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Redes Sociais - Sou mais Web - julho/2009

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  • 1. O n lin e N e t w o r k s , C r o w d s a n d C o m m u n it ie s Re de s Sociais On-Line IV S E M IN Á R IO D E P E S Q U IS A E M C IÊ N C IA D A IN F O R M A Ç Ã O Re de s Sociais On-Line E Off-Line IBICT/UFRJ, June 29, 2009 C ro a lineHaythornthw ite a Gra ua Sc o o Lib ry a Info a n Sc nc d te ho l f ra nd rm tio ie e Portuguese translations by IBICT Professora Gilda Olinto
  • 2. IV SEMINÁRIO DE PESQUISA EM CIÊNC DA INFORMAÇ IA ÃO IV S E M IN Á R IO D E P E S Q U IS A E M C IÊ N C IA D A IN F O R M A Ç Ã O R e d e s S o c ia is O n - L in e E O f f - L in e E s t u d o s e a p lic a ç õ e s e m A p r e n d iz a g e m , C o n h e c im e n t o e E m p r e e n d e d o r is m o • Thisp s nta n w so o fo s m rsg n in J a J 2 0 a IBIC Instituto Brasileiro de re e tio a ne f ur e ina ive une nd uly 0 9 t T, Informação em Ciência e Tecnologia (TheBra n Ins zilia titutefo Info a n in Sc nc a Te hno g Rio d r rm tio ie e nd c lo y), e J ne , w reP fe s r Ca lineHa a iro he ro s o ro ythornthw itew sag s o theins a a ue t f titute. • C ro a linee nd he tha fo theinvita n, vis a lo a s p rt to xte s r nks r tio it nd c l up o  C e lia R ib e ir o Z a h e r , Co rd na o d Ens eP s uis , C d Info a ã , IBICT fo o e d ra e ino e q a &T a rm ç o r a ng thisvis rra ing it.  P r o f e s s o r a G ild a O lin t o fo inte c lly e rta r lle tua nte iningho a w w rke to tra la m urs s e o d ns te y s e into P rtug s , a w ll a he full s p rt o m ne d w lid s o ue e s e s r up o f y e s hilein Rio .  S e lm a S a n t ia g o fo a m tra r d inis tives p rt b fo , d up o e re uringa a r thes m rs nd fte e ina  In g r id a M a r c ia fo he ingm kething e s r in m ny w ys nd r lp a s a ie a a ************************************************************************
  • 3. IV SEMINÁRIO DE PESQUISA EM C IÊNC DA INFORMAÇ IA ÃO Re e So ia On-LineE Off-Line d s c is Es o ea lic ç e e Ap nd g m C nhe im ntoeEm re nd d ris o tud s p a õ s m re iza e , o c e p e eo m • 2 d junhod 2 0 (s g a ira REDES SOCIAIS ON-LINE 9 e e 0 9 e und -fe ):  Ab rtura e  C e l ia R ib e ir o Z a h e r - Coorde doradeEns ePe quis , C&T daInform ç o, IBICT na ino s a aã  U m b e r t o T r i g u e ir o s - Dire r do Ins to tituto d C m a ã eInfo a ã C ntífic eTe no g ae Sa e IC T/FIO-C e o unic ç o rm ç o ie a c ló ic m úd , IC RUZ, Ine itaSo re s a s d Ara ,C o e d rad P g m d P s ra ua ã e Info a ã eC m a ã e Sa e FIO-C e újo o rd na o o ro ra a e ó -g d ç o m rm ç o o unic ç o m úd , RUZ  P le tra s a s nte  C ro a lineHa ythornthw ite- Unive ity o Illino a Urb na ha p ig EUA a rs f is t a -C m a n,  Gild Olinto IBIC a , T  C o e d rad Me a- P ulaMa Ab nte C ttad Me , C o e d rad SIBI (Sis m d Bib te a eInfo a ã )/UFRJ o rd na o e s a ria ra s o e llo o rd na o o te a e lio c s rm ç o • 0 d julhod 2 0 (q 2 e e 0 9 uinta ira : AP -fe ) RENDIZAGEM, CONHECIMENTO E REDES SOCIAIS  P le tra s a s nte  C ro a lineHa ythornthw ite- Unive ity o Illino a Urb na ha p ig EUA a rs f is t a -C m a n,  J q lineLe , UFRJ a ue ta  C o e d r d Me a- Ald d Alb ue ueBa to IBIC o rd na o e s o e uq rq rre , T • 0 d julhod 2 0 (te a ira EMP 7 e e 0 9 rç -fe ): REENDEDORISMO E REDES SOCIAIS  P le tra s a s nte  C ro a lineHa ythornthw ite- Unive ity o Illino a Urb na ha p ig EUA a rs f is t a -C m a n,  J ã Ap io Gue d Alm id , Ins o o rig rra e e a tituto Fe nd sFig ira FIO-C rna e ue , RUZ  C o e d rad Me a- Lud ilaC va a , UFRJ o rd na o e s m a lc nte • 9d julhod 2 0 (q e e 0 9 uinta ira REDES SOCIAIS E ANÁLISE DE REDES SOC -fe ): IAIS  P le tra s a s nte  C ro a lineHa ythornthw ite- Unive ity o Illino a Urb na ha p ig EUA a rs f is t a -C m a n,  Re inaMa Ma le , IBIC - IC T/FIO-C g ria rte to T IC RUZ  C o e d r d Me a- Nilto Ba d sSa s FIO-C o rd na o e s n hlis o nto , RUZ
  • 4. R e d e s d e c o m p u ta d o re s = R e d e s S o c ia is • W rec m ute ne o he o p r tw rks c nne to c • Qua o re e d c m uta o s nd d s e o p d re p o le the s p rt s c l ne o e p , y up o o ia tw rks c ne ta p s o s e sta b m o c m e s a , le m é  F u l ly o n lin e inte e o l rp rs na a o mre e s c is p ia d s o ia re tio hip a o n li n e la ns s nd  Re ç e p s o iss m nteo la õ s e s a o e nlinee s u p p o r t fo o r ffline ao o p io nlinep rare ç e o a la õ s ffline re tio hip la ns s  C m a e s m nteo o unid d s o e nlinee  Fully o nlinec m unitie a o m s nd ao o p io nlinep rac m a e c m a o unid d s o onlines p rt fo g o ra hic lly- up o r e g p a b s g o rá a a e e g fic b s d c m unitie ae o m s • Re ç e ec m a e la õ s o unid d s • Re tio hip a c m unitie la ns s nd o m s o a d se to d rg niza a m rno e o a d a und rg nize ro  Tra a , inte s e p s uis , b lho re s , e q a  W rk, inte s inq o re t, uiry, fa ily, m fa ília s úd , la r m , a e ze he lth, p y a la  Inte s e ep o up ç e p s o is re s s re c a õ s e s a  P rs na inte s a c nc rns e o l re ts nd o e
  • 5. C o m u n id a d e c o m o r e d e • C m unity Lo t o m s • C m a ep rd a o unid d e id  Lo so thev illa g e id e a l s f  Ald iaid a p rd a e e l e id • C m unity Sa d o m ve • C m a es lva o unid d a  Re is o ry o lo a c m unity in the d c ve f c l o m to e o urb n living w rs f a  Re e c b rtana to sd vid urb na dso e s rre a a a • Lib ra d o Ne o dC m unity e te r tw rke o m • C m a ee re e(We a o unid d m d llm n) (W llm n) e a  Ba e d noc nc itod re e s c is sa a o e e d s o ia  Ba e o thec nc p o s c l ne o , sd n o e t f o ia tw rks  Lib ra ad g o ra e d a e g fia w afo uss o c ia l ith c  Ba e d nac o m u n id a d e sa a c o n n e c t io n s ra r tha the n g o ra hicc -lo a n eg p o c tio pe s s oal  P c ind p nd nt, lib ra dfro la e e e e e te m • Online/ Virtua C m a e l o unid d g o ra hy eg p  Lib ra ad g o ra , d p nd nted e d a e g fia e e e a  P e r s o n a l c o m m u n it ie s te no g c lo ia s ta dthro h c m unic tio a us ine ug o m a n nd tra l ve • Onlineo Virtua C m unity r l o m  Lib ra dfro g o ra hy, s ta d e te m eg p us ine thro h te hno g ug c lo y
  • 6. Re d e s c o m o c o m u n id a d e s • Onlinec m unitie a a c p d o m s re c e te • Cm ae o o unid d s nlines o a e se ã c ita a us d b c m unity m m e in nd e y o m e b rs us d sp r m m ro d c m a e a a o e b s a o unid d w ystha m tc o a t a h ffline ea ta a à c m a e o jus d s s o unid d s ffline c m unitie o m s  P tic s re ra d c nd , rá a , g s e o uta  Gro d fine a m nito d up e d nd o re as s unto d inte ç o d finid se s e ra ã e o p c e , rule o c nd t, to ico ra tic s s f o uc p f m nito d sp log o o ra a e rup inte c n, la ua e ra tio ng g  Auto xp s ã ea o e o io l -e o iç o p io m c na  Inte e o l s lf-d c s , rp rs na e is lo ure inte e s a rp s o l e o na s p rt m tio l up o • C r no sc ne e e te p se ria va o xõ s m m o • C a ne c nne tio a ro s re te w o c ns c s lug re d re s a s ife nte d trib nsin g o ra hy a tim is utio e g p nd e • P ve a o p rac ne e já ro r p io a o xõ s • P vid s p rt fo e ting ro e up o r xis e te sq nd e ta s s p ra xis nte ua o s s e e a m c nne tio w n s p ra d o c ns he e a te g o ra a e e g fic m nte
  • 7. R e d e s O n lin e • Que tio tha ha b e a ke : s ns t ve e n s d • Que tõ sq vinha s nd fe s s e ue m e o ita :  Ho d w m inta w o e a in  C m m nte o r e la ç õ e s o o o a ms nline? r e la t io n s h ip s online?  C m a c o m u n id a d e s s o o o s ã  Ho a c o m m u n it ie s fo e w re rm d fo a a em ntid so rm d s a a nline Sã tã ? o o a m inta do nd a ine nline Arethe ‘s ? y a b a q ntoc m a e o o s ua o unid d s ffline? g o a ’ fflinec m unitie ? od so o m s • Ag rahán o v a s t e n d ê n c ia s o • But no the a n e w t r e n d s w re re  P d ã c la o tivab s a ae ro uç o o b ra aed m  C m o -b s d p e p d tio o m ns a e e r ro uc n, c m o , c w s urs , c o m ns ro d o ing ultura c w s urc , p rtic a ry c ro d o ing a ip to ulture p rtic a a ip tiva • Le d to n e w q u e s t i o n s : a ing  Le nd an o v a s q u e s t õ e s : va o  W t m tiva ss ng rsto c ntrib ha o te tra e o ute  O q m tivae tra sac ntrib p ra ue o s nho o uir a too nlinec lle tive o c ? um c le a o tivid d o a e nline?  W a o e s urc initia s hy re p n o e tive  Asinic tiva “ p n s urc ” e ia s o e o e b m s c s ful? uc e s s e id s uc d a ?  W ts ha killsw w ne dtoha to ill e e ve  Queha ilid d sne e s m sp ra b a e c s ita o a p rtic a in thee e ingp e a ip te m rg er p rtic a d m od p d ã p r a ip r o und a ro uç o o p d tio w rld ro uc n o ? p re ? a s
  • 8. V is ã o g e r a l d a p a le s t r a d e h o je • So ia ne o b s s c l tw rk a ic • As e to b s o d sre e p c s á ic s a d s • Onlinere tio , tie a la ns s nd s c is o ia c m unitie o m s • Re ç e o la õ s nline la o e , çs • Ne fo so o a w rm f rg nizingfor cm ae o unid d s onlinene o tw rks • No sfo a d o a r va rm s e rg niza  Fro s ngtiec m unitie to m tro o m s re e o d s nline w a tiec w s ek ro d  Da c m a e d la o fo s s o unid d s e ç s rte amultid õ sd la o fra o de e çs cs
  • 9. R e d e s S o c ia is • Ac rs to • Ato s re  No e in thene o ds tw rk  Nó na re e s s ds  Inte c a m inta re tio ra t nd a in la ns  Inte g mem ntê re ç e ra e a m la õ s w ec o r ith a h the • Re ç e la õ s • Re tio la ns  Lig ç e (linha ) na re e aõs s s ds  Line in thene o s tw rk  C ne ta a re e tip s o c m to s m o  C nne t a to in s e ifickind o c c rs p c s e p c o d inte ç o s e ífic s e ra ã o inte c n f ra tio • La o çs • Ties  Linha e s ntrea re to s  Line b tw e a to s e e n c rs  La o e te e ç s xis m ntrea re q to s ue  Tie e t b tw e a to w a s xis e e n c rs ho re e tã c ne ta o p r um o s o o c ds o a u c nne te b o o m re o c d y ne r o m isre ç e a la õ s re tio la ns • Re e ds • Ne o tw rks  C nfig ç o g ra d la o e o ura ã e l e ç s  W lec nfig tio ho o ura n a re to s o tie a a to f s nd c rs
  • 10. R e d e s S o c ia is • Re tio la ns • Re ç e la õ s  Sim lea c m le p nd o p x  Sim le ec m le s p s o p xa  Instrum nta a e l nd  Ins trum nta ee o io is e is m c na e o na m tio l • La o çs • Ties  Fino , le s& fra o s ve cs  Thin, lig & w a ht ek  Gro s s p s d sefo s so , ea o rte  Thic he vy & s ng k, a tro  P rto elo e e ng  C s a fa lo e nd r  Offlineeo nline  Offlinea o nd nline • Re e ds • Ne o tw rks  Es a a , frá e , te p rá s p rs s g is m o ria ,  Sp rs , fra ile te p ra a e g , m o ry, d p nd nd d nó c o e e e o e s rític s d p nd nt o c a no e e e e n ritic l d s  Ro us s lid e uring b s d o b t, o , nd , ae n  Ro us s s lid s d ve , b ta , ó a , urá is m ny no e , s ta a d s us ining“ social b s a a e m snó , a e d s m uito s capital” s te nd o “a ita s c l” us nta o c p l o ia  C -lo a da d trib d o c te nd is ute  C -lo a ed trib a o c is is uíd s
  • 11. La ç o s F r a c o s • A c q u a in t a n c e s , c o - • C nhe im nto , c le a d o c e s o gs e w o r k e r s , c la s s tra a s a ig sd a ig s b lho , m o e m o m e m b e r s , f r ie n d s o f • Re ç e la õ s f r ie n d s  Tro a re trita cs s s • Re tio la ns  C nte oins o úd trum nta nã e l, o  Fe typ so e ha e w e f xc ng s e o io l m c na  Instrum nta no m tio l e l, n-e o na  P uc intim a e o a id d c nte o nt  Inte ç e d m oúnic ra õ s e ã a  Lo intim c w ay  Us d p uc sre urs sd o e o o c o e c m aã o unic ç o  One a inte c ns -w y ra tio • Fo ad sla o fra o rç o ç s c s  Us fe m a o e w e ns f  Ac s o ainfo a õ sere urs s es rm ç e c o c m unic tio o m a n d re s ife nte • Stre th o W a Tie … ng f e k s  Ma , ne s nhum o rig ç o d a b aã e cma o p rtilha e m nto  Ac e sto d re info a n cs iffe nt rm tio a re o e nd s urc s  But, no o lig tio to s re b a n ha
  • 12. La ç o s F o r t e s • C lo s e f r ie n d s , • Am o íntim s c la o d re , ig s o , o b ra o s c o lla b o r a t o r s , c le a o gs c o lle a g u e s • Re ç e la õ s • Re tio la ns  Muita efre ue s s q nte  Ma re tio , fre ue ny la ns q nt  C mc nte oins o o úd trum nta e e l inte c n ra tio e o io l m c na  Em tio l a ins o na nd trum nta c nte e l o nt  Intim a eea -e o iç o id d uto xp s ã  Hig le l o intim c a s lf- h ve f a y, nd e  Re ip c a ena tro a c ro id d s c s d c s is lo ure  Us d d rs sm io d o e ive o e s e  Re ip c in e ha e c ro ity xc ng s c m aã o unic ç o  Us m rem a o c m unic tio e o e ns f o m a n • Fo ad sla o fo s rç o ç s rte • Stre th o Stro Tie ng f ng s  De e eo rig ç o d c m a s jo b a ã e o p rtilha r  W illing(a o lig dto s re nd b e ) ha info a ã ere urs s rm ç o c o info a n o re o e rm tio r s urc s  Mas a e s a sm s o re urs s c so o em s c o  But, a c s tos m re o e c e s a e s urc s
  • 13. D e fra c o a fo rte • Re tio la ns • Re ç e la õ s  Num e o re tio m inta d b r f la ns a ine  Núm ro d re ç e m ntid s e e la õ s a a inc a e re s s a e um nta  Re tio l m la na ultip xity le  Multip xid d re c na le a e la io l  Re tio inc es c l s p rt, s lf- la ns lud o ia up o e  Re ç e inc ma o s c l, la õ s lue p io o ia d c s , re ip c is lo ure c ro ity a -e o iç oere ip c a e uto xp s ã c ro id d • C m unic tio o m a n • C m aã o unic ç o  Num e o m d us dinc a e b r f e ia e re s s  Núm ro d m io a e e e e s um nta  Me iam d ultip xity le  Multip xid d d m ia le a e a íd  Fre ue y o c m unic tio inc a e q nc f o m a n re s s  Fre uê iad c m a ã q nc a o unic ç o • Ac rs to a e um nta  Sim rity b tw e a to inc a e ila e e n c rs re s s • Ato s re  He ro hily (d re te p iffe nt)  Sim rid d e ila a e ntrea re a e to s um nta  Ho o hily (s ila mp im r)  He ro te filia(d re ) ife nte  Ho o m filia(a e ) um nta
  • 14. E f e it o d a r e d e : la ç o s fo rte s • Influe eo o rs nc n the • Influê ias b o s nc o re utro  Stro influe eo theb ha r o ne o ng nc n e vio f tw rk  Fo influê iano m m ro d re e rte nc s e b s a d mm e e b rs • C ma o p rtilha e d va re c m à m nto e lo s o uns • C -o nta n tone o va s o rie tio tw rk lue re e d  A c m o vie a c m itm nt to ne o o m n w nd o m e tw rk  Vis e s m lha sec m ro is oc m õ s e e nte o p ms o g a a va s o ls nd lue o je seva re d re e b tivo lo s a d • Ge ra dre ip c ne lize c ro ity • Re ip c a eg ne liza a c ro id d e ra d  Ins a o e ha e jus b tw e p irs te d f xc ng s t e e n a :  Emve d a e stro ae z e p na c ntrep re : A↔B a s A  B  Re urs sc ula c mm ise e ta c o irc m o a xp c tiva  Re o e c ula w am relo -te s urc s irc te ith o ng rm d re rno alo op zo e to ng ra : e e ta n o re xp c tio f turn:  A→ B→C ....→A → A  B  C  …  A • Cp lsc l a ita o ia • So ia c p l c l a ita  Re urs sq e te por causa d re e c o ue xis m a d,  Re o e tha e t because o thene o s urc s t xis f tw rk, c m a o s c l, info a ã , c p l o o p io o ia rm ç o a ita e ., s c l s p rt, info a n, c p l .g o ia up o rm tio a ita • Ro us b ta • Ro us b t  Re is nc àd s luç o s tê ia is o ã  Re is nc tod s lutio s ta e is o n  Múltip sa re q s re p ns b lo to s ue e s o a ilizam  Multip a to w c n a d ta le c rs ho a nd o ke p lare e e d re p ns ility fo thene o s o ib r tw rk
  • 15. E f e it o s d a r e d e : la ç o s fra c o s • Unb la e c ntrib n a nc d o utio • C ntrib ã d s q o uiç o e e uilib d ra a  C ntra a to c ntrib m retha o rs e l c rs o ute o n the  Ato sc ntra c ntrib mm is re e is o ue a  Ove e e e eo afe c rea to rd p nd nc n w o c rs  De e ê iad m s d d p uc s p nd nc e a ia a e o o • Fra ile g a re c ntra to s e is  Lo so am jo no ec n le dtothe s f a r d a a • Frá il g d s lutio o thene o is o n f tw rk  P rd d umla ofund m nta p d e a e ç a e l oe • La k o influe e c f nc le r àd s luç od re e va is o ã a d  W a tie a no a a e ua fo a n e k s re t n d q te und tio • Influê iare trita nc s fo jo a tio r int c n  La o fra o nã p p ia a ã ç s c s o ro ic m ç o  La k trus c m o g a c t, o m n o ls c le o tiva • La k o s c l c p l c f o ia a ita  Fa d c nfia aed o je sc m lta e o nç e b tivo o uns  Noreturn o inve tm nt in thec lle tive n s e o c • C p l s c l re trito a ita o ia s ne o e rt tw rk ffo  Nã háre rnoa inve tim ntoc le o to o s e o tivo • La k o c m itm nt to c f o m e d re e a d  theo ra p o eo thene o a ve ll urp s f tw rk, nd • Nã hác m ro is o a s o o p ms o o rsin thene o the tw rk  Ob tivo d re eeà p s o s je s a d s es a e lvid s nvo a
  • 16. E x p e c t a t iv a s a r e s p e it o d e r e d e s o n lin e Re e rc a the ry p d t tha s a h nd o re ic t Te riaep s uis p d mq a o e q a re ize ue s p o lew a s t r o n g ly e p ho re p s o sq e tã f o r t e m e n t e e s a ue s o t ie d w ill: lig a d a s irã : o • Ad p e tingm d , a m d a t xis e ia nd o ify • Ad p r o m io d c m a ã d a ta s e s e o unic ç o e ne m d a c rd to lo a no s w e ia c o ing c l rm a o o c ma no a lo a c rd o s rm s c is (‘ inve n’ re ntio ) (“ inve ã ” re nç o ) • Es b h lo a rule o b ha r ta lis c l s f e vio • Es b le e re ra d c m o m nto ta e c r g s e o p rta e (‘d p a a tives tura n’ truc tio ) lo a (“s c is e trutura ã a a ta ” ç o d p tiva ) • Exp nd to us ne m d a the a e w e ia s y • Ab o r a no sm d q s o s rve s va e ia ue ã a p a a a the fit the p e r, nd s y a e ua a à ta fa etro a (“d ç o d q d s s re s cs aoã ta ks xc ng sa ha (‘d p n s /e ha e s nd a o tio d ino ç e ” e va õ s ) o inno tio ’ f va ns ) • Exe e influê ias c l s b o rc r nc o ia o re s • Exe is s c l influe eo o rs rc e o ia nc n the o svis nd c nfo id d a g o utro a o o rm a e o rup to c nfo to g up us o rm ro e
  • 17. E x p e c t a t iv a s a r e s p e it o d e r e d e s o n lin e Te riaep s uis p vê ma o e q a re e s Re e rc a the ry p d t tha s a h nd o re ic t sg e uinte c ra te tic sp raa s a c rís a a s p o lew a w e a k ly t ie d e p ho re p s o sq e tã e s a ue s o w ill: f r a c a m e n t e lig a d a s : • Bep s ivea o c nta tinge c as b ut o c ah o r the • Sã p s iva c mre ç o afa r o as s o la ã ze c nta s o to • Wa fo fe d a k viao m d it r e b c ne e ium • Es e mo fe d a k d umm io d p ra ebc e e e ra r tha b nc o to a the the n ra h ut no r c m a ã enã b c r o o unic ç o o us a utro mde ium • Nã a re c nta no m io d o c s e m vo e e • No a d ne m d to the jo t d w e ia ir int c m a ã p raus c njunto o unic ç o a o o us e  NB. Indivíduos *fazem*, mas não  NB. Individuals *do*, but not for para seus laços fracos their weak-ties • Tê p uc influê ias c l p rao m o a nc o ia a • Ha lo s c l influe eo e c ve w o ia nc n a h us d sm io d c m a ã o o e s e o unic ç o o r in us o m d the e f e ia
  • 18. O q u e a c o n te c e O n lin e ? A r g u m e n t s a g a in s t Arg u m e n to s c o n tra o s s t r o n g t ie s la ç o s f o r t e s • C m ute e ia d c m unic tio o p r-m d te o m a n • C m a ã m d d p r c m uta o o unic ç o e ia a o o p d r (C ) c nno c nve c m le o MC a t o y o p x r (C ) nã c nd info a ã MC o o uz rm ç o e o na info a n m tio l rm tio c m le o e o io l o p xa u m c na  The fo s ngtie c nno b re re tro s a t uildfor  P rta la o fo nã s fo a p ra o nto ç s rte o e rm m a w rk o p rs na c nta t o r e o l o c tra a o c nta p s o l b lho u o to e s a • CMC d e no s p rt theric va ty o s t up o h rie • CMC e inaaric va d d d d a lim a rie a e e ic s o c so fa e -fa ec m unic tio f ue f c -to c o m a n d c m a ã fa eafa e a o unic ç o c c  The fo intim c trus “ a re re a y, t, re l”  P rta , Intim a e c nfia a la o o nto id d , o nç , ç s multip x tie c nno b b le s a t e uilt “ ultip x” a nã s oc ns m le re is o ã o truíd so • CMC la kss c l c ntro c o ia o ls • Fa mc ntro ss c isnaC lta o le o ia MC  The fo ‘ w s ’ e vio p ve re re la le s b ha r re nts  P rta , c m o m nto“e le ” o o nto o p rta e s m is nã s c s ful w rk a s c l inte c n uc e s o nd o ia ra tio c ntrib p rare ç e s c ised o ui a la õ s o ia e tra a b ms e id s b lho e uc d a
  • 19. O q u e a c o n te c e O n lin e ? Arg u m e n t s fo r s t ro n g Arg u m e n to s a fa v o r d o s t ie s la ç o s f o r t e s • P o lefind aw y ep a • Asp s o sa ha umc m es a c m a inho  Ad e o o a a ro d m tic ns nd c nym , inc e s lud  Em ç e , a ro m s e õ ms ntim nto o õ s c nis o , xp e e e s s lf-d c s , e o n a s c l e is lo ure m tio nd o ia ea o s c l p io o ia s p rt up o • Asp s o stra a mjunta e s a b lha s • P o lew rk to e r ep o g the  Grup sd fine c m s c m a o o e m o o e o unic r nline  Gro sd finec m o w yso up e o mn a f  Grup sd te ina ea m tra s s o e rm m d inis m ua c m unic tingo o m a nline re ra d c nd g s e o uta  Gro sd te inea m na ethe o n • up e rm nd a g ir w C ns e c m a e o o trõ m o unid d s nline rule o c nd t s f o uc • Build o nlinec m unitie o m s Arg u m e n to s a fa v o r d o s la c o s f r a c o s A r g u m e n t s f o r w e a k t ie s • C ne ta p rtic a sq e tã o c m a ip nte ue s o • C nne t d trib d p rtic a o c is ute a ip nts d p rs s is e o  Bringin p rip ra a to , s a tim a e he l c rs p n e nd  Ac s e ma re p rifé o , a ve s m re c nta to s e ric s tra s a s ae pc te p ee p ç mo s ao • C a ss a efo d trib d re te p c r is ute • C me p ç p rac m a e q e tã ria s a o a o unid d s ue s o c m unitie o inte s o m s f re t d p rs s is e a  W rew a tie c n g wintos ng he e k s a ro tro  Ond la o fra o p d mto r-s fo s e çs cs oe rna e rte o s ne
  • 20. A p e r s p e c t iv a d e r e d e • Tra itio l a p a he d na p ro c s • Ab rd g nstra ic na o ae d io is a g g teb m d g re a y e iumo b r y a re a p r m ioo p r g gm o e u o ta k, e ., s .g ta fa p r e m lo re , o xe p ,  Ho o m d w ne e iumisus de  C m umm io éutiliza o o o e d (e a b g , tw r) m il, lo s itte (e a b g , tw r) m il, o s itte  Ho o kind o re tio hip is w ne f la ns  C m umtip d re ç o é o o o e la ã ha le nd d tra d ta a  Ho o c te o o p o le w ne a g ry f e p  C m um c te o d p s o s o o a a g ria e e s a inte c o ra t nline inte g o ra e nline • Ne o a p a he c ns e tw rk p ro c s o id r • Ab rd g nsd re e o ae e d  W ista ho lkingto w m a o ho , b ut c ns e m o id ra w t, a viaw h m d ha nd hic e ia  Que fa p raq m s b o m la a ue , o re q ea vé d q m io uê tra s e ue e
  • 21. M u lt ip la s r e d e s • C m unic tio m a a plural o m a n e ns re • Me sd c m a ã s oplurais io e o unic ç o ã  Multip m d fo s lea m le e ia r ing nd ultiple  Multip sm io p raumúnic o m lo e s a o u últip sus s lo o use  Fa e -fa e e a te , o c -a c , m il, xto rkut, b g lo s  Fa e -fa eand e a and te c -to c m il xtingand • Re ç e s op is la õ s ã lura Orkut and b g lo s  Grup sd inte s e e p c o lig d sd um o e re s s s e ífic s a o e • Re tio a plural la ns re únic m d o oo  Re e d a iza e lig d sd m d s e m d s a a e últip sm d s lo o o  Sing thre d dinte s g up le ae re t ro s • Ind uo es sre e p s o ism ntê la o ivíd s ua d s e s a a m ç s  Multi-thre d db d ne o a e ud y tw rks cm o • Ind ua , in the personal networks ivid ls ir  O m o d tra a , d la r, d fa ília und o b lho o ze a m m inta tie w a in s ith  Am o íntim s c le a , c nhe id see tra s ig s o, o gs o c o s nho  W rld o w rk, p y, fa ily o s f o la m • Ato sna re e s d ting mp r re s d s e is ue o  C s frie s c lle g sa q inta e , lo e nd , o a ue c ua nc s  Gê ro id d , p ís c ne , a e a , ultura a s ng rs nd tra e  Sta notra a ea iza e tus b lho m d • Ac rsd rsb to iffe y  Exp riê iac mate no g , p fe nc s e nc o c lo ia re rê ia re tiva àc m a ã la s o unic ç o  Ge e a e c untry, c nd r, g , o ulture  W rk s tusa frie s o ta nd nd hip  Exp rie ew te hno g p fe nc s e nc ith c lo y, re re e fo c m unic tio r o m a n
  • 22. N o v a s fo rm a s d e re d e s o n lin e • So fa a ntio ha b e o ho to • r, tte n s e n n w Atéo m m nto m io a nç o te o e , a r te ã m m inta s t r o n g tie a a in s nd s o d d e id ntific r c m m nte id a a m e a o o a r c m unitie o m s la o fo sec m a e ç s rte o unid d s  Ne o o s ila o rs kno n tw rks f im r the , w  Re e d p s o sc mtra o c m , d s e es a o ç s o uns a c ntinuo ly vis letoe c nd o us ib ah c nhe id sevis is c mla o o c a íve , o çs o r, b s d o m the a e n ultip kind o le s f múltip s c me e ta lo , o xp c tivad e inte c n m ra tio ultip x tie , w le s ith m nute ã a lo o d te p a nç o o ng o m o e e ta nso p rs te eo r xp c tio f e is nc ve • Ma no sfo a d re e e tã s va rm s e d s s o tim e e e ind , b s a a e la o fra o m rg o a e d s m ç s c s • No , ne ne o fo sa w w tw rk rm re  P d ã p r p re b s a ae ro uç o o a s a e d m e e ingb s d o w e a k tie m rg ae n s commons, c w s urc , c ro d o ing ultura  C m o -b s d p e e r o m ns a e p rtic a a ip tiva p r o d u c t io n , c w s urc , ro d o ing  Es rç sc ntra d sd e tra s fo o e liza o e s nho p rtic a ry c a ip to ulture a nino c ntrib nô s o uind p raum o a  C ntra d e rtsb a nym us e lize ffo y no o o je b tivo c m o um s ng rs c ntrib tra e , o utingto ac m o o mn ga ol
  • 23. C o m p a r a n d o crow ds e c o m u n id a d e s • Ho a the ed re kind w re s iffe nt s • C m e s sinic tiva s o o o sa ia s ã o initia so a d f tive rg nize ? o a ds rg niza a ?  W t d ting he as c s ful, ha is uis s uc e s  O q d ting umc le ue is ue o tivo o nline crowdsourced c lle tive , o c crowdsourced d d m a a inâ ic fro thefo a d m so a m rm l yna ic f fo a d um c m a e rm l e a o unid d ? c m unity? o m  C m a crowds (m o o s ultid e ) õs  Ho d crowds a w o nd ec m a e a o m o unid d s p ia c m unitie s p rt p c s e o m s up o ro e s s p c s o d tra a , ro e s s e b lho o w rk, le rning d ta f o a , a a re iza o le nta e p nd d , ve m nto c lle tio d s m tio a o c n, is e ina n nd d d d s d s m ç oe e a o , is e ina ã e lua n? va tio a lia ã ? va ç o
  • 24. R e d e s o n lin e b a s e a d a s e m crow ds • C w -Ba e / W a Tie ro d s d ek / • Ba e d e c w s ç sfra o / d s a a m ro d /la o cs e “ ig h t w e ig h t ” L “ e s o le v e ” p  Ma s p , d c te unc nne te ny im le is re , o c d  C ntrib õ s s p s d c ta , o uiç e : im le , is re s c o n t r ib u t io n s dso c ds e c ne ta a  Muito c ntrib s o uinte ind ua , s ivid is  Ma lig ny, htly-tie ind ua d ivid l “ ve e ” a o le m nte lig d s c o n t r ib u t o r s • Ond “ e o s re rea e p s ” e fe • Where ‘weight’ refers to the c m ro is o ee a m nto c ma o p ms ng ja e o commitment and engagement with p d ã enã c mas nific ç o ro uç o o o ig aã the production, not to the d p d e s ms o o ro uto m i e m significance of the product itself
  • 25. O n lin e n e t w o r k s b a s e a d a s e m c o m u n id a d e s • C m unity-b s d/ Stro -tie • Ba e d e c m a e o m ae ng s a a m o unid d / / “ e a v y w e ig h t ” H la o fo s d “ e s o ç s rte / e p  Fe e c m le d rs , w r, o p x, ive e pe s ados ” c nne te o c d  C ntrib õ s p uc s o uiç e : o a , c o n t r ib u t io n s c m le s d rs a a e o p xa , ive ific d s  Fe e he vily-tie , ne o d w r, a d tw rke c ne ta a o c ds ind ua c o n t r ib u t o r s ivid l  C ntrib o uinte ind ua : e s ivid is m m no núm ro p s d m nte e r e , ea a e lig d s ao
  • 26. D e p e s o le v e a p e s o pe s ado Crowd- based, Lightweight Community- based Heavyweight
  • 27. NASA P e s o le v e Clickworkers • Dis ute c m uting(us o Id c m ute c le ) trib d o p e f le o p r yc s • C o m p u t a ç ã o d is t r ib u í d a  Be le Op n Infra truc rke y e s turefo Ne o C m uting(BOINC r tw rk o p ), e ., SETI@ ho e .g m Hominid • Kno le g a g g to –A g r e g a d o r e s d e w d e g re a rs Fossil c o n h e c im e n t o Venture  NASA C kw rke , lic o rs 2 a W (g no icinfo Dis ute p o a e 3 nd e e m ), trib d ro fre d rs • Citize s ie e–C iê n c i a d o c id a d ã o n c nc  Bio g s m lec lle tio e lo y a p o c n, nviro e l m nito nm nta o ring  Volunta g o ra hic l info a n ry e g p a rm tio • C lla o tiveta g –Tag g ing c o la b o r a t i v o o b ra g ing • H y b r i d s (c w + c m unity) -- h íb r i d o s ro d o m  W e ia(ta p g s Op nStre tMa (ta p g s ikip d lk a e ), e e p lk a e )
  • 28. Pe s o pe s ado QuickTimeª and a TIFF (LZW) decompressor are needed to see this picture. • Blo g c m unitie –C o m u n id a d e s d e g ing o m s b lo g g in g  Sla hd t, Dig , Live urna s o g jo l  Citize jo n urna m lis • Se usLe urec m unitie –C o m u n id a d e s d e rio is o m s h o b b i e s s é r io s  Ge -c c o a hing La t.fm ; s • Ga ingc m unitie –J o g o s o n li n e m o m s  W rldo W rc ft; Ag o Mytho g o f a ra e f lo y • C m unitie o p c e–C o m u n i d a d e s d e o m s f ra tic p r á t ic a  Dis ute te m a o a tio trib d a s nd rg niza ns • Le rningc m unitie –C o m u n i d a d e s d e a o m s a p r e n d iz a d o  C m unitie o Inq o m s f uiry, E-Le rningEnviro e , a nm nts C lla o tivele rning o b ra a • Op n s urc p je ts–P r o je t o s o p e n s o u r c e e o e ro c  Linux, W e ia Ap c , Op nStre tMa ikip d , a he e e p • A c a d e m ic d is c ip lin e s – D is c ip lin a s a c a d ê m ic a s
  • 29. E x p lo r a n d o d if e r e n ç a s e d im e n s õ e s • C ntrib ns o utio 1. C ntrib õ s o uiç e • C ntrib rs o uto 2. C ntrib o uintes • Le rninga a nd C m itm nt o m e 3. Ap nd d e re iza o • Re o nitio Re uta n cg n, p tio c m ro is o o p ms a Re a nd w rd 4. Re o c e , c nhe im nto • Autho a C ntro rity nd o l re uta ã ere o p ns p ço cme a • Mo tio a c m o tiva ns nd o m n 5. Mo ç e efo o tiva õ s c fo us(c -o nta n) c o rie tio cm o um
  • 30. 1 . C o n t r ib u iç õ e s L ig h t w e ig h t P e s o le v e • Ma s a s ila ny, m ll, im r • Muito , p q no , s ila s s e ue s im re • Ind p nd nt ee e • Ind p nd nte ee e s • As e s e s s m nt • Ava ç o lia ã  q ntita , a m te ua tive uto a d  Quantita , a m tiza a tiva uto a d • Ad re s sp b m o d s e ro le s f • Lid c mp b m sd “ e za a o ro le a e inc rte ” ‘ e inty’ unc rta Pe s o pas ados H e a v y w e ig h t • Dive ific d s d p q no a rs a o , e e ue • Dive e s a to la e d re rs , m ll rg , iffe nt g nd , d re s ra e ife nte • Inte e e e rd p nd nt • Inte e e e s rd p nd nte • As e s e s s m nt • Ava ç o lia ã  Qua tiva hum na lita , a  q lita , hum n ua tive a • Ad re sp b m o ‘q c lity’ • d s ro le s f e uivo a Lid c mp b m sd a o ro le a e “m ig a e a b uid d
  • 31. 2 . C o n t r ib u in t e s L ig h t w e ig h t P e s o le v e • Ma und re te , ne d littleto ny, iffe ntia d e • Muito , ind re ia o , d p ns m s ife nc d s is e a notraining tre m nto ina e • We k o notie a r s • La o fra o o ne ç s c s u nhumla o ç  Unc nne te too rsw a tio o c d the ith c ns  De c ne ta o c ma õ sc o e d s s o c d s o ç e o rd na a c o ina db o ra a o rd te y ve ll utho rity p r a rid d o uto a e • Atte n to ra ntio nkingo quantity o f f • Ate ã a ra nç o o nkingd q ntid d d a ua a e e c ntrib ns o utio c ntrib õ s o uiç e H e a v y w e ig h t Pe s o pe s ado • Se c d d re te , re uire le te , iffe ntia d q • Se c na o , d re ia o , re ue le io d s ife nc d s q r trainingo e e e r xp rtis tre m ntoo expertise ina e u • Stro ly tie c re ng d o • Grup c ntra c mlig ç e fo s o e l o a õ s rte  C nne te , w a tio c o ina d o c d ith c ns o rd te  C ne ta o , c ma õ sc o e d sp r o c d s o ç e o rd na a o b g upd c io y ro e is n dc ã d g o e is o e rup • Atte n to quality o c ntrib ns ntio f o utio , • Ate ã àq lid d d c ntrib õ se nç o ua a e e o uiç e a to jud e e o o rs nd g m nts f the a julg m nto d so s o a e o utro
  • 32. 3 . A p r e n d iz a d o e c o m p r o m is s o L ig h t w e ig h t P e s o le v o • Le rning a • Ap nd d re iza o  Minim l ins tio a truc n  Ins õ sm truç e ínim s a ne e s ry to c m le ta k c sa o p te s • Te p p rac m le r ta fa m o a o p ta re • Tim to c m le ta k e o p te s  Lim d , rá id ita o p o  Lim d o -s t ite , ne ho  Ea h c ntrib n d a w c o utio e lt ith  C d c ntrib ã c ns e d s aa o uiç o o id ra a s p ra ly e a te s p ra a e e a d m nte • Me b rs m e hip • As o ia ã sc ço  Ea y e s ntry a e nd xit  Fá il e r es ir c ntra a • C m itm nt o m e • C m ro is o o p ms  Ta k o nte s rie d  Orie d sata fa nta o re s  Lo o rhe d to s rt; no w ve a ta  Se b rre sp rac m ç r; m a ira a o e a o lig tio tos y b a n ta nenhum o rig ç o p ras ir a b aã a a
  • 33. 3 . A p r e n d iz a d o e c o m p r o m is s o H e a v y w e ig h t Pe s o pe s ado • Le rning a • Ap nd d re iza o  W t c ns ha o titute ac ntrib n, s o utio  O q c ns ue o titui um c ntrib ã , c m a o uiç o o o ho toc ntrib ; c m unity w o ute o m c ntrib p tic sc m o uir, rá a o unitá sria , p c e , s ture , ro s ra tic s truc s le e trutura , p p is s s aé • Tim toc m le ta k e o p te s • Te p p rac m le r ta fa m o a o p ta re  Ong ing re e , re va te o , vis d -e lua d  C ntínuo re a o re va d o , vis d , -e lia o  C ntrib nse lua d o utio va te  C ntrib õ sa lia a c le m nte o uiç e va d s o tiva e c lle tive o c ly • As o ia ã sc ço • Me b rs m e hip  Lim d , fe ha a q lific d , re ue ita a c d , ua a a q r  Lim d g te , q lifie , ite , a d ua d a re iza o re c na aap p is p nd d , la io d aé a p ntic d ro s e ific p re e , le p c • C m ro is o o p ms • C m itm nt o m e  À ta fa a g o a so je sd p je , re , o rup , o b to o ro to  Tota k, g up o ra p je t s ro , ve ll ro c aa re e a no a eare c na ec m p nd r s rm s la io r-s o g a , tole rningno sa a o o ls a rm nd b ut o o sm m ro s utro e b s o rs the
  • 34. 4 . R e c o n h e c im e n t o , r e p u t a ç ã o e re c o m p e n s a L ig h t w e ig h t P e s o le v e • Qua ntita Eva tio tive lua n • Ava ç o q ntita lia ã ua tiva  Auto a d c unt o c ntrib n m te o f o utio  C nta e a m tic d o g m uto á a a  Und re te , e s iffe ntia d a ily c ntrib o o uiã a m te uto a d  Ind re ia a fa ilm nte ife nc d , c e  Am na leto s tis a e b ta tic l a m tiza a uto a d e lua n va tio  Re e tivoaa lia ã e ta tic cp va ç o s tís a • C ntrib r re a a re uta n o uto w rd nd p tio  Ba e o c unt o c ntrib ns sd n o f o utio • Re o p ns ere uta ã cme a p ço  Ea ily a g g te a m tic lly s g re a d uto a a  Ba e d e c nta e d saa m o gm e c ntrib ã o uiç o  Sig lle b ins na d y trum nta e l q ntita ua tiverankings  Fa ilm ntea re a a c e g gd a m tic m nte uto a a e  Atra sd ra vé e nkingq ntita ua tivo
  • 35. 4 . R e c o n h e c im e n t o , r e p u t a ç ã o e re c o m p e n s a H e a v y w e ig h t Pe s o Pe s ado • Qua tiveEva tio lita lua n • Ava ç oq lita lia ã ua tiva  Hum n jud e e o theq lity, a g m nt f ua  J a e hum nos b q lid d , ulg m nto a o re ua a e re va e im o nc o c ntrib n le nc , p rta e f o utio re vâ iaeim o nc d le nc p rtâ ia a  Diffe ntia d va b , no e s re te , ria le t a ily c ntrib ã o uiç o a m te uto a d  Dife nc d , va ve nã re ia a riá l, o  Re c c m unity va s fle ts o m lue fa ilm ntea m tiza a c e uto a d • C ntrib r re a a re uta n o uto w rd nd p tio  Re teva re c m fle lo s o unitá s rio  Ba e o jud e e b o rs s d n g m nts y the , • Re o p ns ere uta ã d cme a p ço o a c rd toc m unity va s c o ing o m lue c ntrib o uinte  Sig lle w d re te , p rs na na d ith iffe ntia d e o l  Ba e d nojulg m ntod so s sa o a e o utro a a sa re o nitio w rd nd c g ns d a o oc mva re c m e c rd o lo s o unitá s rio  C m unity-c ntricre a sa o m e w rd nd  P m ç o ere o c e s re ia ã c nhe im nto a a s w rd d re ia o ife nc d s  Re o p ns ep m ç oc ntra a c m e a re ia ã e d s nac m a e o unid d
  • 36. 5 . A u t o r id a d e e c o n t r o le L ig h t w e ig h t : P e s o le v e : E n t e r p r is e s o f Em p re s a s d e C o o r d in a t io n C o o rd e n a ç ã o C ntra e l C ntra d s e liza a • W a tie c ntrib rsd no ha e kly d o uto o t ve • C ntrib o uinte c mlig ç e fra a nã s o aõs cs o e ta lis d m a toc m unic tea s b he e ns o m a nd tê c nd õ sd c m a e m o iç e e o unic r c o ina , he ec ntro isin the o rd te nc o l ha so thee rp ed c r nd f nte ris ire to c o e r; c ntro na m o d d to o rd na o le s ã s o ire r d e p s a m re a Auto a d m te • Sim le c m o c ntrib nsc n b p , o mn o utio a e Auto a d s m tiza a ha le p g m a a nd d ro ra m tic lly • C ntrib õ ss p sp d ms r o uiç e im le o e e • Re a s te sc n b a m te w rd ys m a e uto a d tra d sa m tic m nte ta a uto a a e b s d o s p c ntrib n fa to a e n im le o utio c rs • Sis m sd re o p ns p d ms r te a e c m e a o e e C ns ns o e us a m tiza o eb s a o e uto a d s a e d s m • C n b m na e b s tis a a e a g d y ta tic l c ntrib õ ss p s o uiç e im le p c s ing ro e s C ns ns o e o • P d s r tra d a vé d o e e ta o tra s e p c s a e e ta tic ro e s m nto s tís o
  • 37. 5 . A u t o r id a d e e c o n t r o le H e a v y w e ig h t : Pe s o pe s ado: E n t e r p r is e s o f Em p re s a s d e C o lla b o r a t io n c o la b o r a ç ã o Dis ute trib d Dis uíd s trib a • Stro ly tie c ntrib rsc n ng d o uto a • C ntrib o uinte c mlig ç e fo sp d m s o a õ s rte o e s a ula p rainfluir e re ulta o e rtic r a m s ds c o ina toe c o o e , o rd te ffe t utc m s inc ingc ng sin p c e lud ha e ra tic s Nã -a m tiza a o uto a d s • C ntrib õ sd re ia a ne e s m o uiç e ife nc d s c s ita Non-Auto a d m te p c s od re ã hum no ro e s e vis o a • Diffe ntia dc ntrib nsne d re te o utio e • Sis m sd re ã p d ms r te a e vis o o e e hum n re wp c s a vie ro e s d trib o (c m ntá se b g , s is uíd s o e rio m lo s ite • Re ws te sc n b d trib d vie ys m a e is ute ps ) o ting (e ., c m e .g o m ntingo b g , s n lo s ite • Re o c e sa a ta o ao je sd c nhe im nto d p d s b tivo a ps s o ting ) e p s m re a • Re o nitio ta re to g a o cg ns ilo d o ls f C ns ns o e o e rp e nte ris • Ad ins d a vé d c nve a ã , m tra o tra s e o rs ç o a um nta ã , a e nc à no a rg e ç o d rê ia s rm s C ns ns o e us (p g sd w “ lk” FAQS) á ina e iki ta , • Ma g dthro h c nve a n, na e ug o rs tio a um nt, a he nc tono s(e ., rg e d re e rm .g w ‘ lk’ a e , FAQs iki ta p g s )
  • 38. 6 . M o t iv a ç õ e s e c o - o r ie n t a ç ã o “ e o l b s re ne d (Ra ond; Be r) P rs na ut ha d e ” ym nkle • Pe rs o n a l  Stim tio e rta e inte s ula n, nte inm nt, re t  C re r o s lf-p m tio a e r e ro o n  Ad nc a e a s c l m ve e va ing g nd , o ia o m nts  C m itm nt to s re c us fo w rk, le rning o m e ha d a e r o a , s c l m ve e o p y o ia o m nt r la
  • 39. ‘Personal but 6 . M o t iv a ç õ e s e c o - shared need’ (Raymond; Benkler) o r ie n t a ç ã o S h a r e d in t e r n a lly (w ith C o m p a r t il h a d a s c m unity) o m in t e r n a m e n t e (c ma o • So ia p s nc - b ingthe w c l re e e e re ith cm ae o unid d ) o rs the • P s nç s c l –e ta lájunto c m re e a o ia s r o • Atte n to o rs o inio o o n ntio the ’ p n f w o s utro w rk o • Ate ã ào iniã d so ss b s u nç o p o o utro o re e • Ma r fa to fo he avyw e ig ht jo c r r tra a b lho S h a r e d e x t e r n a lly • Fa r d s c d p rap s p s d to e ta a o a e o e a o • C o nta n a c m itm nt to o rie tio nd o m e C o m p a r t il h a d a s to ic lo -ra eg a , m tho o p , ng ng o ls e d r e x te rn a m e n te p s p (e ., p ip so Op n hilo o y .g rinc le f e • C -o nta ã ec m ro e e c m o rie ç o o p m tim nto o Ac e s Op n Sc nc , Fre s ftw re c s , e ie e eo a ) otó ic , o je salo op zo p o b tivo ng ra , • Trus in us o c ntrib n (the‘o ia t e f o utio sc l m to o o filo o (p íp sd Op n é d r s fia rinc io o e c ntra t’ b ut c ntrib n) o c ao o utio Ac e s Op n Sc nc , s ftw relivre c s , e ie e o a ) • Only s re c m itm nt fo ha d o m e r • C nfia aous d c ntrib ã (o o nç o a o uiç o lig htw e ig ht c nta s c l s b c ntrib ã ) o to o ia o re o uiç o • Some nte c m ro e e o p m tim nto o p rtilha op raope s o le ve cma d a
  • 40. R e s u m o : A t r ib u t o s d o p e s o le v e L ig h t w e ig h t P e s o le v e • C o n t r ib u t i o n s a s ila re im r, • C ntrib o uinte s o s ila s s ã im re ; re uirelittlele rningo e rt q a r ffo re ue ma re iza o o e fo o q re p nd d u s rç • W a o no a s c tio b tw e ek r s o ia n e e n c ntrib ns o utio • As o ia ã fra ao ine te e s c ç o c u xis nte ntre • Minim l c o m m it m e n t to a c ntrib o uintes b lo inga c ntinuing e ng nd o • C m ro is o m o p m s ínim d o e • W a o no t ie s b tw e ek r e en p rte im nto ep rm nê ia e nc e e a nc c ntrib rs o uto • La o fra o o a ê iad la o ç s c s u us nc e ç s • C ntrib rsha o uto ve entreo c ntrib s o uintes c o o r i e n t a t i o n too ra ve ll ga o ls • C ntrib o uinte te um o nta ã s m a rie ç o • Exte l a u t h o r it y a n d rna cm o um c o n tro l • E v a l u a t io n b s do q ntity a e n ua o c ntrib ns f o utio • E r r o r s ha le b q ntity a nd d y ua nd s tis a a ra ing ta tic l ve g
  • 41. R e s u m o : A t r ib u t o s d o p e s o pe s ado H e a v y w e ig h t Pe s o Pe s ado • C o n t r ib u t i o n s d r, iffe • C ntrib õ sd re , re ue m o uiç e ife m q re re uirele rning c ntinue e rt q a , o d ffo a re iza oee fo oc ntinua o p nd d s rç o d • Stro inte o c n b tw e ng rc nne tio e e n • Fo sc ne e e rte o xõ s ntrec ntrib õ s o uiç e c ntrib ns o utio • C m ro is o p rap rte e e o p m s a e nc r • C o m m it m e n t to b lo ing e ng p rm ne e e a cr a s ying nd ta • La o fo sc mm m ro d ç s rte o e b s a • Stro t ie s to c m unity ng o m cm ae o unid d mm e e b rs • Fo c -o nta ã e re ç oa rte o rie ç o m la ã o je s p d sem m ro d b tivo , ro uto e b s a • Stro c o o r ie n t a t io n to ng cm ae o unid d g a , p d t AND to c m unity o ls ro uc o m mm e e b rs • C ntro ea rid d inte s o le uto a e rno • Inte l a u t h o r it y a n d rna • A v a l ia ç ã o d q lid d d s a ua a e a c o n tro l c ntrib õ sed sc ntrib o uiç e o o uintes • E r r o s tra d sa vé d vig nc ta o tra s a ilâ ia • E v a l u a t io n o q lity o f ua f d c ntrib o o uinte c ntrib ns a o c ntrib rs o utio , nd f o uto • E r r o r s ha le b c ntrib r nd d y o uto vig nc ila e
  • 42. C o n c lu s ã o • O n lin e n e t w o r k s no e t w xis • Re e o d s nlinea o e te e no s g ra xis m m va in ne fo s w rm fo a rm s  Onlinec m unitie o m s  Cm ae o o unid d s nline  Onlinec w s ro d  C w so ro d nline • Sus ine thro h e c ne m d , ta d ug a h w e ium • Sus nta a a vé d c d no m io te d s tra s e a a vo e b m reim o ntly thro h m a n y ut o p rta ug q s em ss b tud a vé d ue urg a o re o tra s e mde ia vá sm d ria e ia • A s o c ia l n e t w o r k view • A p rs e tivad sre e s c isp vê e pc a d s o ia ro p vid sins ht into ro e ig ins htse re ç o ig m la ã  C m ina nso m d us tos ta o b tio f e ia e us in  C m ina ã d m iap ras te r o b ç o e id a us nta relations, ties, networks, crowds, and re ç e , la o , re e , c w se la õ s ç s d s ro d communities cm ae o unid d s  C o ina o rd tingm c nis sfo d re e ha m r iffe nt  Me a m sd c o e ç op ra c nis o e o rd na ã a onlinefo s rm d re sfo a o ife nte rm s nline  Mo tio fo c ntrib rs tiva ns r o uto  Mo ç e p raoc ntrib tiva õ s a o uinte  Exp c do o e fro d s n e te utc m s m e ig  Re ulta o e p ra o a vé d d s n s d s s e d s tra s o e ig
  • 43. P e s o Le v e a P e s o P e s a d o Lightweight Cooperatives • Crowdsourcing (NASA clickworks) • Distributed computing (SETI@home) Heavyweight Collaborations • Self-publishing (blogging) • Communities of practice • Scholarly societies • Academic Disciplines • Professions Hybrids: Wikis (Wikipedia)
  • 44. R e fe re n c e s • Be r, Y. (2 0 ). C a e sp ng nkle 0 2 o s ’ e uin, o Linux a thena r, nd tureo thefirm Ya La f . le w J urna 112 3 9 4 . o l, , 6 -4 6 • Be r, Y. (2 0 ). C m o Wis o : P e P d tio o Ed a na Ma ria . COSL nkle 05 o mn d m e r ro uc n f uc tio l te ls P s . http w .b nkle rg o m n_Wis o .p f re s ://w w e r.o /C m o dm d • Ra o , E. (19 8 Thec the ra a theb za r. Firs Mo a 3 ). ym nd 9 ). a d l nd a a t nd y, (3 http w .firs o a k/is ue /is ue _3/ra o / ://w w tm nd y.d s s s 3 ym nd • W illins J (2 0 ). Theuna kno le g dc nve e eo o e s urc , o e a c s , ky, . 0 5 c w d e o rg nc f p n o e p n c e s a o e s ie e Firs Mo a 10 ). http nd p n c nc . t nd y, (8 ://firs o a rg s s s 10 / tm nd y.o /is ue /is ue _8 w illinsky/ind x.htm e l Se a o e ls • Ha ytho rnthw ite C (2 0 ). So ia ne o a Inte t c nne tivity e c . a , . 05 c l tw rks nd rne o c ffe ts Info a n, Co m a n & So ie 8 ), 12 -14 rm tio m unic tio c ty, (2 5 7. • Ha ytho rnthw ite C (2 0 ). C w sa c m unitie : Lig a he vyw ig m d ls a , . 0 9 ro d nd o m s ht nd a e ht o e o p e p d tio P c e ing o the4 nd Ha a Inte tio l C nfe nc o Sys m f e r ro uc n. ro e d s f 2 w ii rna na o re e n te Sc nc s Lo Ala ito , C IEEE Co p r So ie [http ie e . s m s A: m ute c ty. ://htl.ha le t/2 2 4 7] nd .ne 14 /9 5