevent (by advising) neutra neutral; neuter ish; abort; cancel; eliminate;monstra show (v); display; exhibit; ex- nexu connect; attach; connection; naught; nil; no; repeal; zero pose; produce (show); reveal; connexion; interconnection; nuli-kron never show (n) join (connection); junction; nuli-lo nowheremonti mountain linkage; mating; merge; net- numera number; count; digitmonti-line range work; nexus; tie; union; unite numera panto-pe altogethermorali moral; chaste; ethical; ethics; ni neither; nor numera panto-ra altogether morale ni ... ni neither ... nor; neither ...normorda bite; nibble; snap (bite) nidi nestmore custom; customs (ethical); niloni nylon habit; usual nivi snow; snowymorta dead; death; die no nomorta-lo cemetery; churchyard; grave (tomb); tomb no-cede no-dina no-face resolute feeble; frail demolish; destroy; havoc; Omoti move; put; go; lay; move something; place (v); shift; undo transfer no-facili difficult; obstacle; rudemotori motor; engine no-feno disappear obe obey; execute; obedience; obe-mu they; their; theirs; them; they no-forti faint dient (female); they (male) no-funktio out of order; useless; vain obstina obstinate; stubbornmulti many; abundant; much; multi- no-gravi light (not heavy); petty; tri- oceani ocean ply; numerous; plenty fling; trivial; unimportant; ocide west; western; occidentalmunda world whatever (no matter what) odio odious; hate; detest; disgust;mura wall no-kali ugly; unsightly distaste; hatred; loatheMus mouse (animal); mouse (com- no-kargo discharge odoro odor; odour; smell; aroma; puter) no-kine motionless; not moving; sta- scentmusika music tionary; still (not moving) ofere offermuskula muscle no-kompara contrast ofere se be a candidate; run (for office)muta change; affect; alter; inflect; no-memo forget ofice office; official (adj); clearance transform; vary no-poli few (customs) no-profito disadvantage; vain ofice-pe officer; official (n) no-profunda shallow okasio occasion; chance; opportunity 12